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OF 1629 

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ParacUfus Terre^tris. 

& (fart&n. yfaftJortS of^feafant-^onnf 

ayre. -mitt, jer mitt t* Be nourfctf 

'K.itcfien.aardtn of 'off 'manner ofhr &X, rants, 
-m,ca,te. or jtn^fe vfctT voitfi. - 







Nowing your Maieftie fo much deligh- 
ted with all the faire Flowers of a Gar- 
den,and furnimedwith them as farre be- 
yond others, as you are eminent before 
them ; this my Worke of a Garden, long 
before this intended to be publi(hed,and 
but now only finiftied, feemed as it were 
deftined, to bee firft offered into your 
Highnefle hands, as of right challenging the proprietie of 
Patronage from all others. Accept, I befeech your Maieftie, 
this fpeaking Garden, that may informe you in all the parti- 
culars of your ftore, as well as wants, when you cannot fee 
any of them frefh vpon the ground : and it (hall further en- 
courage him to accomplim the remainder ; who, in praying 
that your Highnefle may enioy the heauen ly Paradife, after 
the many yeares fruition of this earthly, fubmitteth to be 

Tour Maiefties 

in all 
humble deuotion, 




Lt hough the ancient Heathens did appropriate the fir ft 
inuention of the knowledge of Herbes, and fo confe- 
fttently of phyjicke, fome -unto Chiron the Centaure, 
and others vnto Apollo or ./Efculapius his fonne ; yet 
wee that are Chriftians haue out of a better Schoole 
learned, that God, the Creator of Heauen and Earth, 
at the beginning when he created Adam, infpired him 
with the knowledge of all naturall things (which fuc- 
cefsiuely defcended to Noah afterwardes, and to his 
Pofterity] : for, as he was able to giue names to all the liuing Creatures, according 
to their feuerall natures ; Jo no doubt but hee had alfo the knowledge, both what 
Herbes and Fruits were Jit, eyther for Meate or Medicine, for Vfe or for Delight. 
And that Adam might exercije this knowledge, God planted a Garden for him to 
hue in, (wherein euen in his innocency he was to labour and fpend his time) which 
hee ftored with the heft and choyfeft Herbes and Fruits the earth could produce, 
that he might haue not onely for necefsitie whereon to feede, but for pleafure alfo ; 
the place or garden called Paradife importing as much, and more plainly the words 
fet downe in Genefis the fecond, which are thefe ; Out of the ground the Lord 
God made to grow euerie tree pleafant to the fight and good for meate ; 
and in the 24. of Numbers, the Parable of Balaam, mentioning the Aloe trees 
that God planted ; and in other places if there were neede to recite them. But my 
purpofe is onely to flxw you, that Paradife was a place (whether you will call it a 
Garden, or Orchard, or both, no doubt of fome large extent) wherein Adam was 
Jirft placed to abide ; that God was the Planter thereof, hauing furnijhed it with 
trees and herbes, as well pleafant to the Jight, as good for meate, and that hee being 
to drejje and keepe this place, muft of necefsity know all the things that grew there- 
in, and to what v/es they ferued, or elfe his labour about them, and knowledge in 
them, had been in vaine. And although Adam lost the place for his tranfgrefsion, 
yet he loft not the naturall knowledge, nor life of them : but that, as God made the 
whole world, and all the Creatures therein for Man, fo hee may life all things as 
well of pleafure as of necefsitie, to bee helpes vnto him to ferue his God. Let men 
therefore, according to their Jirft injiitution, fo vfe their feruice, that they alfo in 
them may remember their feruice to God, and not (like our Grand-mother Eve) 
fet their affeStions fo Jtrongly on the pleafure in them, as to defer ue the lojje of them 
in this Paradife, yea and of Heauen alfo. For truly from all forts of Herbes and 
Flowers we may draw matter at all times not only to magnifie the Creator that hath 
giuen them fuch diuerjities of formes, fents and colours, that the moft cunning 


The Epiftle to the Reader. 

Worke-man cannot imitate, and fuch verfues and properties, that although ivee 
know many, yet many more lye hidden and vnknowne, but many good inftruSlions 
alfo to our felues : That as many herbes and flowers with their fragrant fweete 
fmels doe comfort, and as it were reuiue the fpirits, and perfume a whole houfe ; 
euen fo fuch men as Hue vertuouJJy, labouring to doe good, and profit the Church of 
God and the Common wealth by their paines or penne, doe as it were fend forth a 
pleajing fauour of fweet inftruSlions, not only to that time wherein they Hue, and 
are frejh, but being drye, withered and dead, ceafe not in all after ages to doe as 
much or more. Many herbes and flowers that haue fmall beautie or fauour to com- 
mend them, haue much more good v/e and "uertue : fo many men of excellent rare 
parts and good qualities doe lye hid unknown and not refpeSled, imtill time and v/e 
of them doe Jet forth their properties. Againe, many flowers haue a glorious fhe w 
of beauty and brauery, yet Jiinking in fmell, or elfe of no other vfe : fo many 
doe make a glorious ojlentation, and flourifh in the world, when as if they Jlinke 
not horribly before God, and all good men, yet furely they haue no other vertue then 
their outjide to commend them, or leaue behind them. Some alfo rife vp and appear 
like a Lilly among Thames, or as a goodly Flower among many Weedes or GraJ/e, 
eyther by their honourable authoritie, or eminence of learning or riches, whereby 
they excell others, and thereby may doe good to many. The frailty alfo of Mans 
life is learned by the foone fading of them before their flowring, or in their pride, or 
foone after, being either cropt by the hand of the fpeftator, or by a fudden blajl wi- 
thered and parched, or by the reuolution of time decaying of it owne nature : as 
a/Jo that the faire ft flowers or fruits fir ft ripe, are foone ft and fir ft gathered. The 
mutabilitie alfo of ftates and perfons, by this, that as where many goodly flowers 
Gf fruits did grow this year e and age, in another they are quite pulled or digged -up, 
and eyther weedes and graj/e grow in their place, or fome building eretted thereon, 
and their place is no more known. The Ciuill refpetts to be learned from them are 
many alfo : for the delight of the varieties both of formes, colours and properties 
of Herbes and Flowers, hath euer beene powerfull ouer dull, unnurtured, rufticke 
and fauage people, led only by Natures inftin5t ; how much more powerfull is it, or 
fhould be in the mindes of generous perfons ? for it may well bee f aid, he is not hu- 
mane, that is not allured with this obieSi. The ftudy, knowledge, and trauel in them, 
as they haue been entertained of great Kings, Princes and Potentates, without dif- 
paragement to their GreatneJ/e, or hinderance to their more ferious and weighty 
Affaires : fo no doubt vnto all that are capable thereof, it is not onely pleafant, but 
profitable, by comforting the minde, fpirits and fenfes with an harmelejfe delight, 
and by enabling the iudgement to conferre and apply helpe to many dangerous di- 
feafes. It is alfo an InftruSler in the "verity of the genuine Plants of the Ancients, 
and a CorreSler of the many errours whereunto the world by continuance hath bin 
diuerted, and almoft therein fixed, by eradicating in time, and by degrees, the perti- 
nacious wilfulnej/e of many, who becaufe they were brought vp in their errours, are 
moft unwilling to leaue them without confideration of the good or euill, the right or 
wrong, they draw on therewith. And for my f elfe I may well fay, that had not mine 
owne paines and ftudies by a naturall inclination beene more powerfull in mee then 
any others helpe (although fome through an euill difpofition and ignorance haue fo 
far traduced me as to fay this was rather another mans worke then mine owne, but 
I leaue them to their folly] I had neuer done fo much as I here publifh ; nor been Jit 
or prepared for a larger, as time may fuddenly (by Gods permifsion) bring to light, if 
the maleuolent difpofitions of degenerate fpirits doe not hinder the accomplijhment. 



The Kpiltle to the Reader. 

Bat perfwading my felfe there is no fhowre that produceth not fame fruit, or no 
word but worke th /'ome ejfeft, eyther of good to per f wade, or of reproof e to euince ; 
I could not but (/(</</;( wv minde herein, let others iudge or fay what they pltafe. 
For I haue alwaies held it a thing -vnfit, to conceale or bury that knowledge God 
hath given, and not to impart it, and further others therewith as much as is conve- 
nient, yet without oftentation, which I haue euer hated. Now further to informe 
the courteous Reader, both of the occafion that led me on to this worke, and the 
other occurrences to it. Fir ft, hauing perufed many Herbals in Latine, I obferued 
thtit mojl of them haue eyther neglefted or not knowne the many diuerjities of the 
flower Plants, and rare fruits are known to vs at this time, and (except Clufius) 
haue made mention but of a very few. In Englifh likewife we haue fome extant, 
as Turner and Dodonaeus tranjlated, who haue faid little of Flowers, Gerard 
who is la ft, hath no doubt given vs the knowledge of as many as he attained vnto 
in his time, but Jince his dates we haue had many more varieties, then he or they euer 
heard of, as may be perceived by the fore I haue here produced. And none of them 
haue particularly feuered thofe that are beautifull fower plants, Jit to fore a gar- 
den of delight and pleafure, from the wilde and vnfit : but haue enterlaced many, 
one among another, whereby many that haue de fired to haue faire fower s, haue not 
known eyther what to choofe, or what to dejire. Divers Bookes of Flowers alfo haue 
been fet forth, fome in our owne Countrey, and more in others, all which are as it 
were but handfuls fnatched from the plentiful I Treafvry of Nature, none of them 
being willing or able to open all Jorts, and declare them fully ; but the greatefi 
hinder ance of all mens delight was, that none of them had given any defcription of 
them, but the bare name only. To fatisfie therefore their dejires that are lovers 
offuch Delights, I took "upon me this labour and charge, and have here feleSled and 
fet forth a Garden of all the chief efi for choyce, and fairejt for Jhew, from among 
all the feuerall Tribes and Kindreds of Natures beauty, and haue ranked them as 
neere as I could, or as the worke would permit, in affinity one onto another. Second- 
ly, and for their fakes that are fiudious in Authors, I haue fet down the names haue 
bin formerly giuen "vnto them, with fome of their errours, not intending to cumber 
this worke with all that might bee faid of them, becaufe the deciding of the many 
controuerfies, doubts, and quefiions that concerne them, pertaine more fitly to a ge- 
nera// Hifiory : yet I have beene in fome places more copious and ample then at the 
fir ft I had intended, the occafion drawing on my dejire to informe others with what 
I thought was fit to be known, referuing what elfe might be faid to another time & 
worke ; wherein (God willing) I will in large my felfe, the fubieSl matter requiring 
it at my hands, in what my fmall ability can effecJ. Thirdly, I have alfo to embellijh 
this Worke fet forth the figures of all fuch plants and flowers as are material I and 
different one from another : but not as fome others haue done, that is, a number of 
the figures of one fort of plant that haue nothing to diftinguifh them but the co- 
lour, for that I hold to be fuperfiuous and wafie. Fourthly, I haue alfo fet down the 
Vertues and Properties of them in a briefe manner, rather defiring to give you the 
knowledge of a few certaine and true, then to relate, as others haue done, a needle fs 
and falfe multiplicitie, that fo there might as well profit as pleafure be taken from 
them, and that nothing might be wanting to accompli/h it fully. And fo tnuch for 
this fir ft part, my Garden of pleafant and delightfull Flowers. My next Garden 
confifteth of Herbes and Rootes, fit to be eaten of the rich and poor as nourifkment 
and food, as fawce or condiment, as fallet or refrejhing, for pleafure or profit ; where 
I doe as well play the Gardiner, to /hew you (in briefe, but not at large) the times 



The Epiftle to the Reader. 

and manner of J owing, fetting, planting, replanting, and the like (although all 
thefe things, and many more then are true, are fet down very largely in the feuerall 
bookes that others haue written of this fubieSf) as alfo to /hew fome of the Kit- 
chen vfes (becaufe they are Kitchen herbes &c.) although I confejje but very fpa- 
ringly, not intending a treatife of cookery, but briejly to giue a touch thereof ; and 
alfo the Phyjicall properties, to /hew fomewhat that others haue not fet forth ; yet 
not to play the Empericke, and giue you receipts of medicines for all difeafes, but 
only to /hew in fome fort the qualities of Herbes, to quicken the minds of the Jiu- 
dious. And lajlly an Orchard of all forts of domejlicke or forraine, rare and good 
fruits, fit for this our Land and Countrey, which is at this time better Jlored and 
furnifhed then euer in any age before. I haue herein endeauoured, as in the other 
Gardens, to fet Jorth the varieties of euery fort in as brief e a manner as pofsibly 
could be, without Juperjluous repetitions of defcriptions, and onely with efpeciall 
notes of difference in leaues, flowers and fruits. Some few properties alfo are fet 
downe, rather the chiefejl then the mojl, as the worke did require. And moreouer 
before euery of thefe parts I haue giuen T'reatifes of the ordering, preparing and 
keeping the feuerall Gardens and Orchard, with whatfoeuer I thought was conue- 
nient to be known for euery of them. 

Thus haue I /hewed you both the occajion and fcope of this Worke, and herein 
haue fpent my time, paines and charge, which if well accepted, I /hall thinke well 
employed, and may the fooner haften the fourth Part, A Garden of Simples ; which 
will be quiet no longer at home, then that it can bring his Majler newes of faire 
weather for the tourney. 

Thine in what he may, 



loanni Parkinfono 'Phartnacoficeo Londinenji folertif- 

fimo ( Botanico confummatifsimo 

T.D.M. S.P.D. 

Oema pancgyricum Opus tuum indcfefil laboris, vtili- 
tatis eximia? poftulat, & meriti iure a me extorqueret 
(mi Parkinfone) fi fauentibus Muiis, & fecundo Apol- 
line in bicipiti fomniare Parnaflb, & repente Poetas mihi 
prodire liceret. In foetus tui bonis auibus in lucem editi, 
& prolixiorem nepotum feriem promittentis laudes, alii 
Deopleni Enthufiaftas carmine fuos pangant elenchos ; 
quos fub figmentis ampullata hyperbolicarum vocum mulcedine, vates 
fere auribus mentibufue infinuant. Veritas nuditatis amans, fuco natiuum 
candorem obumbranti non illuftranti perpetuum indixit bellum : In fim- 
plicitate, quam aflertionum neruofa breuitas exprimit, exultat. Audi quid 
de te fentiam, Tu mihi fis in pofterum Crateuas Brittannus ; inter omnes 
quotquot mihi hie innotuerunt, peritifsimus, exercitatifsimus, oculatif- 
fimus, & emunctifsimjE naris Botanicus : Cuius opera in fortunata hac 
Infula rem herbariam tra&ari, emendari, augeri, & popularibus tuis vcr- 
naculo fermone ad amufsim tradi, non decentia; modo, fed etiam necefsi- 
tatis eft. Madle tua fedulitate (Vir optime) neque te laborum tarn arduis 
lucubrationibus datorum hadtenus poeniteat, vel deinceps impendendo- 
rum pigeat. Difficilia quae pulchra. Leniet debits laudis dulcedo vigiliarum 
acerbitatem, & Olympicum ftadium cito pede, a carceribus ad metas ala- 
criter decurrentem nobile manet ft3">r. Sed memento Artem longam, 
Vitam efle breuem. M,JJK 4o3oA.A.^w.. Vide quid ad antiquum ilium, cuius 
fi non animam, faltem genium induifti, Crateuam fcribat Hippocrates, 

Trfxl *4m' tM.trfuo' 4ro3o\4 .Vpuoit 1 J <frw, i } 1vxv iJwj t, intpfvru Nobllifbimam 

Medicinse partem Botanicam efle reputa. Florae nunc litafti & Pomona?, 
Apollini vt audio propediem HORTO MEDICO fadlurus. Amabo integra? 
Veftas facra conficito, eiufque variegatum multis fimplicium morbifugo- 
rum myriadibus finum abfolute pandito, quern fine velo nobis exhibeas. 
Nulla dies abeat fine linea. Sic tandem frudhis gloriz referes vberrimos, 
quos iufte fudoribus partos, vt in cruda & viridi fenectute decerpas diu, 
iifque longum fruaris opto. Vale. Datum Landini CaUndas Qftobris anno 
falutis 1629. 

Theodorus de Mayerne Eyues aurat. in Aula 
Regum Magna Britannia lacobi & Caroli 
P. & F. ArcMatrorum Comes. 

Gu. Turne- 
rus. M.D. 

lo. Gerar- 
dus Chirur- 

eximium arte & vfu Pharmacopoeum 
& Botanographum /. ( Partynfonum. 

Er bar urn vires, primus te (magne Britanne) 

Edocuit medicas, inclytus arte fophus. 
Atque cluens herbis alter, Chironis alumnus, 
Defcripjit plantas, neu cadat v//a fa/us. 
Fortunate fenex, Jis tu nunc tertius Heros 
Hortos qui re f eras, deliciafque foil, 
Et fores Veneris Icetos, herbafque virentes, 

Arboreos fcetus, pharmacum & arte potens. 
Pofteritas iujlos pojihac tibi fol-vet honor es, 
Laudabitque tua dexteritatis opus. 

Ottuellus Meuerell. D.M. & Collegii 
Med. Lond. focius. 

Amico fuo loanni f Parkinfono. 

^Xtollunt alij quos (Parkinfone) labores 
Da mihi lam veniam comminuiffe tuos. 
\Extremos potens credi migraj/e per Indos : 
I Cum liber hand aliud quam tuus hortus hie eft 
Ipfe habitare Indos tecum fads, haud petis Indos 

I nunc, & tua me comminuiJJ'e refer. 
Eft liber Effigies, tuus hie qui pingitur hortus, 

Digna manu fades hcec, fadeque manus ! 
Vidi ego fplendentem varigatis -undique gemmis. 

Vna fuit Salomon, turba quid ergo fuit ? 
Vt vario fplendent Pallacia regia fumptu, 

Et Procerum turbis Atria tota nitent : 
Tune cumfefta dies veniam dedit ej/e fuperbis 

Quofque ficus texit, nunc tria rura tegunt : 
Plena tuo pariter fpeStatur Curia in Horto, 

Hie Princeps, Dux hie, Sponfaque pulchra Duds. 
Quceque dies eft fefta dies, nee parcius vnguam 

Luxuriant, lauta htzc ; Quotidiana tamen. 
Ecce velut Patrice Paradiji haud immemor Exul, 

Hunc naturali pingit amore Jibi. 
Pingit & ad vivum fub eodem nomine, & hie eft 

Fronticuli fudor quern cerebrique dedit : 
Aftat Adam medius Paradifo nofter in ifto nomen cuique dat ipfe fuum. 
Has cape pro mentis, qui ftorem nomine donas 

JEternum ftorens tu tibi Nomen habe. 

Guilielmus Atkins. 

Ad Amicum loannem 'Parfynfonum Pharmacopoeum, 
& Archibotanicum Londinenfem. 

\Frica quas projert Plantas, qua! India mittit, 
Quas tua dat tellus, has tuus hortus habet : 
]Atque harum Species, Jlorendi tempora, vires, 

Et varias for mas ijle libellus habet : 
Nefcio f>lus librum talem mirabor, an hortum 

T'otus inejl horto mumius ; at ijle libra. 
Parkinfone tuus liber, & labor, & tua Jit laus, 
Her has dum nobis das ; datur herba tibi. 

Guilielmus Brodus Pharmacopoeus 
ac Philobotanicus Londinenfis. 

Ad Amicum loannem 'Parfynfonum Pharmacopoeum 
& Botanicum infignem. Carmen. 

Vam magno pandis Flora penetralia nixu 

Atque fads ccelo liberiore frui ? 
Omnibus vt placeas, 6 quam propenfa voluntas, 

Solicitufque labor nofle dieque premit ? 
Quam magno cultum Jiudio conquirere in hortum 

Herbarum quicquid mundus in orbe tenet, 
Immenfus fumptus, multofque extenfus in annos 

Te labor afficiunt ? & data nulla yuies. 
Talia qucerenti, furgit novus ardor habendi, 

Nee tibi tot foli munera magna petis ; 
Defcriptos vivJ profers fub imagine Jiores, 

Turn profers menfee quicquid & hortus a/if, 
Laudatos nobis frulus G? promt's honores, 

Profers, quas celebrant nullibi fcripta -virum, 
Herbarum fpecies, quibus eft quoque grata ixnujtas : 

Sic nos multiplici munere, Amice, beas. 
Hoc cape pro mentis, jlorum dum gratia floret, 

Suntque herbis vires ; en tibi Nomen erit. 
In Jerum femper tua gloria floreat cevum, 

Gloria qua in longum non peritura diem. 

Thomas lohnfon vtriufque 
Societatis confers. 




The fituati r in of a Garden of pleafure, -with the nature of foyles, and how to amend 
the defefls that are in many forts ofjituations and grounds. 

HE feuerall fituations of mens dwellings, are for the moft part 
vnauoideable and vnremoueable ; for moft men cannot appoint 
forth fuch a manner of fituation for their dwelling, as is moft fit 
to auoide all the inconueniences of winde and weather, but muft 
bee content with fuch as the place will afford them ; yet all men 
doe well know, that fome lituations are more excellent than o- 
thers : according therfore to the feuerall fituation of mens dwel- 
lings, fo are the fituations of their gardens alfo for the moft part. 
And although diuers doe diuerfly preferre their owne feuerall places which they haue 
chofen, or wherein they dwell ; As fome thofe places that are neare vnto a riuer or 
brooke to be beft for the pleafantnefle of the water, the eafe of tranfportation of them- 
felues, their friends and goods, as alfo for the fertility of the foyle, which is feldome 
bad neare vnto a riuers fide ; And others extoll the fide or top of an hill, bee it fmall or 
great, for the profpedls fake ; And againe, fome the plaine or champian ground, for 
the euen leuell thereof : euery one of which, as they haue their commodities accompa- 
nying them, fo haue they alfo their difcommodities belonging vnto them, according to 
the Latine Prouerbe, Omne commodum fcrt fiiutn incommodum. Yet to (hew you for eue- 
rie of thefe fituations which is the fitteft place to plant your garden in, and how to de- 
fend it from the iniuries of the cold windes and frofts that may annoy it, will, I hope, be 
well accepted. And firft, for the water fide, I fuppofe the North fide of the water to 
be the beft fide for your garden, that it may haue the comfort of the South Sunne to lye 
vpon it and face it, and the dwelling houfe to bee aboue it, to defend the cold windes 
and frofts both from your herbes, and flowers, and early fruits. And fo likewife I 
iudge for the hill fide, that it may lye full open to the South Sunne, and the houfe aboue 
it, both for the comfort the ground (hall receiue of the water and raine defcending into 
it, and of defence from winter and colds. Now for the plaine leuell ground, the buil- 
dings of the houfe mould be on the North fide of the garden, that fo they might bee a 
defence of much fufficiency to fafeguard it from many injurious cold nights and dayes, 
which elfe might fpoyle the pride thereof in the bud. But becaufe euery one cannot fo 
appoint his dwelling, as I here appoint the fittelt place for it to be, euery ones pleafure 
thereof (hall be according to the fite, coft, and endeauours they beftow, to caufe it come 
neareft to this proportion, by fuch helpes of bricke or ftone wals to defend it, or by the 
helpe of high growne and well fpread trees, planted on the North fide thereof, to keepe 
it the warmer. And euery of thefe three fituations, hauing the faireft buildings of the 
houfe facing the garden in this manner before fpecified, befides the benefit of fhelter it 
(hall haue from them, the buildings and roomes abutting thereon, fhall haue recipro- 
cally the beautifull profpect into it, and haue both fight and fent of whatfoeuer is ex- 
cellent, and worthy to giue content out from it, which is one of the greateft pleafures a 
garden can yeeld his Mafter. Now hauing (hewed you the beft place where this your 

A garden 

2 :-\:V' The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

garden mould be, let me likewife aduife you where it fhould not be, at leaft that it is the 
worft place wherein it may be, if it be either on the Welt or Eaft fide of your houfe, or 
that it ftand in a moorim ground, or other vnwholsome ayre (for many, both fruits, 
herbes, and flowers that are tender, participate with the ayre, taking in a manner their 
chiefeft thriuing from thence) or neare any common Lay-ftalles, or common Sewers, 
or elfe neare any great Brew-houfe, Dye-houfe, or any other place where there is much 
fmoake, whether it be of ftraw, wood, or efpecially of fea-coales, which of all other is 
the worft, as our Citie of London can giue proofe fufficient, wherein neither herbe nor 
tree will long profper, nor hath done euer fince the vfe of fea-coales beganne to bee fre- 
quent therein. And likewife that it is much the worfe, if it bee neare vnto any Barnes or 
Stackes of corne or hey, becaufe that from thence will continually with the winde bee 
brought into the garden the ftrawe and chaffe of the corne, the duft and feede of the hey 
to choake or pefter it. Next vnto the place or fituation, let mee mew you the grounds 
or foyles for it, eyther naturall or artificiall. No man will deny, but the natural! blacke 
mould is not only the fatteft and richeft, but farre exceedeth any other either naturall or 
artificiall, as well in goodnefle as durability. And next thereunto, I hold the fandy loame 
(which is light and yet firme, but not loofe as fand, nor ftifFe like vnto clay) to be lit- 
tle inferiour for this our Garden of pleafure ; for that it doth caufe all bulbous and tu- 
berous rooted plants to thriue fufficiently therein, as likewife all other flower-plants, 
Rofes, Trees, &c. which if it fhall decay by much turning and working out the heart of 
it, may foone be helped with old ftable manure of horfes, being well turned in, when it 
is old and almoft conuerted to mould. Other grounds, as chalke, fand, grauell, or clay, 
are euery of them one more or lefle fertill or barren than other ; and therefore doe re- 
quire fuch helpes as is moft fit for them. And thofe grounds that are ouer dry, loofe, and 
duftie, the manure of ftall fedde beafts and cattell being buried or trenched into the 
earth, and when it is thorough rotten (which will require twice the time that the ftable 
foyle of horfes will) well turned and mixed with the earth, is the beft foyle to temper 
both the heate and drinefle of them. So contrariwife the ftable dung of horfes is the beft 
for cold grounds, to giue them heate and life. But of all other forts of grounds, the ftifFe 
clay is the very worft for this purpose ; for that although you should digge out the whole 
compafTe of your Garden, carry it away, and bring other good mould in the ftead there- 
of, and fill vp the place, yet the nature of that clay is fo predominant, that in a fmall time 
it will eate out the heart of the good mould, and conuert it to its owne nature, or very 
neare vnto it : fo that to bring it to any good, there muft bee continuall labour beftowed 
thereon, by bringing into it good ftore of chalke, lime, or fand, or elfe afhes eyther of 
wood or of fea-coales (which is the beft for this ground) well mixed and turned in with 
it. And as this ftifFe clay is the worft, fo what ground foeuer commeth neareft vnto the 
nature thereof, is neareft vnto it in badnefTe, the fignes whereof are the ouermuch moy- 
fture thereof in Winter, and the much cleauing and chapping thereof in Summer, when 
the heate of the yeare hath confumed the moyfture, which tyed and bound it faft toge- 
ther, as alfo the ftifFe and hard working therein : but if the nature of the clay bee not too 
ftifFe, but as it were tempered and mixed with fand or other earths, your old ftable 
foyle of horfes will helpe well the fmall rifting or chapping thereof, to be plentifully 
beftowed therin in a fit feafon. Some alfo do commend the cafting of ponds and ditches, 
to helpe to manure thefe ftifFe chapping grounds. Other grounds, that are ouermoift by 
fprings, that lye too neare the vpper face of the earth, befides that the beds thereof had 
need to be laid vp higher, and the allies, as trenches and furrowes, to lye lower, the 
ground it felfe had neede to haue fome good ftore of chalke-ftones beftowed thereon, 
fome certaine yeares, if it may be, before it be kid into a Garden, that the Winter frofts 
may breake the chalke fmall, and the Raine difFolue it into mould, that fo they may bee 
well mixed. together ; than which, there is not any better manure to foyle fuch a moift 
ground, to helpe to dry vp the moyfture, and to giue heate and life to the coldnefFe 
thereof, which doth alwayes accompany thefe moift grounds, and alfo to caufe it abide 
longer in heart than any other. For the fandy and grauelly grounds, although I know 
the well mollified; manure of beafts and cattell to be excellent good, yet I know alfo, that 
fome commend a white Marie, and fome a clay to be well fpread thereon, and after tur- 
ned thereinto : and for the chalkie ground, \' cotiuerfo, I commend fatte clay to helpe it. 
You muft vnderlland, that the lefle rich or more barren that your ground is, there nee- 


The ordering of the Garden of T/eafurc. 

deth the more care, labour, and coft to bee bellowed thereon, both to order it rightly, 
& fo to preferue it from time to time : tor no artiliciall or torc't ground can endure good 
any long time, but that within a tew yeares it mult be retrdlu-d more or lelTe, according 
as it doth require. Yet you lhall likewife vndcrftand, that this Garden tit' pleafure rtorcd 
with thefe Out-landilh flowers; that is, bulbous and tuberous rooted plants, and other 
fine flowers, that I haue hereafter defcribed, and afllgned vnto it, needeth not fo much 
or fo often manuring with foyle, &c. as another Garden planted with the other forts of 
Englilh flowers, or a Garden of ordinary Kitchin herbes doth. Your ground likewife 
tor this Garden had neede to bee well cleanfed from all annoyances (that may hinder 
the well doing or prospering of the flowers therein) as (tones, weedes, rootes of trees, 
bullies, &c. and all other things cumberfome or hurtfull ; and therefore the earth being 
not naturally line enough of it felfe, is vfed to bee lifted to make it the finer, and that 
either through a hurdle made of fticks, or lathes, or through fquare or round lieues plat- 
ted with fine and llrong thin Itickes, or with wyers in the bottome. Or elfe the whole 
earth of the Garden being courfe, may be call in the fame manner that men vfe to try or 
fine land from grauell, that is, againft a wall ; whereby the courfer and more ftony, fal- 
ling downe from the fine, is to be taken away from the foote of the heape, the finer fand 
and ground remaining (till aboue, and on the heape. Or elfe in the want of a wall to caft 
it againft, I haue feene earth fined by it felfe in this manner : Hauing made the floore or 
vpper part of a large plat of ground cleane from ftones, &c. let there a reafonable round 
heape of fine earth be fet in the midll thereof, or in ftead thereof a large Garden flower- 
pot, or other great pot, the bottome turned vpwards, and then poure your courfe earth 
on the top or head thereof, one Ihouell full after another fomewhat gently, and thereby 
all the courfe ftuffe and ftones will fall downe to the bottome round about the heape, 
which mull continually be carefully taken away, and thus you may make your earth as 
fine as if it were call againft a wall, the heape being growne great, feruing in (lead there- 
of. Thofe that will not prepare their grounds in fome of thefe manners aforefaid, mail 
foone finde to their lofle the neglect thereof : for the tra(h and ftones (hall fo hinder the 
encreafe of their roots, that they will be halfe loll in the earth among the ftones, which 
elfe might be faued to ferue to plant wherefoeuer they pleafe. 


'The frame or forme of a Garden of delight and pleafure, with thefeuerall 

varieties thereof. 

ALthough many men mu(t be content with any plat of ground, of what forme or 
quantity foeuer it bee, more or lefle, for their Garden, becaufe a more large or 
conuenient cannot bee had to their habitation : Yet I perfwade my felfe, that 
Gentlemen of the better fort and quality, will prouide fuch a parcell of ground to bee 
laid out for their Garden, and in fuch conuenient manner, as may be fit and anfwerable 
to the degree they hold. To prefcribe one forme for euery man to follow, were too 
great prefumption and folly : for euery man will pleafe his owne fancie, according to 
the extent he deligneth out for that purpofe, be it orbicular or round, triangular or three 
fquare, quadrangular or fou re fquare, or more long than broad. I will onely Ihew you 
here the feuerall formes that many men haue taken and delighted in, let euery man chufe 
which him liketh beft, or may moft fitly agree to that proportion of ground hee hath fet 
out for that purpofe. The orbicular or round forme is held in it owne proper exiltence 
to be the moft abfolute forme, containing within it all other formes whatfoeuer ; but few 
I thinke will chufe fuch a proportion to be ioyned to their habitation, being not accep- 
ted any where I think, but for the general! Garden to the Vniuerfity at Padoa. The tri- 
angular or three fquare is fuch a forme alfo, as is feldome chofen by any that may make 
another choife, and as I thinke is onely had where another forme cannot be had, necef- 
litie conltraining them to be therewith content. The foure fquare forme is the moft vfu- 
ally accepted with all, and doth beft agree to any mans dwelling, being (as I laid before) 
behinde the houfe, all the backe windowes thereof opening into it. Yet if it bee longer 
than the breadth, or broader than the length, the proportion of walkes, fquares, and 
knots may be foon brought to the fquare forme, and be fo caft, as the beauty thereof may 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

bee no lelfe than the foure fquare proportion, or any other better forme, if any be. To 
forme it therfore with walks, crofle the middle both waies, and round about it alfo with 
hedges, with fquares, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure fquarc 
parts is according as euery mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge : 
For there may be therein walkes eyther open or clofe, cyther publike or priuate, a maze 
or wilderneire, a rocke or mount, with a fountaine in the midit thereof to conuey water 
to euery part of the Garden, eyther in pipes vnder the ground, or brought by hand, and 
emptied into large Cilternes or great Turkic larres, placed in conuenient places, to 
it-rue as an cafe to water the nearelt parts thereunto. Arbours alfo being both graceful! 
and neceflary, may be appointed in fucli conuenient places, as the corners, or elfe where, 
a- may be molt fit, to ferue both for lhadow and reft after walking. And becaufe many 
are delirous to fee the formes of trayles, knots, and other compartiments, and becaufe 
tin open knots are more proper for thefe Out-landifh flowers ; I haue here caufed fome 
to be drawne, to fatistie their defires, not intending to cumber this worke with ouer ma- 
nic, in that it would be almolt endlefle, to exprefle fo many as might bee concciued and 
fet dovvne, for that euery man may inuent others farre differing from thefe, or any other 
can be let forth. Let euery man therefore, if hee like of thefe, take what may pleafe his 
mind, or out of thefe or his own conceit, frame any other to his fancy, or caufe others to 
be done as he liketh belt, obferuing this decorum, that according to his ground he do call 
out his knots, with conuenient roome for allies and walkes ; for the fairer and larger your 
allies and walkes be, the more grace your Garden mail haue, the lefle harme the herbes 
and flowers lliall receiue, by pafling by them that grow next vnto the allies fides, and the 
better (hall your Weeders cleanfe both the beds and the allies. 

C H A P. I I I. 

The many forts of herbes and other things, wherewith the beds and parts of knots are bordered 
to fet out the forme of them, with their commodities and dif commodities. 

IT is neceflary alfo, that I Ihew you the feuerall materials, wherewith thefe knots and 
trayles are fet forth and bordered ; which are of two forts : The one are liuing 
herbes, and the other are dead materials ; as leade, boords, bones, tyles, &c. Of 
herbes, there are many forts wherewith the knots and beds in a Garden are vfed to bee 
fet, to (hew forth the forme of them, and to preferue them the longer in their forme, as 
alfo to be as greene, and fweete herbes, while they grow, to be cut to perfume the houfe, 
keeping them in fuch order and proportion, as may be molt conuenient for their feuerall 
natures, and euery mans pleafure and fancy : Of all which, I intend to giue you the 
knowledge here in this place ; and firtt, to begin with that which hath beene molt anci- 
ently receiued, which is Thrift. This is an euerliuing greene herbe, which many take to 
border their beds, and fet their knots and trayles, and therein much delight, becaufe it 
will grow thicke and bulhie, and may be kept, being cut with a paire of Garden Iheeres, 
in fome good handfome manner and proportion for a time, and belides, in the Summer 
time fend torth many Ihort Italkes of pleafant flowers, to decke vp an houfe among o- 
ther fweete herbes : Yet thefe inconueniences doe accompany it ; it will not onely in a 
fmall time ouergrow the knot or trayle in many places, by growing fo thicke and buf hie, 
that it will put out the forme of a knot in many places : but alfo much thereof will dye 
with the frofts and fnowes in Winter, and with the drought in Summer, whereby many 
voide places will be feene in the knot, which doth much deforme it, and mult therefore 
bee yearely refrelhed : the thicknefle alfo and bufhing thereof doth hide and Ihelter 
fnayles and other fmall noyfome wormes fo plentifully, that Gilloflowers, and other 
fine herbes and flowers being planted therein, are much fpoyled by them, and cannot be 
helped without much indultry, and very great and daily attendance to deltroy them. 
Germander is another herbe, in tormer times alfo much vfed, and yet alfo in many pla- 
ces ; and becaufe it will grow thicke, and may be kept alfo in fome tonne and proportion 
with cutting, and that the cuttings are much vfed as a Itrawing herbe for houfes, being 
pretty and fweete, is alfo much affedted by diuers : but this alfo will often dye and grow 
out of tonne, and belides that, the Italkes will grow too great, hard and Itubby, the 
rootes doe fo tarre Ihoote vnder ground, that vpon a little continuance thereof, will 

A 3 fpread 

The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

fpread into many places within the knot, which if continually they be not plucked vp, 
they will fpoile the whole knot it felfe ; and therefore once in three or foure yeares at the 
moft, it muft be taken vp and new fet, or elfe it will grow too roynifh and cumberfome. 
Hyflbpe hath alfo been vfed to be fet about a knot, and being fweete, will ferue for ftrew- 
ings, as Germander : But this, although the rootes doe not runne or creep like it, yet the 
ftalkes doe quickly grow great aboue ground, and dye often after the firft yeares fetting, 
whereby the grace of the knot will be much loft. Marierome, Sauorie, and Thyme, in 
the like manner being fweete herbes, are vfed to border vp beds and knots, and will be 
kept for a little while, with cutting, into fome conformity ; but all and euery of them 
ferue moft commonly but for one yeares vfe, and will foone decay and perifh : and 
therefore none of thefe, no more than any of the former, doe I commend for a good 
bordering herbe for this purpofe. Lauander Cotton alfo being finely flipped and fet, is 
of many, and thofe of the higheft refpect of late daies, accepted, both for the beauty and 
forme of the herbe, being of a whitifh greene mealy colour, for his fent fmelling fome- 
what ftrong, and being euerliuing and abiding greene all the Winter, will, by cutting, be 
kept in as euen proportion as any other herbe may be. This will likewife foone grow 
great and ftubbed, notwithstanding the cutting, and betides will now and then perifh in 
fome places, efpecially if you doe not ftrike or put off the fnow, before the Sunne lying 
vpon it diflblue it : The rarity & nouelty of this herbe, being for the moft part but in the 
Gardens of great perfons, doth caufe it to be of the greater regard, it muft therfore be re- 
newed wholly euery fecond or third yeare at the most, becaufe of the great growing 
therof. Slips of luniper or Yew are alfo receiued of fome & planted, becaufe they are al- 
wayes green, and that the luniper efpecially hath not that ill fent that Boxe hath, which 
I will prefently commend vnto you, yet both luniper and Yew will foon grow too great 
and ftubbed, and force you to take vp your knot fooner, than if it were planted with 
Boxe. Which laftly, I chiefly and aboue all other herbes commend vnto you, and being 
a fmall, lowe, or dwarfe kinde, is called French or Dutch Boxe, and ferueth very well 
to fet out any knot, or border out any beds : for befides that it is euer greene, it being 
reafonable thicke fet, will eafily be cut and formed into any fafhion one will, according 
to the nature thereof, which is to grow very flowly, and will not in a long time rife to be 
of any height, but mooting forth many fmall branches from the roote, will grow very 
thicke, and yet not require fo great tending, nor fo much perifh as any of the former, and 
is onely receiued into the Gardens of thofe that are curious. This (as I before faid) I 
commend and hold to bee the beft and fureft herbe to abide faire and greene in all the 
bitter ftormes of the fharpeft Winter, and all the great heates and droughts of Summer, 
and doth recompence the want of a good fweet fent with his frefh verdure, euen pro- 
portion, and long lafting continuance. Yet thefe inconueniences it hath, that befides 
the vnpleafing fent which many miflike, and yet is but fmall, the rootes of this Boxe do 
fo much fpread themfelues into the ground of the knot, and doe draw from thence fo 
much nourifhment, that it robbeth all the herbes that grow neare it of their fap and fub- 
ftance, thereby making all the earth about it barren, or at leaft leffe fertile. Wherefore 
to mew you the remedy of this inconuenience of fpreading, without either taking vp the 
Boxe of the border, or the herbes and flowers in the knot, is I thinke a fecret knowne 
but vnto a few, which is this : You fhall take a broad pointed Iron like vnto a Slife or 
Cheffill, which thruft downe right into the ground a good depth all along the infide of 
the border of Boxe fomewhat clofe thereunto, you may thereby cut away the fpreading 
rootes thereof, which draw fo much moifture from the other herbes on the infide, and 
by this meanes both preferue your herbes and flowers in the knot, and your Boxe alfo, 
for that the Boxe will be nourifhed fufficiently from the reft of the rootes it fhooteth on 
all the other fides. And thus much for the liuing herbes, that ferue to fet or border vp 
any knot. Now for the dead materials, they are alfo, as I faid before diuers : as firft, 
Leade, which fome that are curious doe border their knots withall, caufing it to be cut 
of the breadth of foure fingers, bowing the lower edge a little outward, that it may lye 
vnder the vpper cruft of the ground, and that it may ftand the fafter, and making the vp- 
per edge either plain, or cut out like vnto the battlements of a Church : this fafhion hath 
delighted fome, who haue accounted it ftately (at the leaft coftly) and fit for their de- 
gree, and the rather, becaufe it will be bowed and bended into any round fquare, angu- 
lar, or other proportion as one lifteth, and is not much to be mifliked, in that the Leade 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

doth not calily breake or fpoile without much iniury, and keepeth vp a knot tor a very 
long time in his due proportion : but in my opinion, the Leade is ouer-hot for Sum- 
mer, and ouer-cold tor Winter. Others doe take Oaken inch boords, and (awing them 
foure or Hue inches broad, do hold vp their knot therewith : but in that thefe boordes 
cannot bee drawne compalle into any fmall fcantling, they mult ferue rather tor long 
outright beds, or fuch knots as haue no rounds, halfe rounds, or compaflings in them. 
And belides, thefe boordes are not long lafting, becaufe they Itand continually in the 
weather, efpecially the ends where they are fattened together will fooneft rot and pe- 
rilli, and fo the whole tbrme will be fpoyled. To preuent that fault, fome others haue 
chofen the (hanke bones of Sheep, which after they haue beene well cleanfed and 
boyled, to take out the fat from them, are ftucke into the ground the fmall end downe- 
wards, and the knockle head vpwards, and thus being fet fide to fide, or end to end 
clofe together, they fet out the whole knot therewith, which heads of bones although 
they looke not white the firit yeare, yet alter they haue abiden fome frofts and heates 
will become white, and prettily grace out the ground : but this inconuenience is inci- 
dent to them, that the Winter frolts will raife them out of the ground oftentimes, and 
if by chance the knockle head of any doe breake, or be Itrucke off with any ones foot, 
&cc. going by, from your (tore, that lyeth by you of the fame fort, fet another in the 
place, hauing lirit taken away the broken peece : although thefe will lalt long in forme 
and order, yet becaufe they arc but bones many miflike them, and indeed I know but 
few that vie them. Tyles are alfo vfed by fome, which by reafon they may bee 
brought compare into any fa(hion many are pleafed with them, who doe not take the 
whole Tyle at length, but halfe Tyles, and other broken peeces fet fomewhat deepe 
into the ground, that they may ftand fait, and thefe take vp but little roome, and keepe 
vp the edge of the beds and knots in a pretty comely manner, but they are often out of 
trame, in that many of them are broken and fpoiled, both with mens feete pafling by, 
the weather and weight of the earth beating them downe and breaking them, but e- 
fpecially the frofts in Winter doe fo cracke off their edges, both at the toppes and 
fides that Itand clofe one vnto another, that they muft be continually tended and re- 
paired with frelh and found ones put in the place of them that are broken or decayed. 
And laltly (for it is the latell inuention) round whitifh or blewifh pebble stones, of 
fome reafonable proportion and bignefle, neither too great nor too little, haue beene 
vfed by fome to be fet, or rather in a manner but laide vpon the ground to fafhion out 
the traile or knot, or all along by the large grauelly walke fides to fet out the walke, and 
maketh a pretty handfome mew, and becaule the (tones will not decay with the iniu- 
ries of any time or weather, and will be placed in their places againe, if any Humid be 
thrult out by any accident, as alfo that their fight is fo confpicuous vpon the ground, 
efpecially it they be not hid with the Itore of herbes growing in the knot; is accounted 
both tor durability, beauty of the fight, handfomnefle in the worke, and eafe in the 
working and charge, to be of all other dead materials the chiefeft. And thus, Gen- 
tlemen, I haue (hewed you all the varieties that I know are vsed by any in our Coun- 
trey, that are worth the reciting (but as for the fafhion of lawe-bones, vfed by fome 
in the Low Countries, and other places beyond the Seas, being too grofle and bale, I 
make no mention ot them) among which euery one may take what pleafeth him beft, 
or may molt fitly be had, or may belt agree with the ground or knot. Moreouer, all 
thefe herbes that ferue for borderings, doe ferue as well to be fet vpon the ground of a 
leuelled knot ; that is, where the allies and foot-pathes are of the fame leuell with the 
knot, as they may ferue alfo for the railed knot, that is, where the beds of the knot are 
railed higher than the allies ; but both Leade, Boordes, Bones, and Tyles, are only for 
the raifed ground, be it knot or beds. The pebble (tones againe are onely for the le- 
uelled ground, becaufe they are so (hallow, that as I faid before, they rather lye vpon 
the earth than are thrult any way into it. All this that I haue here fet downe, you muft 
vnderttand is proper for the knots alone of a Garden. But for to border the whole 
fquare or knot about, to ferue as a hedge thereunto, euery one taketh what liketh him 
belt; as either Priuet alone, or fweete Bryer, and white Thorne enterlaced together, 
and Rofes of one, or two, or more forts placed here and there amonglt them. Some 
alfo take Lauander, Rofemary, Sage, Southernwood, Lauander Cotton, or fome fuch 
other thing. Some againe plant Cornell Trees, and pla(h them, or keepe them lowe, to 


8 The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

forme them into an hedge. And fome againe take a lowe prickly fhrubbe, that abideth 
alwayes greene, defcribed in the end of this Booke, called in Latine Pyracantha, which 
in time will make an euer greene hedge or border, and when it beareth fruit, which are 
red berries like vnto Hawthorne berries, make a glorious (hew among the greene leaues 
in the:Winter time, when no other fhrubbes haue fruit or leaues. 


The nature and names of diners Out-landifh flowers, that for their pride, beauty, and 
earlinejfe, are to be planted in Gardens of peafure for delight. 

HAuing thus formed out a Garden, and diuided it into his fit and due proporti- 
on, with all the gracefull knots, arbours, walkes, &c. likewife what is fit to 
keepe it in the fame comely order, is appointed vnto it, both for the borders of 
the fquares, and for the knots and beds themselues ; let vs now come and furnifh the 
inward parts, and beds with thofe fine flowers that (being ftrangers vnto vs, and giuing 
the beauty and brauery of their colours fo early before many of our owne bred flowers, 
the more to entice vs to their delight) are moft befeeming it ; and namely, with Daffo- 
dils, Fritillarias, lacinthes, Saffron-flowers, Lillies, Flowerdeluces, Tulipas, Anemo- 
nes, French Cowflips, or Beares eares, and a number of fuch other flowers, very beau- 
tifull, delightfull, and pleafant, hereafter defcribed at full, whereof although many 
haue little fweete fcent to commend them, yet their earlineffe and exceeding great beau- 
tie and varietie doth fo farre counteruaile that defecl (and yet I muft tell you with all, 
that there is among the many forts of them fome, and that not a few, that doe excell in 
fweetneffe, being fo flrong and heady, that they rather offend by too much than by too 
little fent, and fome againe are of fo milde and moderate temper, that they fcarce come 
fhort of your moft delicate and daintieft flowers) that they are almoft in all places with 
all perfons, efpecially with the better fort of the Gentry of the Land, as greatly defired 
and accepted as any other the moft choifeft, and the rather, for that the mort part of thefe 
Out-landifh flowers, do (hew forth their beauty and colours fo early in the yeare, that 
they feeme to make a Garden of delight euen in the Winter time, and doe fo giue their 
flowers one after another, that all their brauery is not fully fpent, vntil that Gilliflowers, 
the pride of our Englifh Gardens, do mew themfelues : So that whofoeuer would haue 
of euery fort of thefe flowers, may haue for euery moneth feueral colours and varieties, 
euen from Chriftmas vntill Midfommer, or after ; and then, after fome little refpite, vn- 
till Chriftmas againe, and that in fome plenty, with great content and without forcing ; 
fo that euery man may haue them in euery place, if they will take any care of them. 
And becaufe there bee many Gentlewomen and others, that would gladly haue fome 
fine flowers to furnifh their Gardens, but know not what the names of thofe things are 
that they defire, nor what are the times of their flowring, nor the skill and knowledge 
of their right ordering, planting, difplanting, tranfplanting, and replanting ; I haue here 
for their fakes fet downe the nature, names, times, and manner of ordering in a briefe 
manner, referring the more ample declaration of them to the worke following. And 
firft of their names and natures : Of Daffodils there are almoft an hundred forts, as they 
are feuerally defcribed hereafter, euery one to be diftinguished from other, both in their 
times, formes, and colours, fome being eyther white, or yellow, or mixt, or elfe being 
fmall or great, fingle or double, and fome hauing but one flower vpon a ftalke, others 
many, whereof many are fo exceeding fweete, that a very few are fufficient to perfume 
a whole chamber, and befides, many of them be fo faire and double, eyther one vpon 
a ftalke, or many vpon a ftalke, that one or two ftalkes of flowers are in ftead of a whole 
nofe-gay, or bundell of flowers tyed together. This I doe affirme vpon good knowledge 
and certaine experience, and not as a great many others doe, tell of the wonders of an- 
other world, which themselues neuer faw nor euer heard of, except fome fuperficiall 
relation, which themselues haue augmented according to their owne fanfie and con- 
ceit. Againe, let me here alfo by the way tell you, that many idle and ignorant Gardi- 
ners and others, who get names by Health, as they doe many other things, doe call 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

fome of thefe Daffodils NarcifTes, when as all know that know any Latinc, that Nnr- 
cilTus is the Latine name, and Daffodill the Englifh of one and the fame 'thing ; and 
therefore alone without any other Epithite cannot properly diftinguifh fcuerall things. 
I would willingly therefore that all would grow Judicious, and call euery thing by his 
proper Englifh name in fpeaking Englifh, or elfe by fuch Latine name as cuery thing 
hath that hath not a proper Englifh name, that thereby they may diftinguifh the feue- 
rnll varieties of things and not confound them, as alfo to take away all excufes of milhi- 
king ; as for example : The (ingle Englifh baftard Daffodill (which growcth wilde in 
many Woods, Groues, and Orchards in England.) The double Englifh baftard Daffo- 
dill. The French (ingle white Daffodill many vpon a ftalke. The French double yel- 
low Daffodill. The great, or the little, or the leaft Spanifh yellow baftard Daffodill, 
or the great or little Spanifh white Daffodill. The Turkic (ingle white Daffodill, or, The 
Turkic (ingle or double white Daffodill many vpon a ftalke, &c. Of Fritillaria, or the 
checkerd Daffodill, there are halfe a fcore feucrall forts, both white and red, both yel- 
low and blacke, which are a wondcrfull grace and ornament to a Garden in regard of 
the Checker like fpots are in the flowers. Of lacinthes there are aboue halfe an hundred 
forts, as they are fpccified hereafter ; fome like vnto little bells or ftarres, others like 
vnto little bottles or pcarles, both white and blew, sky-coloured and blufh, and fome 
ftarlike of many pretty various formes, and all to giue delight to them that will be cu- 
rious to obferue them. Ot Crocus or Saffron flowers, there are alfo twenty forts ; 
(ome of the Spring time, others flowring onely in the Autume or Fall, earlier or later 
than another, fome whereof abide but a while, others indure aboue a moneth in their 
glorious beauty. The Cdlchicum or Medowe Saffron, which fome call the fonne be- 
fore the father, but not properly, is of many forts alfo ; fome flowring in the Spring of 
the yeare, but the moft in Autume, whereof fome haue faire double flowers very de- 
li ghtfull to behold, and fome partly coloured both fingle and double fo variable, that it 
would make any one admire the worke of the Creatour in the various fpots and ftripes 
of thefe flowers. Then haue wee of Lillies twenty feuerall forts and colours, among 
whom I muft reckon the Crowne Imperial!, that for his ftately forme deferueth fome 
fpeciall place in this Garden, as alfo the Martagons, both white and red, both blufh and 
yellow, that require to be fet by themfelues apart, as it were in a fmall round or fquare 
of a knot, without many other, or tall flowers growing neare them. But to tell you of 
all the forts of Tulipas (which are the pride of delight) they are fo many, and as I may 
fay, almoft infinite, doth both pafTe my ability, and as I beleeue the skill of any other. 
They are of two efpeciall forts, fome flowring earlier, and others later than their fel- 
lowes, and that naturally in all grounds, wherein there is fuch a wonderfull variety 
and mixture of colours, that it is almoft impoflible for the wit of man to defcipher them 
thoroughly, and to giue names that may be true & feuerall diftinclions to euery flower, 
threefcore feuerall forts of colours limple and mixed of each kind I can reckon vp that I 
haue, and of efpeciall note, and yet 'I doubt not, but for euery one of them there are ten o- 
thers differing from them, which may be feen at feuerall times, and in feuerall places : & 
bdides this glory of variety in colors that thefe flowers haue, they carry fo ftately & de- 
lightfull a forme, & do abide fo long in their brauery (enduring aboue three whole mo- 
neths from the firft vnto the laft) that there is no Lady or Gentlewoman of any worth 
that is not caught with this delight, or not delighted with thefe flowers. The Anemo- 
nes likewife or Windeflowers are fo full of variety and fo dainty, fo pleafant and fo 
delightfome flowers, that the fight of them doth enforce an eameft longing defire in the 
minde of any one to be a pofleflbur of fome of them at the leaft : For without all doubt, 
this one kinde of flower, fo variable in colours, fo differing in forme (being almoft as 
many forts of them double as fingle) fo plentifull in bearing flowers, and fo durable in 
lafting, and alfo fo eafie both to preferue and to encreafe, is of it f elfe alone almoft fuf- 
ficient to furnifh a garden with their flowers for almoft halfe the yeare, as I fhall fliew 
you in a fit and conuenient place. The Beares earesor French Cowflips muft not want 
their deferued commendations, feeing that their flowers, being many fet together 
vpon a ftalke, doe feeme euery one of them to bee a Nofegay alone of it felfe : and 
betides the many differing colours that are to be feene in them, as white, yellow, blufh, 
purple, red, tawney, murrey, haire colour, &c. which encreafe much delight in all 
forts of the Gentry of the Land, they are not vnfurnifhed with a pretty fweete fent, 

B which 

io The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

which doth adde an encreafe of pleafure in thofe that make them an ornament for 
their wearing. Flowerdeluces alfo are of many forts, but diuided into two efpeciall 
kindes; the one bearing a leafe like a flagge, whofe roots are tuberous, thicke and 
fhort (one kinde of them being the Orris rootes that are fold at the Apothecaries, 
whereof fweete powders are made to lye among garments) the other hauing round 
rootes like vnto Onions, and narrow long leaues fomewhat like grafle : Of both thefe 
kindes there is much variety, efpecially in their colours. The greater Flagge kinde is 
frequent enough and difperfed in this Land, and well doth ferue to decke vp both a 
Garden and Houfe with natures beauties : But the chiefe of all is your Sable flower, 
fo fit for a mourning habit, that I thinke in the whole compafTe of natures ftore, 
there is not a more patheticall, or of greater correfpondency, nor yet among all the 
flowers I know any one comming neare vnto the colour of it. The other kinde which 
hath bulbous or Onion like rootes, diuerlifieth it felfe alfo into fo many fine colours, 
being of a more neate fhape and fuccinc~l forme than the former, that it muft not bee 
wanting to furnifh this Garden. The Hepatica or Noble Liuerwoort is another flow- 
er of account, whereof fome are white, others red, or blew, or purple, fomewhat re- 
fembling Violets, but that there are white threads in the middeft of their flowers, 
which adde the more grace vnto them ; and one kinde of them is fo double, that it re- 
fembleth a double thicke Dafie or Marigold, but being fmall and of an excellent blew 
colour, is like vnto a Button : but that which commendeth the flower as much as the 
beauty, is the earlinefle in flowring, for that it is one of the very firfl flowers that open 
themfelues after Chriftmas, euen in the midft of Winter. The Cyclamen or Sowe- 
bread is a flower of rare receipt, becaufe it is naturally hard to encreafe, and that the 
flowers are like vnto red or blufh coloured Violets, flowring in the end of Summer or 
beginning of Autumne : the leaues like wife hereof haue no fmall delight in their plea- 
fant colour, being fpotted and circled white vpon greene, and that which moft prefer- 
reth it, is the Phyficall properties thereof for women, which I will declare when I 
mall mew you the feuerall defcriptions of the varieties in his proper place. Many o- 
ther forts of flowers there are fit to furnifh this Garden, as Leucoium or Bulbous Vio- 
let, both early and late flowring. Mufcari or Muske Grape flower. Starre flowers of di- 
uers forts. Phalangium or Spiderwort, the chiefe of many is that fort whofe flowers 
are like vnto a white Lilly. Winter Crowfoote or Wolfes bane. The Chriftmas flow- 
er like vnto a fingle white Rofe. Bell flowers of many kindes. Yellow Larkes fpurre, 
the prettieft flower of a fcore in a Garden. Flower-gentle or Floramour. Flower of 
the Sunne. The Maruaile of Peru or of the world. Double Marfh Marigold or dou- 
ble yellow Buttons, much differing and farre exceeding your double yellow Crow- 
foote, which fome call Batchelours Buttons. Double French Marigolds that fmell 
well, and is a greater kinde than the ordinary, and farre furpafleth it. The double red 
Ranunculus or Crowfoote (farre excelling the moft glorious double Anemone) and is 
like vnto our great yellow double Crowfoote. Thus hauing giuen you the know- 
ledge of fome of the choifeft flowers for the beds of this Garden, let me alfo fhew you 
what are fitteft for your borders and for your arbours. The lafmine white and yel- 
low. The double Honyfockle. The Ladies Bower, both white, and red, and purple 
fingle and double, are the fitteft of Outlandim plants to fet by arbours and banqueting 
houfes, that are open, both before and aboue to helpe to couer them, and to giue both 
fight, fmell, and delight. The forts of Rofes are fitteft for ftandards in the hedges or 
borders. The Cherry Bay or Laurocerafus. The Rofe Bay or Oleander. The white 
and the blew Syringa or Pipe tree, are all gracefull and delightfull to fet at feuerall 
diftances in the borders of knots ; for fome of them giue beautifull and fweete flowers. 
The Pyracantha or Prickly Corall tree doth remaine with greene leaues all the yeare, 
and may be plafhed, or laid downe, or tyed to make a fine hedge to border the whole 
knot, as is faid before. The Wilde Bay or Laurus Tinus, doth chiefly defire to be fhel- 
tered vnder a wall, where it will beft thriue, and giue you his beautifull flowers in Win- 
ter for your delight, in recompence of his fenced dwelling. The dwarfe Bay or Mefe- 
reon, is moft commonly either placed in the midft of a knot, or at the corners thereof, 
and fometimes all along a walke for the more grace. And thus to fit euery ones fancy, 
I haue fhewed you the variety of natures ftore in fome part for you to difpofe of them 
to your beft content. 


The ordering of the Garden of Plctijure. 1 1 

C ii A p. V. 
-The nature and names of thofe that are called -vfually Eng///h flowers. 

THofe flowers that haue beene vfually planted in former times in Gardens of 
this Kingdome (when as our forefathers knew few or none of thofe that are re^ 
cited before) haue by time and cuftome attained the name of Englifh flowers, 
although the molt of them were neuer naturall of this our Land, but brought in from 
other Countries at one time or other, by thofe that tooke pleafure in them where they 
tirll law them : and I doubt not, but many other forts than here are fet downe, or now 
knowne to vs, haue beene brought, which either haue perilhed by their negligence or 
want of skill that brought them, or elfe becaufe they could not abide our cold Win- 
ters ; thofe onely remaining with vs that haue endured of themfelues, and by their en- 
creafing haue beene diftributed ouer the whole Land. If I Ihould make any large dif- 
courfe of them, being fo well knowne to all, I doubt I Ihould make a long tale to fmall 
purpofe : I will therefore but briefly recite them, that you may haue them together in 
one place, with fome little declaration of the nature and quality of them, and fo paffe 
to other matters. And firft of Primrofes and Cowflips, whereof there are many pret- 
tic varieties ; fome better knowne in the Weft parts of this Kingdome, others in the 
North, than in any other, vntill of late being obferued by fome curious louers of vari- 
eties, they haue been tranfplanted diuerfly, and fo made more common : for although 
we haue had formerly in thefe parts about London greene Primrofes vfually, yet we 
neuer faw or heard of greene Cowflips both fingle and double but of late dayes, and 
fo likewife for Primrofes to be both fingle and double from one roote, and diuers vp- 
on one rtalke of diuers fafhions, I am fure is not vfuall : all which defire rather to bee 
planted vnder fome hedge, or fence, or in the (hade, than in the Sunne. Single Rofe 
Campions, both white, red, and blufh, and the double red Rofe Campion alfo is 
knowne fufficiently, and will abide moderate Sunne as well as the made. The flower 
of Briftow or None-fuch is likewife another kinde of Campion, whereof there is both 
white flowring plants and blufh as well as Orange colour, all of them being fingle 
flowers require a moderate Sunne and not the fhadow : But the Orange colour None- 
fuch with double flowers, as it is rare and not common, fo for his brauery doth well 
deferue a Mafter of account that will take care to keepe and preferue it. Batchelours 
Buttons both white and red, are kindes of wilde Campions of a very double forme, 
and will reafonably well like the Sunne but not the fhade. Wall-flowers are common 
in euery Garden, as well the ordinary double as the fingle, and the double kinde defi- 
reth no more (hade than the fingle, but the greater kindes both double and fingle muft 
haue the Sunne. Stock-Gilloflowers likewife are almoft as common as Wall-flowers, 
elpecially the fingle kindes in euery womans Garden, but the double kindes are much 
more rare, and poflefled but of a few, and thofe onely that will bee carefull to pre- 
ferue them in Winter ; for belides that the moft of them are more tender, they yeeld 
no feede as the fingle kindes doe to preferue them, although one kinde from the fow- 
ing ot the feed yeeld double flowers : They will all require the comfort of the Sunne, 
efpecially the double kindes, and to be defended trom cold, yet fo as in the Summer 
they doe not want water wherein they much ioy, and which is as it were their life. 
Queenes Gilloflowers (which fome call Dames Violets, and fome Winter Gilloflow- 
ers, are a kinde of Stock-Gilloflower) planted in Gardens to ferue to fill vp the parts 
thereof for want of better things, hauing in mine opinion neither fight nor fent much 
to commend them. Violets are the Springs chiefe flowers for beauty, fmell, and vfe, 
both fingle and double, the more lhadie and moift they ftand the better. Snapdragon 
are flowers of much more delight, and in that they are more tender to keep, and will 
hardly endure the fharpe Winters, vnlefle they ftand well defended, are fcarce feene 
in many Gardens. Columbines fingle and double, of many forts, fafhions, and co- 
lours, very variable both fpeckled and party coloured, are flowers of that refpedt, as 
that no Garden would willingly bee without them, that could tell how to haue them, 
yet the rarer the flowers are, the more trouble to keepe ; the ordinary forts on the con- 

1 2 The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

trary part will not be loft, doe what one will. Larkes heeles, or fpurres, or toes, as in 
feuerall Countries they are called, exceed in the varietie of colours, both fingle and 
double, any of the former times ; for vntill of late dayes none of the moft pleafant co- 
lours were feene or heard of : but now the fingle kindes are reafonable well difperft 
ouer the Land, yet the double kindes of all thofe pleafant colours (and fome other alfo 
as beautifull) which ftand like little double Rofes, are enioyed but of a few : all of 
them rife from feed, and muft be fowne euery yeare, the double as well as the fingle. 
Panfyes or Hartes eafes of diuers colours, and although without fent, yet not without 
fome refpecl and delight. Double Poppies are flowers of a great and goodly propor- 
tion, adorning a Garden with their variable colours to the delight of the beholders, 
wherein there is fome fpeciall care to be taken, left they turne lingle ; and that is, if you 
fee them grow vp too thicke, that you muft pull them vp, and not fuffer them to grow 
within lefle than halfe a yard diftance, or more one from another. Double Dailies are 
flowers not to be forgotten, although they be common enough in euery Garden, be- 
ing both white and red, both blufli and fpeckled, or party coloured, betides that 
which is called lacke an Apes on horfebacke, they require a moift and fhadowie place ; 
for they are fcorched away, if they ftand in the Sunne in any dry place. Double Ma- 
rigolds alfo are the moft common in all Gardens. And fo are the French Marigolds 
that haue a ftrong heady fent, both fingle and double, whofe glorious fhew for colour 
would caufe any to beleeue there were fome rare goodnefle or vertue in them. Thefe 
all are fometimes preferued in the Winter, if they bee well defended from the cold. 
But what mall I fay to the Queene of delight and of flowers, Carnations and Gillo- 
flowers, whofe brauery, variety, and fweete fmell ioyned together, tyeth euery ones 
affection with great earneftnefle, both to like and to haue them ? Thofe that were 
knowne, and enioyed in former times with much acceptation, are now for the moft 
part lefle accounted of, except a very few : for now there are fo many other varieties 
of later inuention, that troubleth the other both in number, beauty, and worth : The 
names of them doe differ very variably, in that names are impofed and altered as eue- 
rie ones fancy will haue them, that carryed or fent them into the feuerall Countries 
from London, where their trueft name is to be had, in mine opinion. I will here but 
giue you the names of fome, and referre you to the worke enfuing for your further 
knowledge. The red and the gray Hulo. The old Carnation, differing from them 
both. The Gran Pere. The Camberfiue. The Sauadge, The Chriftall. The Prince. 
The white Carnation, or Delicate. The ground Carnation. The French Carnation. 
The Douer. The Oxford. The Briftow. The Weftminfter. The Daintie. The Gra- 
nado, and many other Gilloflowers too tedious to recite in this place, becaufe I haue 
amply declared them in the booke following. But there is another fort of great de- 
light and varietie, called the Orange tawny Gilloflower r which for the moft part hath 
rifen from feed, and doth giue feed in a more plentiful! manner than any of the for- 
mer forts, and likewife by the fowing of the feed, there hath been gained fo many va- 
rieties of that excellent worth and refpecl, that it can hardly be expreffed or beleeued, 
and called by diuers names according to the marking of the flowers ; as The Infanta. 
The Stript Tawny. The Speckled Tawny. The Flackt Tawny. The Grifeld Tawny, 
and many others, euery one to bee diftinguifhed from others : Some alfo haue their 
flowers more double and large than others, and fome from the fame feed haue fingle 
flowers like broad fingle Pinkes : the further rektion of them, viz. their order to fowe, 
encreafe and preferue them, you mail haue in the fubfequent difcourfe in a place by it 
felfe. Pinkes likewife both fingle and double are of much variety, all of them very 
fweete, comming neare the Gilloflowers. Sweete Williams and Sweete lohns, both 
fingle and double, both white, red, and fpotted, as they are kindes of wilde Pinkes, fo 
for their grace and beauty helpe to furnifh a Garden, yet defire not to ftand fo open to 
the Sunne as the former. Double and fingle Peonies are fit flowers to furnifh a Garden, 
and by reafon of their durability, giue out frefh pleafure euery yeare without any fur- 
ther trouble of fowing. And laftly, Hollihocks both fingle and double, of many and 
fundry colours, yeeld out their flowers like Rofes on their tall branches, like Trees, to 
fute you with flowers, when almoft you haue no other to grace out your Garden : the 
fingle and double doe both yeeld feed, and yet doe after their feeding abide many 
yeares. Thus haue I mewed you moft of the Englifh, as well as (I did before) the Out- 


The ordering of the Garden of P/eafvre. i 3 

landifh flowers, that arc tic to furnilh the knots, trailes, beds* and borders of this Gar- 
den. Roles oncly, as I laid before, I referuc to circle or encompalle all the rell, becaufe 
that tor the molt part they are planted in the outer borders ot the quarters, and lotne- 
tiines by themfelues in the middle ot long beds, the forts or kindes whereof are many, 
as they are declared in tiicir proper place : but the White Role, the Red, and 
the Damaske, are the moll ancient Standards in England, and therelore accoun- 
ted naturall. 


The order and manner to plant and replant all the forts ofOut-laiiiiiJbJlnversfpoken of 
before, as well thofe with bulbous rootes,, as others -with 
Jtringie rootei. 

WHercas it it> die vfuall cultome of moil in this Land, to vp their Gar- 
dens, and to plant them againe in the Spring of the yeare, which is the 
bell time that may bee cholen for all Englilh flowers, yet it is not fo for 
your Out-landiih flowers. And herein indeede hath beene not onely the errour of a 
great many to hinder their rootes from bearing out their flowers as they Ihould, but 
allo to hinder many to take delight in them, becaufe as they fay they will not thriue 
and profper with them, when as the whole fault is in the want of knowledge of the fit 
and conuenient time wherein they Ihould bee planted. And becaufe our Englith Gar- 
diners are all or the moll of them vtterly ignorant in the ordering of thefe Out-landilh 
flowers, as not being trained vp to know them, I haue here taken vpon mee the forme 
of a new Gardiner, to giue instructions to thofe that will take pleafure in them, that 
they may be the better enabled with thefe helpes I (hall Ihew them, both to know how 
they thould be ordered, and to direct their Gardiner^ that are ignorant thereof, rightly 
to difpole them according to their naturall qualities. And I doe wiih all Gentlemen 
and Gentlewomen, whom it may concerne for their owne good, to bee as carefull 
whom they trull with the planting and replanting of thele fane flowers, as they would 
be with fo many lewels ; for the rootes of many of them being 1 mall, and of great va- 
lue, may be loone conueyed away, and a cleanly tale taire told, that fuch a roote is 
rotten, or perithed in the ground if none be feen where it mould be, or elfe that the 
flower hath changed his colour, when it hath been taken away, or a counterteit one 
hath beene put in the place thereof; and thus many haue been deceiucd ot their dain- 
tielt flowers, without remedy or true knowledge ot the detect. You tliall theretore, if 
you will take the right courfe that is proper tor thefe kindes of flowers, not fet or plant 
them among your English flowers; for that when the one may be remoued, the other 
may not be llirred : but plant thofe rootes that are bulbous, or round like Onions, ey- 
ther in knots or beds by themfelues which is the bell, or with but very few Englilh or 
Out-landith flower plants that haue ftringie rootes: For you mult take this for a gene- 
rail rule, that all thole rootes that are like Lillies or Onions, are to bee planted in the 
moneths of luly or Augull, or vnto the middle or end of September at the furthdl, if 
you will haue them to profper as they ihould ; and not in the Spring of the yeare, when 
other gardening is vfed. Yet I muft likewife giue you to vnderlland,, that if Tulipas, 
and Daffodils, and fome other thai are tirme and hard rootes, and not limber or 
Ipongie, being taken vp out of the ground in thir tit fealon, that is, in lune, luly, and 
Augufl, and likewife kept well and dry, may be referued out of the ground vntill 
Chrillmas or after, and then (if they could not be let fooner) being fet, will thriue rea- 
fonable well, but aot altogether fo well as the former, being fet long before: but it' 
you thall remoue thefe bulbous rootes againe, either presently alter their planting ha- 
uing thot their fmall fibres vnder the round rootes, and fprung likewife vpwards, or 
before they be in flower at the foondl (yet Tulipas, Daffodils, and many other bul- 
bous, may be lately remoued being in flower, and tranfplanted into other places, fo as 
they be not kept too long out ot the ground) you Ihall much endanger them either vt- 
terly to perilh, or to be hindered tram bearing out their flowers they then would haue 


14 The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

borne, and for two or three years after from bearing flowers againe. For the order of 
their planting there are diuers wayes, fome whereof I will (hew you in this place : Your 
knot or beds being prepared fitly, as before is declared, you may place and order your 
rootes therein thus, Eyther many rootes of one kind fet together in a round or clufter, 
or longwife croffe a bed one by another, whereby the beauty of many flowers of one 
kinde being together, may make a faire fhew well plealing to many ; Or elfe you may 
plant one or two in a place difperfedly ouer the whole knot, or in a proportion or dia- 
meter one place anfwering another of the knot, as your ftore will fuffer you, or your 
knot permit: Or you may alfo mingle thefe rootes in their planting many of diuers 
forts together, that they may giue the more glorious fhew when they are in flower ; and 
that you may fo doe, you muft firft obferue the feuerall kindes of them, which doe 
flower at one and the fame time, and then to place them in fuch order and fo neare one 
vnto another, that their flowers appearing together of feuerall colours, will caufe the 
more admiration in the beholders : as thus, The Vernall Crocus or Saffron flowers of 
the Spring, white, purple, yellow, and ftript, with fome Vernall Colchicum or Medow 
Saffron among them, fome Dens Caninus or Dogges teeth, and fome of the fmall early 
Leucoium or Bulbous Violet, all planted in fome proportion as neare one vnto ano- 
ther as is fit for them, will giue fuch a grace to the Garden, that the place will feeme 
like a peece of tapeftry of many glorious colours, to encreafe euery ones delight : Or 
elfe many of one fort together, as the blew, white, and blufh Grape flowers in the fame 
manner intermingled, doe make a maruellous deleclable fhew, especially becaufe all of 
them rife almoft to an equall height, which caufeth the greater grace, as well neare 
hand as farre of. The like order may be kept with many other things, as the Hepatica, 
white, blew, purple, and red fet or fowne together, will make many to beleeue that 
one roote doth beare all thofe colours : But aboue and beyond all others, the Tulipas 
may be fo matched, one colour anfwering and fetting of another, that the place where 
they ftand may refemble a peece of curious needle-worke, or peece of painting ; and I 
haue knowne in a Garden, the Mafler as much commended for this artificiall forme in 
placing the colours of Tulipas, as for the goodnefle of his flowers, or any other thing. 
The diuers forts and colours of Anemones or Winde-flowers may be fo ordered like- 
wife, which are very beautifull, to haue the feuerall varieties planted one neare vnto 
another, that their feuerall colours appearing in one place will be a very great grace in 
a Garden, or if they be difperfed among the other forts of flowers, they will make a 
glorious fhew. Another order in planting you may obferue ; which is this, That thofe 
plants that grow low, as the Aconitum Hyemale or Winter-wolues bane, the Vernall 
Crocus or Saffron-flowers of diuers forts, the little early Leucoium or Bulbous Vio- 
let, and fome fuch other as rife not vp high, as alfo fome Anemones may be very well 
placed fomewhat neare or about your Martagons, Lillies, or Crownes Imperiall, both 
becaufe thefe little plants will flower earlier than they, and fo will bee gone and paft, 
before the other greater plants will rife vp to any height to hinder them ; which is a 
way may well be admitted in thofe Gardens that are fmall, to faue roome, and to place 
things to the moft aduantage. Thus hauing fhewed you diuers wayes and orders how 
to plant your rootes, that your flowers may giue the greater grace in the Garden, let 
mee fhew you likewife how to fet thefe kindes of rootes into the ground ; for many 
know not well eyther which end to fet vpwards or downewards, nor yet to what 
depth they fhould be placed in the ground. Daffodils if they be great rootes, will re- 
quire (as muft bee obferued in all other great plants) to bee planted fomewhat deeper 
than the fmaller of the fame kinde, as alfo that the tops or heads of the rootes be about 
two or three fingers breadth hid vnder ground. The Tulipas likewife if you fet them 
deepe, they will be the fafer from frofls if your ground be cold, which will alfo caufe 
them to be a little later before they be in flower, yet vfually if the mould be good, they 
are to be fet a good hand breadth deep within the ground, fo that there may be three or 
foure inches of earth at the leaft aboue the head, which is the fmaller end of the roote : 
for if they mail lye too neare the vpper face or cruft of the earth, the colds & frofts will 
pierce and pinch them the fooner. After the fame order and manner muft Hyacinthes, 
whether great or fmall, and other fuch great rootes be planted. Your greater rootes, as 
Martagons, Lillies, and Crownes Imperiall, muft be fet much deeper than any other 
bulbous roote, becaufe they are greater rootes than others, and by themfelues alfo, as 


T7ie ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. i 5 

is moft vfuall either in foine fquare, round, triangle, or other fmall part in the Garden, 
becaufe they fpread and take vp a very great deale of ground. All of them likcwife 
are to be fet with the broad end of the roote downcwards, and the fmall end vpwards, 
that is, both Lillies, Daffodils, Hyacinthes, and Tulipas, and all other forts of round 
rootes, which fhew one end to bee fmaller than another. But the Colchicum or Mc- 
dow-Safrron onely requireth an exception to this generall rule, in regard the roote 
thereof hath a fmall eminence or part on the one fide thereof, which muft bee fet or 
planted downeward, and not vpward ; for you (hall obferuc, if the roote lye a little 
moift out of the ground, that it will fhoote fibres out at the fmall long end thereof, al- 
though you may perceiue when you take it vp, that the fibres were at the other broad 
end or fide of the roote. As for the Crowne Imperiall, which is a broad round roote 
and flat withall, hauing a hole in the middle, for the moft part quite thorow, when it 
is taken vp in his due time out of the ground, you mall perceiue the fcales or cloues of 
the rootes to bee a little open on the vpperfide, and clofe and flat on the vndcrfide, 
which will direfl you which part to fet vpward ; as alfo that the hole is bigger aboue 
then it is below. The Perlian Lilly is almoft like unto the Crowne Imperiall, but that 
the roote thereof is not fo flat, and that it hath a fmaller head at the one part, whereby 
it may be difcerned the plainer how to be fet. The Fritillaria is a fmall white root di- 
uidcd as it were into two parts, fo that many haue doubted, as formerly in the Crowne 
Imperiall, what part to fet vppermoft ; you (hall therefore marke, that the two parts 
of the roote are ioyned together at the bottome, where it fhooteth out fibres or fmall 
ftringie rootes, as all other forts of bulbous rootes doe, and withall you fhall fee, that 
betweene the two parts of the roote a fmall head will appeare, which is the burgeon 
that will fpring vp to beare leaues and flowers. In the rootes of Anemones there are 
fmall round fwelling heads, eafie enough to be obferued if you marke it, which muft be 
fet vpwards. All other forts of ftringie rooted plants (and not bulbous or tuberous 
rooted) that lofe their greene leaues in Winter, will fhew a head from whence the 
leaues and flowers will fpring, and all others that keepe their greene leaues, are to bee 
planted in the fame manner that other herbes and flower-plants are accuftomed to be. 
But yet for the better thriuing of the ftringie rooted plants, when you will plant 
them, let me informe you of the beft way of planting, and the moft fure to caufe any 
plant to comprehend in the ground without failing, and is no common way with any 
Gardiner in this Kingdome, that euer I heard or knew, which is thus : Prefuming that 
the ftringie rooted plant is frefh and not old gathered, and a plant that being remoued 
will grow againe, make a hole in the ground large enough where you meane to fet this 
roote, and raife the earth within the hole a little higher in the middle then on the fides, 
and fet the roote thereon, fpreading the ftrings all abroad about the middle, that they 
may as it were couer the middle, and then put the earth gently round about it, prefling 
it a little clofe, and afterwards water it well, if it be in Summer, or in a dry time, or o- 
therwife moderately : thus fhall euery feuerall firing of the roote haue earth enough to 
caufe it to fhoote forth, and thereby to encreafe farre better than by the vfuall way, 
which is without any great care and refpeft to thruft the rootes together into the 
ground. Diuers other flower plants are but annual!, to bee new fowne euery yeare; as 
the Maruaile of the world, the Indian CrefTes, or yellow Larkes heeles, the Flower of 
the Sunne, and diuers others : they therefore that will take pleafure in them, that they 
may enioy their flowers the earlier in the yeare, and thereby haue ripe feede of them 
while warme weather lafteth, muft nurfe vp their feedes in a bed of hot dung, as Me- 
lons and Cowcumbers are, but your bed muft be prouided earlier for thefe feeds, than 
for Melons, &c. that they may haue the more comfort of the Summer, which are to be 
carefully tended after they are tranfplanted from the hotbed, and couered with ftraw 
from colds, whereby you fhall not faile to gaine ripe feed euery yeare, which other- 
wife if you fhould mifle of a very kindly & hot Summer, you fhould neuer haue. Some 
of thefe feedes neede likewife to be tranfplanted from the bed of dung vnder a warme 
wall, as the Flower of the Sunne, and the Maruaile of the world, and fome others, and 
that for a while after their tranfplanting, as alfo in the heate of Summer, you water 
them at the roote with water that hath ftood a day or two in the Sunne, hauing firft laid 
a round wifpe of hay or fuch other thing round about the roote, that fo all helpes may 
further their giuing of ripe feede. One or two rules more I will giue you concerning 


1 6 The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

thefe dainty flowers, the firft whereof is this, That you fhall not i>ee carefull to water 
any of your bulbous or tuberous rooted plants at any time ; for they all of them do bet- 
ter profper in a dry ground than in a wet, onely all forts of tuberous rooted Flowerde- 
luces vpon their remouall had neede of a little water, and fome will doe fo alk> to fuch 
Tulipas and other bulbous rootes as they tranfplant, when they are in flower, and this 
is I grant in fome fort tolerable, if it :bee not too much, and done onely to caufe the 
ftalke and flower to abide fometime the longer before they wither, but elfe in no other 
cafe to be permitted. The fecond rule is, That I would aduife you to water none of 
your dainty flowers or herbes, with any water that hath preferttly before 'been drawne 
out of a well or pumpe, but onely with fuch water that hath ftood open in the Sunne 
in fome cifterne, tubbe, or pot for a day at the leaft, if more the better: for that water 
which is prefently drawne out of a well, &c. is fo cold, that it prefently chilleth & kil- 
leth any dainty plant be it younger or elder grown, whereof I haue had firfficient proofe : 
and therforel giue you this caution by mine own experience. Thus haue I directed you 
from point to point, in all the particulars of preparing & planting that belong to this 
Garden, fauing only that yet I would further enforme you, of the'time of the flowring 
of thefe Out-landifh plants, according to the feuerall moneths in the yeare, that euery 
one may know what flowers euery moneth yee'ldeth, and may chufe what them liketh 
beft, in that they may fee that there is no moneth, but glorieth in fome peculiar forts of 
rare flowers. I would likewife rather in this place mew you, the true and beft manner 
& order to encreafe and preferue all forts of Gilloflowers & 'Carnations, then ioyne it 
with the 'Chapter of Gilloflowers in the worke following, becaufe it would in that 
place take vp too much roome. And laftly, I mtift of neceffity oppofe three fundry 
errours, that haue poflefled the mindes of many both in former and later times, which 
are, that any flower may be made to grow double by art, that was but tingle before by 
nature : And that one may by art caufe any flower to grow of Tvhat colour they will : 
And that any plants may "be forced to flower out of their due feafons, either earlier or 
later, by an art which fome can vfe. All which being declared, I then fuppofe enough 
is fpoken for an introduction to this worke, referring many other things to the feuerall 
directions in the Chapters of the booke. 

C H ArP. V I I. 

he feuerall times of the flowring of thefe Qut-landifh flowers, according to the feuerall 

moneths of the yeare. 

I Intend in this place onely to giue you briefly, the names of fome of the chiefeft of 
thefe Out-landifh flowers, according to the feuerall moneths of the yeare wherein 
they flower, that euery one feeing what forts of flowers euery moneth yeeldeth, 
may take of them which they like beft. I begin with January, as the firft moneth of the 
yeare, Wherein if the frofts be not extreme, you fhall haue thefe flowers of plants; the 
Chriftmas flower or Helleborus niger verus, Winter wolues bane or Aconitum hye- 
male, Hepatica or Noble Liuer wort blew and red, and of ihrubbes, the Lauras Tinus 
or Wilde Bay tree, and Mefereon or the dwarfe Bay : but becaufe lanuarie is often- 
times too deepe in frefts and fnow, I therefore referre the Hepaticas vnto the moneth 
following, which is February, wherein the weather beginneth to be a little milder, 
and then they will flower much better, as alfo diuers forts of Crocus or Saffron flow- 
er will appeare, the little early Summer foole or Leucoium bulbofum, and towards 
the latter end thereof the Vernall Colchicum, the Dogges tooth Violet or Dens Ca- 
minus, and fome Anemones, both fingle and double, which in fome places will flower 
all the Winter long. March will yeeld more varieties; for betides that it holdeth 
fome of the flowers of the former moneth, it will yeeld you both the double blew He- 
patica, and the white and the blufh fingle : then alfo you mall haue diuers other forts 
of Crocus or Saffron flowers, Double yellow Daffodils, ; Orientall Jacinths and o- 
thers, the Crowne Imperiall, diuers forts of early Tulipas, fome forts of French Cow- 
flips, both tawney, murry, yellow, and blufh, the early Fritillaria or checkerd Daffo- 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. i 7 

dill, and fome other forts of early Daffodils, and many forts of Anemones. In Aprill 
commeth on the pride of thefe (Grangers ; tor herein you may behold all the forts of 
Auricula Vr(i or Beares Eares, many forts of Anemones, both (ingle and double, 
both the forts of Tulipas, the earlier vntill the middle of the moneth, and the later 
then beginning; which are of fo many different colours, that it is almolt impoffible to 
exprelfe them, the white, red, blacke, and yellow Fritillarias, the Mufcari or Muske 
Grape flower, both afh colour and yellow. Diuers other forts of lacinths and Daffo- 
dils both (ingle and double, the fmaller forts of Flowerdeluces, the Veluet Flower- 
deluce and double Honyfuckles, with diuers others. May likewife at the beginning 
feemeth as glorious as Aprill, although toward the end it doth decline, in regard the 
heate of the Sunne hath by this time drawne forth all the (tore of natures tendered 
dainties, which are vfually (pent by the end of this moneth, and then thofe of ftronger 
conlh'tution come forward. Herein are to bee feene at the beginning the middle flow- 
ring Tulipas, and at the end the later forts : fome kindes of Daffodils, the Day Lillies, 
the great white Starre flower, the Flowerdeluce of Conflantinople or the mourning 
Sable flower, the other forts of Flowerdeluces. Single and double white Crowfoote, 
and Iingle and double red Crowfoot, the glory of a Garden : the early red Martagon, 
the Periian Lilly, the yellow Martagon, the Gladiolus or Corne flagge, both white, 
red, and blufh : the double yellow Rofe, and fome other forts of Rofes. In lune doe 
flower the white and the blufh Martagon, the Martagon Imperiall, the mountaine Lil- 
lies, and the other forts of white and red Lillies, the bulbous Flowerdeluces of diuers 
forts, the red flowred Ladies bower, the lingle and double purple flowred Ladies bow- 
er, the white Syringa or Pipe tree, for the blew Pipe tree flowreth earlier, the white 
and the yellow lafmin. luly holdeth in flower fome of the Ladies bowers and laf- 
mines, and belides doth glory in the Female Balfame apple, the Indian CrefTes or yel- 
low Larkes fpurres, the purple Flower-gentle and the Rofe Bay. In Auguft begin 
fome of the Autumne bulbous flowers to appeare, as the white and the purple Col- 
chicum or Medow Saffron, the purple mountaine Crocus or Saffron flower, the little 
Autumne Leucoium and Autumne lacinth, the Italian Starrewort, called of fome the 
purple Marigold, the Meruaile of Peru or of the world, the Flower of the Sunne, the 
great blew Bell-flower, the great double French Marigold. September flourifheth 
with the Flower of the Sunne, the Meruaile of the world, the purple Marigold, and 
blew Bell-flower fpoken of before, and likewife the other forts of Medow Saffron, and 
the double kinde likewife, the filuer Crocus, the Autumne yellow Daffodill, Cycla- 
men alfo or Sowbread (hew their flowers in the end of this moneth. October alfo 
will (hew the flowers of Cyclamen, and fome of the Medow Saffrons. In Nouember, 
as alfo fometimes in the moneth before, the party coloured Medow Saffron may bee 
feene, that will longed hold his flower, becaufe it is the latert that (heweth it felfe, and 
the afh coloured mountaine Crocus. And euen December it felfe will not want the 
true blacke Hellebor or Chriftmas flower, and the glorious (hew of the Laurus Tinus 
or wilde Bay tree. Thus haue I (hewed you fome of the flowers for euery moneth, 
but I referre you to the more ample declarion of them and all the others, vnto the work 


T'he true manner and order to encreafe and preferue all forts of Gi/lojiowers, as well 

byjlippes asfeedes. 

BEcaufe that Carnations and Gilloflowers bee the chiefell flowers of account in 
all our Englifh Gardens, I haue thought good to entreate fomewhat amply of 
them, and that a part by it felfe, as I faid a little before, in regard there is fo 
much to be faid concerning them, and that if all the matters to be entreated of (hould 
haue beene inferted in the Chapter of Gilloflowers, it would haue made it too tedi- 
ous and large, and taken vp too much roome. The particular matters whereof I mean 
in this place to entreate are thefe : How to encreafe Gilloflowers by planting and by 

C fowing, 

1 8 The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

fowing, and how to preferue them being encreafed, both in Summer from noyfome 
and hurtfull vermine that deftroy them, and in Winter from frorts, fnowes, and 
windes, that fpoile them. There are two wayes of planting, whereby to encreafe 
thefe faire flowers ; the one is by flipping which is the old and ready vfuall way, bed 
knowne in this Kingdome ; the other is more fure, perfecl, ready, and of later inuen- 
tion, videlicet^ by laying downe the branches. The way to encreafe Gilloflowers by 
flipping, is fo common with all that euer kept any of them, that I think moft perfons 
may thinke me idle, to fpend time to fet downe in writing that which is fo well known 
vnto all : Yet giue me leaue to tell them that fo might imagine, that (when they haue 
heard or read what I haue written thereof, if they did know fully as much before) what 
I here write, was not to informe them, but fuch as did not know the beft, or fo good a 
way as I teach them : For I am aflured, the greateft number doe vfe, and follow the 
moft vfuall way, and that is not alwaies the beft, efpecially when by good experience 
a better way is found, and may be learned; and therefore if fome can doe a thing 
better than others, I thinke it is no fhame to learne it of them. You (hall not then (to 
take the fureft courfe) take any long fpindled branches, nor thofe branches that haue 
any young fhootes from the ioynts on them, nor yet fliue or teare any flippe or branch 
from the roote ; for all thefe waies are vfuall and common with molt, which caufeth 
fo many good rootes to rot and perifh, and alfo fo many flippes to be loft, when as 
for the moft part, not the one halfe, or with fome, not a third part doth grow and 
thriue of thofe flippes they fet. And although many that haue ftore of plants, doe not 
fo much care what hauocke they make to gaine fome, yet to faue both labour and 
plants, I doe wifh them to obferue thefe orders : Take from thofe rootes from whence 
you intend to make your encreafe, thofe fhootes onely that are reafonable ftrong, but 
yet young, and not either too fmall and flender, or hauing any fhootes from the ioynts 
vpon them ; cut thefe flippes or fhootes off from the ftemme or roote with a knife, as 
conueniently as the fhoote or branch will permit, that is, either clofe vnto the maine 
branch, if it be fhort, or leauing a ioynt or two behinde you, if it be long enough, at 
which it may fhoote anew : When you haue cut off your flippes, you may either fet 
them by and by, or elfe as the beft Gardiners vfe to doe, caft them into a tubbe or pot 
with water for a day or two, and then hauing prepared a place conuenient to fet them 
in, which had neede to bee of the fineft, richeft, and beft mould you can prouide, 
that they may thriue therein the better, cut off your flippe clofe at the ioynt, and ha- 
uing cut away the loweft leaues clofe to the ftalke, and the vppermoft euen at the top, 
with a little fticke make a little hole in the earth, and put your flippe therein fo deep, as 
that the vpper leaues may be wholly aboue the ground, (fome vfe to cleaue the ftalke 
in the middle, and put a little earth or clay within the cleft, but many good and skil- 
full Gardiners doe not vfe it) ; put the earth a little clofe to the flippe with your ringer 
and thumbe, and there let it reft, and in this manner doe with as many flippes as you 
haue, fetting them fomewhat clofe together, and not too farre in funder, both to faue 
ground and coft thereon, in that a fmall compafle will feme for the firft planting, and 
alfo the better to giue them fhadow : For you muft remember in any cafe, that thefe 
flippes new fet, haue no fight of the Sunne, vntill they be well taken in the ground, and 
fhot aboue ground, and alfo that they want not water, both vpon the new planting 
and after. When thefe flippes are well grown vp, they muft be tranfplanted into fuch 
other places as you thinke meete ; that is, either into the ground in beds, or other- 
wife, or into pots, which that you may the more fafely doe, after you haue well wate- 
red the ground, for halfe a day before you intend to tranfplant them, you fhall fepa- 
rate them feuerally, by putting down a broad pointed knife on each fide of the flippe, 
fo cutting it out, take euery one by it felfe, with the earth cleauing clofe vnto the root, 
which by reafon of the moifture it had formerly, and that which you gaue prefently 
before, will be fufficient with any care had, to caufe it to hold faft vnto the roote for 
the tranfplanting of it : for if the earth were dry, and that it fhould fall away from the 
roote in the tranfplanting, it would hazzard and endanger the roote very much, if it 
did thriue at all. You muft remember alfo, that vpon the remouing of thefe flips, you 
fhadow them from the heate of the Sunne for a while with fome ftraw or other thing, 
vntill they haue taken hold in their new place. Thus although it bee a little more la- 
bour and care than the ordinary way is, yet it is furer, and will giue you plants that 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. \ g 

will be fo ftrongly growne before Winter, that with the care hereafter fpecified, you 
(hull haue them bcare flowers the next yeare after, and yeeld you encreafe of flippcs 
a lib. To giue you any let time, wherein thefe flippes will take roote, and begin to 
fhoote aboue ground, is very hard to doe; for that euery flip, or yet euery kinde of Gil- 
loflower is not alike apt to grow; nor is euery earth in like manner fit to produce and 
bring forward the flippes that are fet therein : but if both the flippe be apt to grow, and 
the earth of the belt, fit to produce, I thinke within a fortnight or three weekes, you 
1 1 Kill lee them begin to put forth young leaues in the middle, or elfe it may be a moneth 
and more before you (hall fee any fpringing. The belt time likewife when to plant, is 
a fpeciall thing to be knowne, and of as great confequence as any thing elfe : For if you 
Ilippe and fet in September, as many vfe to doe, or yet in Auguft, as fome may thinke 
will doe well, yet (vnlefle they be the mort ordinary forts, which are likely to grow at 
any time, and in any place) the moft of them, if not all, will either afluredly perifh, or 
neuer profper well : for the more excellent and dainty the Gilloflower is, the more 
tender for the moll part, and hard to nurfe vp will the flippes be. The bell time there- 
fore is, that you cut off fuch flippes as are likely, and fuch as your rootes may fpare, 
from the beginning of May vntill the middle of lune at the furtheft, and order them 
as I haue (hewed you before, that fo you may haue faire plants, plenty of flowers, and 
encreafe fufficient for new fupply, without offence or lofle of your ftore. For the en- 
riching likewife of your earth, wherein you (hall plant your flippes, that they may the 
better thriue and profper, diuers haue vfed diuers forts of manure ; as ftable foyle of 
horfe, beafts or kine, of Iheepe, and pigeons, all which are very good when they are 
thoroughly turned to mould, to mixc with your other earth, or being fteeped in water, 
may ferue to water the earth at times, and turned in with it. And fome haue likewife 
proued Tanners earth, that is, their barke, which after they haue vfed, doth lye on 
heapes and rot in their yards, or the like mould from wood-ftackes or yards ; but efpe- 
cially, and beyond all other is commended the Willow earth, that is, that mould 
which is found in the hollow of old Willow trees, to be the moft principal! to mixe 
with other good earth for this purpofe. And as I haue now giuen you directions for 
the firft way to encreafe them by flipping, fo before I come to the other way, let mee 
giue you a caueat or two for the preferuing of them, when they are beginning to runne 
vtterly to decay and perifh : The one is, that whereas many are ouer greedy to haue 
their plants to giue them flowers, and therefore let them runne all to flower, fo farre 
("pending themfelues thereby, that after they haue done flowring, they grow fo weake, 
hauing out fpent themfelues, that they cannot pofiibly be preferued from the iniuries 
ot the fucceeding Winter ; you (hall therefore keepe the kinde of any fort you are de- 
lighted withall, if you carefully looke that too many branches doe not runne vp and 
fpindle for flowers, but rather either cut fome of them downe, before they are run vp 
too high, within two or three ioynts of the rootes ; or elfe pluck away the innermoft 
leaues where it fpringeth forwards, which you fee in the middle of euery branch, be- 
fore it be runne vp too high, which will caufe them to breake out the fafter into flips 
and fuckers at the ioynts, to hinder their forward luxurie, and to preferue them 
the longer : The other is, If you (hall perceiue any of your Gilloflower leaues to 
change their naturall frefh verdure, and turne yellowifh, or begin to wither in anie 
part or branch thereof, it is a fure ligne that the roote is infected with fome cancker 
or rottennefle, and will foon (hew it felfe in all the reft of the branches, whereby the 
plant will quickly be loft : to preferue it therefore, you (hall betime, before it be runne 
too farre, (for otherwife it is impoflible to faue it) either couer all or moft of the 
branches with frefh earth, or elfe take the faireft flippes from it, as many as you can 
poflibly, and caft them into a pot or tubbe with water, and let them there abide for 
two or three daies at the leaft : the firft way hath recouered many, being taken in time. 
Thus you (hall fee them recouer their former rtifFenefle and colour, and then you may 
plant them as you haue beene heretofore directed; and although many of them may 
perifh, yet fhall you haue fome of them that will grow to continue the kinde againe. 
The other or fecond way to encreafe Gilloflowers by planting, is, as I faid before, by 
in-laying or laying downe the branches of them, and is a way of later inuention, and 
as frequently vfed, not onely for the tawney or yellow Gilloflower, and all the varie- 
ties therof, but with the other kinds of Gilloflowers, whereof experience hath (hewed 


20 The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

that they will likewife take if they be fo vfed ; the manner whereof is thus : You muft 
choofe out the youngeft, likelieft, and loweft branches that are neareft the ground (for 
the vpper branches will fooner breake at the ioynt, than bend downe fo low into the 
earth, without fome pot with earth raifed vp vnto them) and cut it on the vnderfide 
thereof vpwards at the fecond ioynt next vnto the roote, to the middle of the branch, 
and no more, and not quite thorough in any cafe, and then from that fecond ioynt vn- 
to the third, flit or cut the branch in the middle longwife, that fo it may be the more 
eafily bended into the ground, the cut ioynt feeming like the end of a flippe, when 
you haue bended downe the branch where it is cut into the ground (which muft bee 
done very gently for feare of breaking) with a little fticke or two thruft flopwife, 
crofle ouer it, keepe it downe within the earth, and raife vp fufficient earth ouer it, that 
there it may lye and take roote, which commonly will be effected within fixe weekes 
or two moneths in the Summer time, and then (or longer if you doubt the time too 
fhort for it to take fufficient roote) you may take or cut it away, and tranfplant it where 
you thinke good, yet fo as in any cafe you fhadow it from the heate of the Sunne, vn- 
till it haue taken good hold in the ground. The other way to encreafe Gilloflowers, 
is by fowing the feede : It is not vfuall with all forts of Gilloflowers to giue feede, but 
fuch of them as doe yeeld feede may be encreafed thereby, in the fame manner as is 
here fet downe. The Orange tawney Gilloflower and the varieties thereof is the moft 
vfuall kinde, (and it is a kinde by it felfe, how various foeuer the plants be that rife 
from the feede) that doth giue feede, and is fowne, and from thence arifeth fo many 
varieties of colours, both plaine and mixt, both fingle and double, that one can hardly 
fet them downe in writing : yet fuch as I haue obferued and marked, you fhall finde 
exprefled in the Chapter of Gilloflowers in the worke following. Firft therefore 
make choife of your feede that you intend to fowe (if you doe not defire to haue as 
many more fingle flowers as double) that it bee taken from double flowers, and not 
from fingle, and from the beft colours, howfoeuer fome may boaft to haue had double 
and ftript flowers from the feede of a fingle one ; which if it were fo, yet one Swallow 
(as we fay) maketh no Summer, nor a thing comming by chance cannot bee reckoned 
for a certaine and conftant rule ; you may be aflured they will not vfually doe fo : but 
the beft, faireft, and moft double flowers come alwaies, or for the moft part, from the 
feede of thofe flowers that were beft, faireft, and moft double ; and I doe aduise you 
to take the beft and moft double : for euen from them you fhall haue fingle ones e- 
now, you neede not fowe any worfer fort. And againe, fee that your feede bee 
new, of the laft yeares gathering, and alfo that it was full ripe before it was gathered, 
left you lofe your labour, or mifle of your purpofe, which is, to haue faire and double 
flowers. Hauing now made choife of your feede, and prepared you a bedde to fowe 
them on, the earth whereof muft be rich and good, and likewife fifted to make it the 
finer ; for the better it is, the better fhall your profit and pleafure bee : hereon, being 
firft made leuell, plaine, and fmooth, fowe your feede fomewhat thinne, and not too 
thicke in any cafe, and as euenly as you can, that they be not too many in one place, 
and too few in another, which afterwards couer with fine fifted earth ouer them about 
one fingers thicknefle ; let this be done in the middle of Aprill, if the time of the yeare 
be temperate, and not too cold, or elfe ftay vntill the end of the moneth : after they 
are fprung vp and growne to be fomewhat bigge, let them bee drawne forth that are 
too clofe and neare one vnto another, and plant them in fuch place where they fhall 
continue, fo that they ftand halfe a yard of ground diftance afunder, which after the 
planting, let be fhadowed for a time, as is before fpecified ; and this may bee done in 
the end of luly, or fooner if there be caufe. I haue not fet downe in all this difcourfe 
of planting, tranfplanting, fowing, fetting, &c. any mention of watering thofe flips 
or plants, not doubting but that euery ones reafon will induce them to thinke, that 
they cannot profper without watering : But let this Caueat be a fufficient remembrance 
vnto you, that you neuer water any of thefe Gilloflowers, nor yet indeede any other 
fine herbe or plant with cold water, fuch as you haue prefently before drawne out from 
a pumpe or Well, &c. but with fuch water as hath ftood open in the aire in a cifterne, 
tubbe, or pot, for one whole day at the leaft ; if it be two or three daies it will be neuer 
the worfe, but rather the better, as I haue related before : yet take efpeciall heede that 
you doe not giue them too much to ouer-glut them at any time, but temperately to ir- 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 2 1 

rotate, bedew or fprinlde them often. From the feedes of thcfc Gilloflowers hath ri- 
fen both white, red, blulli, ttamell, tawny lighter and ladder, marbled, fpcckled, Itri- 
ped, flaked, and that in diuers manners, both (ingle and double flowers, as you lliall 
fee them let downe in a more ample manner in the Chapter of Gilloflowers. And 
thus much for their entreafe by the two wayes of planting and lowing: For as tor a 
third way, by grafting one into or vpon another, I know none fuch to be true, nor to 
be of any more worth than an old \Viues tale, l>oth nature, reafon, and experience, all 
contelting againlt fuch an idle fancy, let men make what oltentation they pleafe. It 
now relteth, that we allo (hew you the manner how to preferue them, as well in Sum- 
mer from all noyfome and hurtfull things, as in the Winter and Spring from the fharp 
and chilling colds, and the lharpe and bitter killing windcs in March. The hurttull 
things in the Summer are efpecially thefe, too much heatc of the Sunne which fcorch- 
eth them, which you mult be carefull to preuent, by placing boughes, boords, clothes 
or mats, &c. before them, it they bee in the ground ; or clfe if they bee in pots, to 
remoue into them into the lhadow, to giue them refrelhing from the heate, and giuc 
them water alfo for their life : too much water, or too little is another annoyance, 
which you mult order as you fee there is iult caufe, by withholding or giuing them wa- 
ter gently out of a watering pot, and not calt on by difhfuls : Some alfo to water their 
(iillorlowers, vie to fet their pots into tubbes or pots halfe full of water, that fo the 
water may loake in at the lower holes in each flower pot, to giue moifture to the roots 
of the Ciilloflowers onely, without calting any water vpon the leaues, and afluredly it 
is an excellent way to moilten the rootes fo fufficiently at one time, that it doth faue a 
great deale of paines many other times. Earwickes are a moft infeltuous vermine, to 
(poyle the whole beauty of your flowers, and that in one night or day ; for thefe crea- 
tures delighting to creepe into any hollow or fhadowie place, doe creepe into the 
long greene pods of the Gilloflowers, and doe eate away the white bottomes of their 
leaues, which are fweete, whereby the leaues of the flowers being loofe, doe either 
fall away of themfelues before, or when they are gathered, or handled, or prefently 
wither within the pods before they are gathered, and blowne away with the windc. 
To auoide which inconuenience, many haue deuifed many waies and inuentions to 
deltroy them, as pots with double verges or brimmes, containing a hollow gutter be- 
tweene them, which being filled with water, will not fufFer thefe fmall vermine to 
palTe ouer it to the Gilloflowers to fpoile them. Others haue vfed old (hooes, and fuch 
like hollow things to bee fet by them to take them in : but the belt and molt vfuall 
things now vfed, are eyther long hollow canes, or elfe beafts hoofes, which being 
turned downe vpon (tickes ends fet into the ground, or into the pots of earth, will 
foone drawe into them many Earwickes, lying hid therein from funne, winde, and 
raine, and by care and diligence may foone bee destroyed, if euery morning and eue- 
ning one take the hoofes gently off from the ftickes, and knocking them againft the 
ground in a plain allie, lhake out all the Earwicks that are crept into them, which quick- 
ly with ones foot may be trode to peeces. For fodain blaiting with thunder and lighte- 
ning, or fierce (harp windes, &c. I know no other remedy, vnlefle you can couer 
them therefrom when you firlt forefee the danger, but patiently to abide the lofle, 
whatfoeuer fome haue aduifed, to lay litter about them to auoide blaiting ; for if any 
lhall make tryall thereof, I am in doubt, he lhall more endanger his rootes thereby, be- 
ing the Summer time, when any fuch feare of Waiting is, than any wife faue them from 
it, or doe them any good. For the Winter preferuation of them, fome haue aduifed to 
couer them with Bee-hiues, or elfe with fmall Willow (tickes, prickt croflewife into 
the ground ouer your flowers, and bowed archvvife, and with litter laid thereon, 
to couer the Gilloflowers quite ouer, after they haue beene fprinkled with fope afhes 
and lyme mixt together : and this way is commended by fome that haue written there- 
of, to be fuch an admirable defence vnto them in Winter, that neither Ants, nor 
Snailes, nor Earwickes (hall touch them, becaufe of the fope afhes and lyme, and ney- 
ther frofts nor Itorms (hall hurt them, becaufe of the litter which fo well will defend 
them ; and hereby alfo your Gilloflowers will bee ready to flower, not onely in the 
Spring very early, but euen all the Winter. But whofoeuer (hall follow thefe diredti- 
ons, may peraduenture finde them in fome part true, as they are there fet downe for 
the Winter time, and while they are kept dole and couered ; but let them bee allured, 


2 2 The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

that all fuch plants, or the moft part of them, will certainely perifh and dye before the 
Summer be at an end : for the fope afhes and lyme will burne vp and fpoile any herbe ; 
and againe it is impofiible for any plant that is kept fo warme in Winter, to abide ey- 
ther the cold or the winde in the Spring following, or any heate of the Sun, but that 
both of them will fcorch them, and carry them quite away. One great hurt vnto them, 
and to all other herbes that wee preferue in Winter, is to fuffer the fnow to lye vpon 
them any time after it is fallen, for that it doth fo chill them, that the Sunne afterward, 
although in Winter, doth fcorch them and burne them vp : looke therefore vnto 
your Gilloflowers in thofe times, and fhake or ftrike off the fnow gently off from 
them, not fuffering it to abide on them any day or night if you can ; for afTure your 
felfe, if it doth not abide on them, the better they will be. The frofts likewife is ano- 
ther great annoyance vnto them, to corrupt the rootes, and to caufe them to fwell, 
rot, and break : to preuent which inconuenience, I would aduife you to take the ftraw 
or litter of your horfe ftable, and lay fome thereof about euery roote of your Gillo- 
flowers (efpecially thofe of the beft account) clofe vnto them vpon the ground, but be 
as carefull as you can, that none thereof lye vpon the greene leaues, or as little as may 
be, and by this onely way haue they been better defended from the frofts that fpoile 
them in Winter, then by any other that I haue feen or knowne. The windes in March, 
and Sunnefhine dayes then, are one of the greateft inconueniences that happeneth vn- 
to them ; for they that haue had hundreds of plants, that haue kept faire and greene all 
the Winter vntill the beginning or middle of March, before the end thereof, haue 
had fcarce one of many, that either hath not vtterly perifhed, or been fo tainted, that 
quickly after haue not been loft ; which hath happened chiefly by the neglecl: of thefe 
cautions before fpecified, or in not defending them from the bitter fharpe windes and 
funne in this moneth of March. You fhall therefore for their better preferuation, be- 
fides the litter laid about the rootes, which I aduife you not to remoue as yet, fhelter 
them fomewhat from the windes, with eyther bottomlefle pots, pales, or fuch like 
things, to keep away the violent force both of windes and fun for that moneth, and for 
fome time before & after it alfo : yet fo, that they be not couered clofe aboue, but open 
to receiue ayre & raine. Some alfo vfe to wind withes of hey or ftraw about the rootes 
of their Gilloflowers, and faften them with ftickes thruft into the ground, which 
ferue very well in the ftead of the other. Thus haue I mewed you the whole preferua- 
tion of thefe worthy and dainty flowers, with the whole manner of ordering them 
for their encreafe : if any one haue any other better way, I fhall be as willing to learne 
it of them, as I haue beene to giue them or any others the knowledge of that I haue 
here fet downe. 


T'hat there is not any art whereby any flower may be made to grow double, that was naturally 

Jingle, nor of any other fent or colour than itflrfl had by nature ; nor that the 

/ "owing or planting of herbes one deeper than other, will caufe them 

to be in flower one after another, euery moneth 

in the year e. 

THe wonderfull defire that many haue to fee faire, double, and fweete flowers, 
hath tranfported them beyond both reafon and nature, feigning and boafting 
often of what they would haue, as if they had it. And I thinke, from this defire 
and boafting hath rifen all the falfe tales and reports, of making flowers double as they 
lift, and of giuing them colour and fent as they pleafe, and to flower likewife at what 
time they will, I doubt not, but that fome of thefe errours are ancient, and continued 
long by tradition, and others are of later inuention : and therefore the more to be con- 
demned, that men of wit and Judgement in thefe dayes mould expofe themfelues in 
their writings, to be rather laughed at, then beleeued for fuch idle tales. And although 
in the contradiction of them, I know I fhall vndergoe many calumnies, yet notwith- 
ftandmg, I will endeauour to fet downe and declare fo much, as I hope may by reafon 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 23 

perfwade many in the truth, although I cannot hope of all, loine being fo llrongly 
wedded to their owne will, and the errours they haue beenc hred in, that no rcafon 
may alter them. Firit therefore I fay, that if there were any art to make fonic flowers 
to grow double, that naturally were tingle, by the fame art, all forts of flowers that arc 
lin^le by nature, may be made to grow double : but the forts of flowers that are tingle 
by nature, whereot tome are double, were neuer made double by art ; for many forts 
abide ttill lingle, whereof there was neuer feene double : and therefore there is no 
fuch art in any mans knowledge to bring it to pafle. If any man (hall fay, that becaufc 
there are many flowers double, whereof there are tingle alto of the fame kinde, as for 
example, Violets, Marigolds, Daifyes, Daffodils, Anemones, and many other, that 
therefore thole double flowers were fo made by the art of man : 7 vs. by the obferuati- 
on of the change of the Moone, the conltellations or conjunctions of Planets, or 
loine other Starres or celettiall bodies. Although I doe confefle and acknowledge, 
that I thinke fome conllellations, and peraduenture changes of the Moone, &c. were 
appointed by the God of nature, as conducing and helping to the making of thofe 
flowers double, that nature hath fo produced, yet I doe deny, that any man hath or 
lhall euer be able to proue, that it was done by any art of man, or that any man can tell 
the true caufes and feafons, what changes of the Moone, or conllellations of the Pla- 
nets, wrought together for the producing of thofe double flowers, or can imitate na- 
ture, or rather the God of nature, to doe the like. If it (hall bee demanded, From 
whence then came thefe double flowers that we haue, if they were not fo made by art ? 
I anfwer, that afluredly all fuch flowers did firrt grow wilde, and were fo found dou- 
ble, as they doe now grow in Gardens, but for how long before they were found they 
became double, no man can tell ; we onely haue them as nature hath produced them, 
and fo they remaine. Againe, if any thall fay, that it is likely that thefe double flowers 
were forced fo to be, by the often planting and tranfplanting of them, becaufe it is ob- 
ferued in mort of them, that if they Hand long in any one place, and not be often re- 
moued, they will grow llill lefle double, and in the end turne tingle. I doe confefle, 
that Vac'iinr c/l defcenfus quam a/'ceri/us, and that the vnfruitfulnefle ot the ground they 
are planted in, or the neglect or little care had of them, or the growing of them 
too thicke or too long, are oftentimes a caufe of the diminithing of the flowers 
doublenefle ; but withall you thall obferue, that the fame rootes that did beare double 
flowers (and not any other that neuer were double before) haue returned to their for- 
mer doublenefle againe, by good ordering and looking vnto : tingle flowers haue only 
beene made fomewhat fairer or larger, by being planted in the richer and more fruit- 
full ground of the Garden, than they were found wilde by nature ; but neuer made to 
grow double, as that which is naturally fo found of it felfe : For I will thew you mine 
owne experience in the matter. I haue been as inquititiue as any man might be, with 
euery one I knew, that made any fuch report, or that I thought could fay any thing 
therein, but I neuer could finde any one, that could afluredly refolue me, that he knew 
certainly any fuch thing to be done : all that they could fay was but report, for the ob- 
feruation ot the Moone, to remoue plants before the change, that is, as fome fay, the 
full of the Moone, others the new Moone, whereupon I haue made tryall at many 
times, and in many forts of plants, accordingly, and as I thought fit, by planting & tran- 
fplanting them, but I could neuer fee the effect defired, but rather in many of them the 
lotfe of my plants. And were there indeed fuch a certaine art, to make fingle flowers 
to grow double, it would haue beene knowne certainly to fome that would practife it, 
and there are fo many lingle flowers, whereof there were neuer any of the kinde feene 
double, that to produce fuch of them to be double, would procure both credit and 
coyne enough to him that tliould vfe it ; but Vltra po/e non c/l ej/'c : and therefore let no 
man beleeue any fuch reports, bee they neuer fo ancient ; for they are but meere tales 
and fables. Concerning colours and fents, the many rules and directions extant in ma- 
nie mens writings, to caufe flowers to grow yellow, red, greene, or white, that neuer 
were fo naturally, as alfo to be of the fent of Cinamon, Muske, &cc. would almott per- 
fwade any, that the matters thus fet downe by fuch perfons, and with fome thew of 
probability, were conftant and allured proofes thereof : but when they come to the 
triall, they all vanilh away like fmoake. I will in a few words thew you the matters and 
manners of their proceedings to effect this purpofe : Firft (they fay) if you thall tteepe 


24 The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 

your feedes in the lees of red Wine, you (hall haue the flowers of thofe plants to be of 
a purple colour. If you will haue Lillies or Gilloflowers to be of a Scarlet red colour, 
you mall put Vermillion or Cynaber betweene the rinde and the fmall heads growing 
about the roote : if you will haue them blew, you (hall diflblue Azur or Byfe between 
the rinde and the heads : if yellow, Orpiment : if greene, Vardigreafe, and thus of 
any other colour. Others doe aduife to open the head of the roote, and poure into it 
any colour diflblued, fo that there be no fretting or corroding thing therein for feare 
of hurting the roote, and looke what colour you put in, iuft fuch or neare vnto it fhall 
the colour of the flower bee. Some againe doe aduife to water the plants you would 
haue changed, with fuch coloured liquor as you defire the flower to be of, and they 
fliall grow to be fo. Alfo to make Rofes to bee yellow, that you mould graft a white 
Rofe (fome fay a Damaske) vpon a Broome ftalke, and the flower will be yellow, fup- 
poling becaufe the Broome flower is yellow, therefore the Rofe will be yellow. Some 
affirme the like, if a Rofe be grafted on a Barbery bufli, becaufe both the bloflome and 
the barke of the Barbery is yellow, &c. In the like manner for fents, they haue fet 
downe in their writings, that by putting Cloues, Muske, Cinamon, Benzoin, or any 
other fuch fweete thing, bruifed with Rofe water, betweene the barke and the body of 
trees, the fruit of them will fmell and tafte of the fame that is put vnto them ; and if 
they bee put vnto the toppe of the rootes, or elfe bound vnto the head of the roote, 
they will caufe the flowers to fmell of that fent the matter put vnto them is of : as alfo 
to fteep the feeds of Rofes, and other plants in the water of fuch like fweet things, and 
then to fowe them, and water them morning and euening with fuch like liquor, vntill 
they be growne vp ; befides a number of fuch like rules and directions fet downe in 
bookes fo confidently, as if the matters were without all doubt or queftion : when- 
as without all doubt and queftion I will aflure you, that they are all but meere idle 
tales & fancies, without all reafon or truth, or ftiadow of reafon or truth : For fents and 
colours are both fuch qualities as follow the eflence of plants, euen as formes are alfo ; 
and one may as well make any plant to grow of what forme you will, as to make it of 
what fent or colour you will ; and if any man can forme plants at his will and pleafure, 
he can doe as much as God himfelfe that created them. For the things they would 
adde vnto the plants to giue them colour, are all corporeall, or of a bodily fubftance, 
and whatfoeuer mould giue any colour vnto a liuing and growing plant, muft be fpi- 
rituall : for no folide corporeall fubftance can ioyne it felfe with the life and eflence 
of an herbe or tree, and the fpirituall part of the colour thereof is not the fame with 
the bodily fubftance, but is a meere vapour that rifeth from the fubftance, and feedeth 
the plant, whereby it groweth, fo that there is no ground or colour of reafon, that 
a fubftantiall colour mould giue colour to a growing herbe or tree: but for fent 
(which is a meere vapour) you will fay there is more probability. Yet confider alfo, 
that what fweete fent foeuer you binde or put vnto the rootes of herbes or trees, muft 
be either burie.d, or as good as buried in the earth, or barke of the tree, whereby the 
fubftance will in a fmall time corrupt and rot, and before it can ioyne it felfe with the 
life, fpirit, and eflence of the plant, the fent alfo will perim with the fubftance : For no 
heterogeneall things can bee mixed naturally together, as Iron and Clay ; and no other 
thing but homogeneall, can be nourifhment or conuertible into the fubftance of man 
or beaft : And as the ftomach of man or beaft altereth both formes, fents, and colours 
of all digeftible things ; fo whatfoeuer fent or colour is wholfome, and not poyfonfull 
to nature, being receiued into the body of man or beaft, doth neither change the bloud 
or skinne into that colour or fent was receiued : no more doth any colour or fent to 
any plant ; for the plants are onely nourifhed by the moifture they draw naturally vn- 
to them, be it of wine or any other liquor is put vnto them, and not by any corporeal 
fubftance, or heterogeneall vapour or fent, becaufe the earth like vnto the ftomach 
doth foone alter them, before they are conuerted into the nature and fubftance of the 
plant. Now for the laft part I vndertooke to confute, that no man can by art make all 
flowers to fpring at what time of the yeare hee will ; although, as I haue here before 
(hewed, there are flowers for euery moneth of the yeare, yet I hope there is not any 
one, that hath any knowledge in flowers and gardening, but knoweth that the flowers 
that appeare and mew themfelues in the feuerall moneths of the yeare, are not one and 
the fame, and fo made to flower by art ; but that they are feuerall forts of plants, which 


The ordering of the Garden of Pleafure. 2 5 

will flower naturally and conllantly in the fame moneths one yeare, that they vfe to 
doe in another, or with but little alteration, if the ycarcs proue not alike kindly : As 
for example, thofe plants that doe flower in January and February, will by no art or 
induitry of man be caufed to flower in Summer or in Autumne ; and thofc that flower 
in Aprill and May, will not flower in January or February ; or thofc in luly, Auguft, 
&c. either in the Winter or Spring: but euery one knoweth their owne appointed na- 
turall times, which they conllantly obferue and keepc, according to the temperature 
of the yeare, or the temper of the climate, being further North or South, to bring 
them on earlier or later, as it doth with all other fruits, flowers, and growing greenc 
herbes, &c. except that by chance, fome one or other extraordinarily may be hinde- 
red in their due feafon of flowring, and fo giue their flowers out of time, or elfe to 
giue their flowers twice in the yeare, by the fuperaboundance of nourifliment, or the 
mildnefle of the feafon, by moderate mowers of raine, &c. as it fometimes alfo hap- 
peneth with fruits, which chance, as it is feldome, and not conftant, fo we then terme 
it but Lufus naturce : or elfe by forcing them in hot ftoues, which then will perifh, when 
they haue giuen their flowers or fruits. It is not then, as fome haue written, the fow- 
ing of the feedes of Lillies, or any other plants a foote deepe, or halfe a foote deepc, 
or two inches deepe, that will caufe them to be in flower one after another, as they are 
fowne euery moneth of the yeare ; for it were too grofle to thinke, that any man of 
rcafon and iudgement would fo beleeue. Nor is it likewife in the power of any man, 
to make the fame plants to abide a moneth, two, or three, or longer in their beauty of 
flowring, then naturally they vfe to doe ; for I thinke that were no humane art, but a 
fupernaturall worke. For nature (till bendeth and tendeth to perfection, that is, after 
flowring to giue fruit or feede ; nor can it bee hindered in the courfe thereof without 
manifelt danger of deftruftion, euen as it is in all other fruit-bearing creatures, which 
(lay no longer, then their appointed time is natural! vnto them, without apparent 
damage. Some things I grant may be fo ordered in the planting, that according to 
that order and time which is obferued in their planting, they (hall (hew forth their 
faire flowers, and they are Anemones, which will in that manner, that I haue mewed 
in the worke following, flower in feuerall moneths of the yeare ; which thing as it is 
incident to none or very few other plants, and is found out but of late, fo likewife is it 
knowne but vnto a very few. Thus haue I (hewed you the true folution of thefe 
doubts : And although they haue not beene amplified with fuch Philofophicall argu- 
ments and reafons, as one of greater learning might haue done, yet are they truely and 
fincerely fet downe, that they may ferue tanquam galeatum, againft all the calumnies 
and objections of wilfull and obdurate perfons, that will not be reformed. As firft, 
that all double flowers were fo found wilde, being the worke of nature alone, and not 
the art of any man, by planting or tranfplanting, at or before the new or full Moone, 
or any other obferuation of time, that hath caufed the flower to grow double, that na- 
turally was (ingle : Secondly, that the rules and directions, to caufe flowers to bee of 
contrary or different colours or fents, from that they were or would be naturally, are 
meere fancies of men, without any ground of reafon or truth. And thirdly, that there 
is no power or art in man, to caufe flowers to (hew their beauty diuers moneths before 
their naturall time, nor to abide in their beauty longer then the appointed naturall 
time for euery one of them. 





Corona Imperialis. The Crowne Imperiall. 

Ecaufe the Lilly is the more ftately flower among ma- 
nic : and amongft the wonderfull varietie of Lillies, 
knowne to vs in thefe daies, much more then in former 
times, whereof fome are white, others blufh, fome pur- 
ple, others red or yellow, fome fpotted, others with- 
out fpots, fome ftanding vpright, others hanging or 
turning downewards, The Crowne Imperiall for his 
(lately beautifulnefs, deferueth the firft place in this our 
Garden of delight, to be here entreated of before all o- 
ther Lillies ; but becaufe it is fo well knowne to moft 
perfons, being in a manner euery where common, I mail 
neede onely to giue you a relation of the chiefe parts 

thereof (as I intend in fuch other things) which are thefe : The roote is yellowifh on 
the outfide, compofed of fewer, but much thicker fcales, then any other Lilly but the 
Perfian, and doth grow fometimes to be as great as a pretty bigge childes head, but 
fomewhat flat withall, from the fides whereof, and not from the bottome, it fhooteth 
forth thicke long fibres, which perifh euery yeare, hauing a hole in the midft thereof, 
at the end of the yeare, when the old ftalke is dry and withered, and out of the which 
a new ftalke doth fpring againe (from a bud or head to be feen within the hollownefle 
on the one fide) the yeare following : the ftalke then filling vp the hollownefle, rifeth 
vp three or foure foote high, being great, round, and of a purplifh colour at the bot- 
tome, but greene aboue, befet from thence to the middle thereof with many long and 
broad greene leaues, very like to the leaues of our ordinary white Lilly, but fomewhat 
fhorter and narrower, confufedly without order, and from the middle is bare or na- 
ked without leaues, for a certaine fpace vpwards, and then beareth foure, fixe, or tenne 
flowers, more or lefle, according to the age of the plant, and the fertility of the foyle 
where it groweth : The buddes at the firft appearing are whitifh, ftanding vpright a- 
mong a bufh or tuft of greene leaues, fmaller then thofe below, and ftanding aboue 
the flowers, after a while they turne themselues, and hang downewards euerie 
one vpon his owne footeftalke, round about the great ftemme or ftalke, fometimes of 
an euen depth, and other while one lower or higher than another, which flowers are 
neare the forme of an ordinary Lilly, yet fomewhat lefler and clofer, confifting of 
fixe leaues of an Orange colour, ftriped with purplifh lines and veines, which adde 
a great grace to the flowers ; At the bottome of the flower next vnto the ftalke, euery 


28 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

leafe-jthereof hath on the outfide a certaine bunch or eminence, of a darke purplifh co- 
lour, and on the infide there lyeth in thofe hollow bunched places, certaine cleare 
drops of water like vnto pearles, of a very fvveete tafte almoft like fugar : in the midft 
of each flower is a long white ftile or pointell, forked or diuided at the end, and fixe 
white chiues tipt with yellowifh pendents, ftanding clofe about it : after the flowers 
are paft, appeare fixe fquare feede veflels ftanding vpright, winged as it were or welted 
on the edges, yet feeming but three fquare, becaufe each couple of thofe welted edges 
are ioyned clofer together, wherein are contained broad, flat, and thinne feedes, of a 
pale brownifh colour, like vnto other Lillies, but much greater and thicker alfo. The 
ftalke of this plant doth oftentimes grow flat, two, three, or foure fingers broad, and 
then beareth many more flowers, but for the moft part fmaller then when it beareth 
round ftalkes. And fometimes it happeneth the ftalke to be diuided at the top, carry- 
ing two or three tufts of greene leaues, without any flowers on them. And fometimes 
likewife, to beare two or three rowes or crownes of flowers one aboue another vpon 
one ftalke, which is feldome and fcarce feene, and befides, is but meere accidentall : 
the whole plant and euery part thereof, as well rootes, as leaues and flowers, doe fmell 
fomewhat ftrong as it were the fauour of a Foxe, fo that if any doe but come neare it, 
he cannot but fmell it, which yet is not vnwholfome. 

I haue not obferued any variety in the colour of this flower, more then that it will 
be fairer in a cleare open ayre, and paler, or as it were blafted in a muddy or fmoakie 
ayre. And although fome haue boafted of one with white flowers, yet I could neuer 
heare that any fuch hath endured in one vniforme colour. 

The Place. 

This plant was firft brought from Conftantinople into thefe Chriftian 
Countries, and by the relation of fome that fent it, groweth naturally in 

The Time. 

It flowereth moft commonly in the end of March, if the weather be milde, 
and fpringeth not out of the ground vntill the end of February, or begin- 
ning of March, fo quicke it is in the fpringing : the heads with feed are ripe 
in the end of May. 

The Names. 

It is of fome called Lilium Perficum, the Perfian Lilly : but becaufe wee 
haue another, which is more vfually called by that name, as mall be (hewed 
in the next Chapter, I had rather with Alphonfus Pancius the Duke of Flo- 
rence his Phyfitian, (who firft fent the figure thereof vnto M fr . lohn de 
Brancion) call it Corona Imperialis, the Crowne Imperiall, then by any o- 
ther name, as alfo for that this name is now more generally receiued. It 
hath been fent alfo by the name 1'ufai, and Tufchai, and Turfani, or Tur- 
fanda^ being, as it is like, the Turkifh names. 

The Vertues. 

For any Phyficall Vertues that are in it, I know of none, nor haue heard that 
any hath been found out : notwithftanding the ftrong fent would perfwade 
it might be applyed to good purpofe. 

Lilium Perjicum. The Perfian Lilly. 

THe roote of the Perfian Lilly is very like vnto the root of the Crowne Imperi- 
all, and lofing his fibres in like maner euery yeare, hauing a hole therin likewife 
where the old ftalke grew, but whiter, rounder, and a little longer, fmaller, and 
not (linking at all like it, from whence fpringeth vp a round whitifh greene ftalke, not 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

i Corona ImprriaJis. The Crown Imperial!. 2 Lilium Perfuum. The Perfian Lilly. 
3 Marlagon ImpcriaU. The Martagon Imperiall. 


30 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

much lower than the Crowne Imperial!, but much fmaller, befet from the bottome to 
the middle thereof, with many long and narrow leaues, of a whitifh or blewifh greene 
colour, almoft like to the leafe of a Tulipa : from the middle vpwards, to the toppe of 
the ftalke, ftand many flowers one aboue another round about it, with leaues at the 
foote of euery one of them, each whereof is pendulous or hanging downe the head, 
like vnto the Crowne Imperiall, and not turning vp any of the flowers againe, but 
fmaller than in any other kinde of Lilly, yea not fo bigge as the flower of a Fritillaria, 
confiding of fixe leaues a peece, of a dead or ouerworne purplifh colour, hauing in the 
midft a fmall long pointell, with certaine chiues tipt with yellow pendents : after the 
flowers are paft (which abide open a long time, and for the moft part flower by de- 
grees, the loweft firft, and fo vpwards) if the weather be temperate, come fixe fquare 
heads or feede veflels, feeming to be but three fquare, by reafon of the wings, very like 
to the heads of the Crowne Imperiall, but fmaller and fhorter, wherein are contained 
fuch like flat feed, but fmaller alfo, and of a darker colour. 

The Place. 

This was, as it is thought, firft brought from Perfia vnto Conftantinople, 
and from thence, fent vnto vs by the meanes of diuers Turkic Merchants, 
and in efpeciall, by the procurement of M r . Nicholas Lete, a worthy Mer- 
chant, and a louer of all faire flowers. 

The Time. 

It fpringeth out of the ground very neare a moneth before the Crowne 
Imperiall, but doth not flower till it bee quite paft (that is to fay) not vntill 
the latter end of Aprill, or beginning of May : the feed (when it doth come 
to perfection, as it feldome doth) is not ripe vntill luly. 

The Names. 

It hath been fent by the name of Pennachio Perjiano, and wee thereupon 
doe moft vfually call it Lilium Perjicum, The Perfian Lilly. Clufius faith it 
hath been fent into the Low Countries vnder the name of Sufam giul, and 
he thereupon thinking it came from Sufis in Perfia, called it Lilium Sufta- 
num, The Lilly of Sufis. 

The Vertues. 

Wee haue not yet heard, that this hath beene applyed for any Phyficall 


Martagon Imperiale , Jiue Lilium Montanum mains, 
The Martagon Imperiall. 

VNder this title of Lilium Montanum, or Lilium Silueftre, I do comprehend only 
thofe kindes of Lillies, which carry diuers circles of greene leaues fet together 
at certaine diftances, round about the ftalke, and not fparfedly as the two for- 
mer, and as other kindes that follow, doe. And although there bee many of this fort, 
yet becaufe their chiefeft difference is in the colour of the flower, wee will containe 
them all in one Chapter, and begin with the moft ftately of them all, becaufe of the 
number of flowers it beareth vpon one ftalke. The Imperiall Lilly hath a fcaly roote, 
like vnto all the reft of the Lillies, but of a paler yellow colour, clofely compact or fet 
together, being fhort and fmall oftentimes, in comparifon of the greatnefle of the 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 3 i 

ftemme growing from it. The ftalke is brownilh and round at the bottome, and fome- 
timcs flat from the middle vpwards, three foote high or more, befet at certaine diftan- 
ces with rondles or circles of many broad leaues, larger and broader lor the molt part 
than any other of this kinde, and of a darke green colour : It hath two or three, and 
fometimes foure ot thefe rondles or circles of leaues, and bare without any leafe bc- 
tweene ; but aboue toward the tops of the ftalkes, it hath here and there fome leaues 
vpon it, but f mailer than any of the other leaues : at the toppe of the ftalke come forth 
many flowers, fometime three or foure fcore, thicke thruft, or confufedly fet together, 
and not thinne or fparfedly one aboue another, as in the lelTer of this kinde of Moun- 
taine Lilly. It hath been fometimes alfo obferued in this kinde, that it hath borne ma- 
nie flowers at three feuerall fpaces of the ftalke, one aboue another, which hath made 
a goodly Ihew ; each flower whereof is pendulous, hanging downe, and each leafe of 
the flower turning vp againe, being thicke or flefhy, of a fine delayed purple colour, 
fpotted with many blackilh or brownifh fpots, of a very pleasant fweet fent, which ma- 
keth it the more acceptable : in the middle of the flower hangeth downe a ftile or 
pointell, knobbed or buttoned at the end with lixe yellow chiues, tipt with loofe pen- 
dents of an Orient red or Vermillion colour, which will ealily fticke like duft vpon 
any thing that toucheth them : the heads or feede veflels are fmall and round, with 
fmall edges about them, wherein is contained flat browne feede like other Lillies, but 
lefler. This root is very apt to encreafe or fet of, as we call it, wherby the plant feldome 
commeth to fo great a head of flowers, but rifeth vp with many ftalkes, and then carry 
fewer flowers. 

Of this kinde there is fometimes one found, that beareth flowers without any fpots : Martagon 
the leaues whereof and ftalke likewife are paler, but not elfe differing. Impenak 

Jure non pun 

Martagon Jiore albo. The White Martagon. 

We haue alfo fome other of this kind, the firft wherof hath his ftalke & leafe greener 
than the former, the ftalke is a little higher, but not bearing fo thicke a head of flowers, 
although much more plentifull than the lefler Mountaine Lilly, being altogether of a 
fine white colour, without any fpots, or but very few, and that but fometimes alfo : the 
pendents in the middle of this flower are not red, as the former, but yellow ; the roote 
of this, and of the other two that follow, are of a pale yellow colour, the cloues or 
fcales of them being brittle, and not clofely compact, yet fo as if two, and fometimes 
three fcales or cloues grew one vpon the head or vpperpart of another; which diffe- 
rence is a fpeciall note to know thefe three kindes, from any other kinde of Mountaine 
Lilly, as in all old rootes that I haue feene, I haue obferued, as alfo in them that are rea- 
fonably well growne, but in the young rootes it is not yet fo manifeft. 

Martagon //ore albo maculato. The White fpotted Martagon. 

The fecond is like vnto the firft in all things, faue in this, that the flowers hereof are 
not altogether fo white, and beiides hath many reddilh fpots on the infide of the leaues 
of the flower, and the ftalke alfo is not fo greene but brownilh. 

Martagon fore carneo. The blufh Martagon. 

A third fort there is of this kinde, whofe flowers are wholly of a delayed flefh co- 
lour, with many fpots on the flowers, and this is the difference hereof from the former. 

Li/ium Montanum Jiue Jiluejtre minus. The lefler Mountaine Lilly. 

The lefler Mountaine Lilly is fo like in root vnto the greater that is firft defcribed, 
that it is hard to diftinguifh them afunder ; but when this is fprungvp out of the ground, 
which is a moneth after the firft : it alfo carrieth his leaues in rondles about the ftalke, 
although not altogether fo great nor fo many. The flowers are more thinly fet on the 
ftalkes one aboue another, with more diftance betweene each flower than the former, 
and are of a little deeper flefh colour or purple, fpotted in the fame manner. The buds 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

i Martagon flore albo. The white Martagon. 2 M artagon flue Lilium Caiiadotfe maculatum. The fpotted 
Martagon, or Lilly of Canada. 3 Martagon Pomponeum. The Martagon Pompony, or early red Martagon. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 33 

or heads of flowers, in fome of thefe before they be blowne, are hoary white, or 
hairie, whereas in others, there is no hoarineflc at all, but the buddes are fmooth 
and purplilh : in other things this differeth not from the former. 

Of this fort allb there is one that hath but few fpots on the flowers, whofe colour isL/'A** Mm- 

fomcwhat paler than the other. '*"** *" 


Martagon Ciimi,lc/i/'e niitcuttituw. The fpotted Martagon of Canada. 

Although this (Grange Lilly hath not his flowers hanging downe, and turning vp a- 
gain, as the former kinds fet forth in this Chapter ; yet becaufe the green leaues Itand at 
feuerall ioynts as they do, I mult needs infert it here, not knowing where more fitly to 
place it. It hath a fmall fcaly roote, with many fmall long fibres thereat, from whence 
rifeth vp a reafonable great Italke, almolt as high as any of the former, bearing at three 
or foure diltances many long and narrow greene leaues, but not fo many or fo broad 
as the former, with diuers ribbes in them : from among the vppermoft rundle of leaues 
breake forth foure or fiue flowers together, euery one Itanding on a long (lender foote 
Italke, being almolt as large as a red Lilly, but a little bending downewards, and of a 
faire yellow colour, (potted on the infide with diuers blackifh purple fpots or ftrakes, 
hauing a middle pointell, and fixe chiues, with pendents on them. 

The Place. 

All thefe Lillies haue been found in the diuers Countries of Germany, as 
Aultria, Hungaria, Pannonia, Stiria, &c. and are all made Denifons in our 
London Gardens, where they flourifh as in their owne naturall places. The 
lalt was brought into France from Canada by the French Colonie, and 
from thence vnto vs. 

The Time. 

They flower about the later end of lune for the moft part, yet the firft 
fpringeth out of the ground a moneth at the leaft before the other, which 
are molt vfually in flower before it, like vnto the Serotine Tulipas, all of 
them being early vp, and neuer the neere. 

The Names. 

The firft is vfually called Martagon Imperiale, the Imperiall Martagon, 
and is Lilium Montanum maius, the greateft Mountaine Lilly ; for fo it defer- 
ueth the name, becaufe of the number of flowers vpon a head or (talke. 
Some haue called it Lilium Sarafenicum, and fome Hemerocallis, but neither 
of them doth fo fitly agree vnto it. 

The fecond is Lilium Montanum maius Jiore a/6o, and of fome Martagon 
Imperial? fore albo, but molt vfually Martagon Jiore a/bo, the white Marta- 
gon. The fecond fort of this fecond kinde, is called Martagon Jiore albo ma- 
cu/ato, the fpotted white Martagon. And the third, Martagon fore carneo, 
the blufh Martagon. 

The third kinde is called Lilium Montanum, the Mountaine Lilly, and 
fome adde the title minus , the lefler, to know it more diftinftly from the o- 
ther. Some alfo Lilium Silucftre, as Clufius, and fome others, and of Mat- 
thiolus Martagon. Of diuers women here in England, from the Dutch name, 
Lilly of Nazareth. The lalt hath his title Amcricanum & Canadenfe, and in 
Englilh accordingly. 


34 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


i . Martagon Pomponeum fiue Lilium rubrum prcecox, vel Lilium Macedomcum. 
The early red Martagon, or Martagon Pompony. 


LS in the former Chapter we defcribed vnto you fuch Lillies, whofe flowers be- 
ing pendulous, turne their leaues backe againe, and haue their greene leaues, 
fet by fpaces about the ftalke : fo in this wee will fet downe thofe forts, which 
carry their greene leaues more fparfedly, and all along the ftalke, their flowers hang- 
ing downe, and turning vp againe as the former, and begin with that which is of grea- 
teft beauty, or at leaft of molt rarity. 

i. Martagon i. This rare Martagon hath a fcaly root clofely compact, with broader and thinner 
Pomponeum f ca i es than others, in time growing very great, and of a more deepe yellow colour 
then the former, from whence doth fpring vp a round greene ftalke in fome plants, and 
flat in others, two or three foote high, bearing a number of fmall, long, and narrow 
greene leaues, very like vnto the leaues of Pinkes, but greener, fet very thicke together, 
and without order about the ftalke, vp almoft vnto the toppe, and lefler by degrees 
vpwards, where ftand many flowers, according to the age of the plant, and thriuing in 
the place where it groweth ; in thofe that are young, but a few, and more fparfedly, 
and in others that are old many more, and thicker fet : for I haue reckoned threefcore 
flowers and more, growing thicke together on one plant with mee, and an hundred 
flowers on another : thefe flowers are of a pale or yellowifh red colour, and not fo 
deep red as the red Martagon of Conftantinople, hereafter fet down, nor fully fo large : 
yet of the fame fafhion, that is, euery flower hanging downe, and turning vp his leaues 
againe. It is not fo plentifull in bearing of feede as the other Lillies, but when it doth, 
it differeth not but in being leffe. 
Martagon There is another, whofe greene leaues are not fo thicke fet on the ftalke, but elfe 

differeth not but in flowring a fortnight later. 
num. There is another alfo of this kind, fo like vnto the former in root, ftalk, flower, & ma- 

3. Martagon ner o f growing, that the difference is hardly difcerned ; but confifteth chiefly in thefe 
latifoRum />/vtf-two points : Firft, that the leaues of this are a little broader and fhorter then the former ; 
cox. and fecondly, that it beareth his flowers a fortnight earlier than the firft. In the colour 

or forme of the flower, there can no difference bee difcerned, nor (as I faid) in any o- 
ther thing. All thefe Lillies doe fpring very late out of the ground, euen as the yellow 
Martagons doe, but are fooner in flower then any others. 

4. Martagon A fourth kinde hereof hath of late been knowne to vs, whofe leaues are broader and 
flon phaeniceo. fa orier fam the laft, and the flowers of a paler red, tending to yellow, of fome cal- 
led a golden red colour : but flowreth not fo early as they. 

2. Lilium rubrum Ryzantinum,jiue Martagon Conftantinopolitanum, 
The red Martagon of Conftantinople. 

i . The red Martagon of Conftantinople is become fo common euery where, and fo 
well knowne to all louers of thefe delights, that I (hall feeme vnto them to lofe time, 
to beftow many lines vpon it ; yet becaufe it is fo faire a flower, and was at the firft fo 
highly efteemed, it deferueth his place and commendations, howfoeuer encreafing 
the plenty hath not made it dainty. It rifeth out of the ground early in the fpring, be- 
fore many other Lillies, from a great thicke yellow fcaly root, bearing a round brow- 
nifh ftalke, befet with many faire greene leaues confufedly thereon, but not fo broad 
as the common white Lilly, vpon the toppe whereof ftand one, two, or three, or more 
flowers, vpon long footeftalkes, which hang downe their heads, and turne vp their 
leaues againe, of an excellent red crimfon colour, and fometimes paler, hauing a long 
pointell in the middle, compaffed with fixe whitim chiues, tipt with loofe yellow 
pendents, of a reafonable good fent, but fomewhat faint. It likewife beareth feede in 
heads, like vnto the other, but greater. 

2. Martagon 

The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Martagoti Conftftntfaopotttehum macuLiinm. 
The red fpotted Martagon of Conftantinople. 

We haue another of this kinde, that groweth fomewhat greater and higher, with a 
larger flower, and of a deeper colour, fpotted with diuers blacke fpots, or ftrakes and 
lines, as is to be feene in the Mountaine Lillies, and in fome other hereafter to be de- 
fcribed; but is not fo in the former of this kinde, which hath no (hew of fpots at all. 
The whole plant as it is rare, fo it is of much more beauty than the former. 

2. Martagon Pannwicttm, /iue Exoticum Jiore fpadiceo. 
The bright red Martagon of Hungaric. 

Although this Martagon or Lilly bee of another Countrey, yet by reafon of the 
neerenefle both in leafe and flower vnto the former, may more fitly be placed next vn- 
to them, then in any other place. It hath his roote very like the other, but the leaucs 
are fomewhat larger, and more fparfedly fet vpon the ftalke, elfe not much vnlike : 
the flowers bend downe, and turne vp their leaues againe, but fomewhat larger, and 
of a bright red, tending to an Orenge colour, that is, fomewhat yellowilh, and not 
crimfon, like the other. 

3. Martagon Luteum punftatum. The Yellow fpotted Martagon. 

i . This Yellow Martagon hath a great fcaly or cloued roote, and yellow, like vnto 
all thefe forts of turning Lillies, from whence springeth vp a round greene ftrong 
ftalke, three foote high at the leaft, confufedly fet with narrow long greene leaues, 
white on the edges vp to the very toppe thereof almoft, hauing diuers flowers on the 
head, turning vp againe as the former doe, of a faint yellowifh, or greenifh yellow co- 
lour, with many blacke fpots or ftrakes about the middle of the leafe of euery flower, 
and a forked pointell, with fixe chiues about it, tipt with reddilh pendents, or a heauie 
ftrong fmell, not very pleafant to many. It beareth feede very plentifully, in great 
heads, like vnto the other former Lillies, but a little paler. 

2. Martagon Luteum non maculatum. The Yellow Martagon without fpots. 

The other yellow Martagon differeth in no other thing from the former, but onely 
that it hath no fpots at all vpon any of the leaues of the flowers ; agreeing with the for- 
mer, in colour, forme, height, and all things elfe. 

3. Martagon Luteum ferotinum. The late flowring Yellow Martagon. 

There is yet another yellow Martagon, that hath no other difference then the time 
of his flowring, which is not vntill luly, vnlefle in this, that the flower is of a deeper 
yellow colour. 

The Place. 

The knowledge of the firft kindes of thefe early Martagons hath come 
from Italy, from whence they haue bin lent into the Low-Countries, and to 
vs, and, as it feemeth by the name, whereby they haue bin fent by fome into 
thefe parts, his originall (hould be from the mountaines in Macedonia. 

The fecond fort is fufficiently knowne by his name, being firft brought 
from Conftantinople, his naturall place being not farre from thence, as it 
is likely. But the next fort of this fecond kinde, doth plainly tell vs his 
place of birth to be the mountaines of Pannonia or Hungarie. 

The third kindes grow on the Pyrensean mountaines, where they haue 
been fearched out, and found by diuers louers of plants, as alfo in the King- 
dome of Naples. 


36 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Time. 

The firft early Martagons flower in the end of May, or beginning of 
lune, and that is a moneth at the leaft before thofe that come from Con- 
rtantinople, which is the fecond kinde. The two firft yellow Martagons 
flower fomewhat more early, then the early red Martagons, and fometimes 
at the fame time with them. But the third yellow Martagon, as is faid, flow- 
reth a moneth later or more, and is in flower when the red Martagon of 
Conftantinople flowreth. And although the early red and yellow Marta- 
gons, fpring later then the other Martagons or Lillies, yet they are in flower 
before them. 

The Names. 

The firft early red Lillies or Martagons haue beene fent vnto vs by feue- 
rall names, as Martagon Pomponeum, and thereafter are called Martagon of 
Pompony, and alfo Liliurn or Martagon Macedonicum, the Lilly or Marta- 
gon of Macedonia. They are alfo called by Cluiius Lilium rubrum prcecox, 
the one angustiore folio, the other latiore folio. And the laft of this kinde hath 
the title Jiore phceniceo added or giuen vnto it, that is, the Martagon or Lilly 
of Macedonia with gold red flowers. 

The Martagons of Conftantinople haue beene fent by the Turkifh name 
Zujiniare, and is called Martagon, or Lilium Byzantinum by fome, and He- 
merocallis Chalcedonica by others ; but by the name of the Martagon of Con- 
ftantinople they are moft commonly receiued with vs, with the distinction 
ofmaculatum to the one, to diftinguifh the forts. The laft kinde in this clafsis, 
hath his name in his title, as it hath been fent vnto vs. 

The Yellow Martagons are diftinguifhed in their feuerall titles, as much 
as is conuenient for them. 

Lilium Aureum & Lilium Rubrum. The Gold and Red Lillies. 

THere are yet fome other kindes of red Lillies to bee defcribed, which differ 
from all the former, and remaine to be fpoken of in this place. Some of them 
grow high, and fome lowe, fome haue fmall knots, which wee call bulbes, 
growing vpon the ftalkes, at the ioynts of the leaues or flowers, and fome haue none : 
all which fhall be intreated of in their feuerall orders. 

Lilium pumilum cruentum. The dwarfe red Lilly. 

The dwarfe red Lilly hath a fcaly roote, fomewhat like vnto other Lillies, but 
white, and not yellow at all, and the cloues or fcales thicker, fhorter, and fewer in 
number, then in moft of the former : the ftalke hereof is not aboue a foote and a halfe 
high, round and greene, fet confufedly with many faire and fhort greene leaues, on the 
toppe of which doe ftand fometimes but a few flowers, and fometimes many, of a faire 
purplifh red colour, and a little paler in the middle, euery flower (landing vpright, and 
not hanging downe, as in the former, on the leaues whereof here and there are fome 
blacke fpots, lines or markes, and in the middle of the flower a long pointell, with 
fome chiues about it, as is in the reft of thefe Lillies. 

Lilium rubrum This kinde is fometimes found to yeeld double flowers, as if all the fingle flowers 
multipart fare, fhould grow into one, and fo make it confift of many leaues, which notwithftanding 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


i MartagoH rvbrum fiut lulrum. The red or the yellow Martagon. 2 Lilium Bulbijertim. The red bul- 
bed Lilly. 3 Lilium annum. The gold red Lilly. 4 LiUtm album. The white Lilly. 

38 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

his fo continuing fundry yeares, vpon tranfplanting, will redire ad ingenium, that is, 
quickly come againe to his old byas or forme. 

Lilium Aureum. The Gold red Lilly. 

The fecond red Lilly without bulbes groweth much higher then the firft, and al- 
moft as high as any other Lilly : the roote hereof is white and fcaly, the leaues are 
fomewhat longer, and of a darke or fad greene colour; the flowers are many and 
large, (landing vpright as all thefe forts of red Lillies doe, of a paler red colour ten- 
ding to an Orenge on the infide, with many blacke fpots and lines on them, as in the 
former, and more yellow on the outfide: the feede veflels are like vnto the roundifh 
heads of other Lillies, and fo are the feedes in them likewife. 

I . Lilium minus bulbiferum. The dwarfe bulbed Lilly. 

The firft of the Lillies that carrieth bulbes on the ftalke, hath a white fcaly roote 
like the former ; from whence rifeth vp a fmall round ftalke, not much higher then 
the firft dwarfe Lilly, feeming to be edged, hauing many leaues thereon of a fad green 
colour fet about it, clofe thruft together : the greene heads for flowers, will haue a kind 
of woollinefTe on them, before the flowers begin to open, and betweene thefe heads 
of flowers, as alfo vnder them, and among the vppermoft leaues, appeare fmall bulbes 
or heads, which being ripe if they be put into the ground, or if they fall of themfelues, 
will fhoote forth leaues, and beare flowers within two or three yeares like the mother 
plant, and fo will the bulbes of the other hereafter defcribed: the flowers of this 
Lilly are of a faire gold yellow colour, fhadowed ouer with a (hew of purple, but not 
fo red as the firft, or the next to bee defcribed. This Lilly will fhoote firings vnder 
ground, like as the laft red Lilly will doe alfo, whereat will grow white bulbed roots, 
like the rootes of the mother plant, thereby quickly encreafing it felfe. 

12. Lilium Cruentum bulbiferum. The Fierie red bulbed Lilly. 
The fecond bulbed Lilly rifeth vp with his ftalke as high as any of thefe Lillies, 
carrying many long and narrow darke greene leaues about it, and at the toppe many 
faire red flowers, as large or larger then any of the former, and of a deeper red colour, 
with fpots on them likewife, hauing greater bulbes growing about the toppe of the 
ftalke and among the flowers, then any elfe. 

Lilium Crue ntumflore pleno. The Fierie red double Lilly. 

The difference of this doth chiefly conlift in the flower, which is compofed ofma- 
nie leaues, as if many flowers went to make one, fpotted with black fpots, and without 
any bulbes when it thus beareth, which is but accidentall, as the former double Lilly 
is (aid to be. 

3. Lilium maius bulbiferum. The greater bulbed red Lilly. 

The third red Lilly with bulbes, rifeth vp almoft as high as the laft, and is the moft 
common kinde we haue bearing bulbes. It hath many leaues about the ftalke, but not 
of fo fad a greene colour as the former : the flowers are of as pale a reddifh yellow co- 
lour as any of the former, and comming neereft vnto the colour of the Gold red Lilly. 
This is more plentifull in bulbes, and in (hooting firings, to encreafe rootes vnder 
ground, then the others. 

The Place. 

Thefe Lillies doe all grow in Gardens, but their naturall places of grow- 
ing is the Mountaines and the Vallies neere them in Italy, as Matthiolus 


77/f Garden of p leaf ant F/oivers. 

laith : and in many Countries of Germany, as Hungarie, Aullria, Stiria, 
and Bohemia, as Clulius and other doe report. 

The Time. 

They flower for the moft part in lune, yet the firft of thefe is the earlielt 
of all the relh 

The Names. 

All thefe Lillies are called Lilia Rubra, Red Lillies : Some call them 
Lilitim Aurcum, Lilium Pitrpnrcum, Lilium Puniceum, & Lilium Crucntum. 
Some alfo call them Martagon Chimiftartim. Clulius calleth thefe bulbed 
Lillies Miirttig')ii Bulbiferum. It is thought to be Hyacitithus Poctarum, but I 
referre the difcufling thereof to a fitter time. Wee haue, to diftinguifh them 
molt fitly (as I take it) giuen their proper names in their feucrall titles. 


Lilium Album. The White Lilly. 

NOw remaineth onely the White Lilly, of all the whole family or rtocke of the 
Lillies, to bee fpoken of, which is of two forts. The one is our common or 
vulgar White Lilly ; and the other, that which was brought from Conftanti- 

Lilium Album vu/gare. The ordinary White Lilly. 

The ordinary White Lilly fcarce needeth any defcription, it is fo well knowne, 
and fo frequent in euery Garden ; but to fay fomewhat thereof, as I vfe to doe of euery 
thing, be it neuer fo common and knowne ; it hath a cloued or fcaly roote, yellower 
and bigger then any of the red Lillies : the ftalke is of a blackifh greene colour, and 
rileth as high as mort ot the Lillies, hauing many faire, broad, and long greene leaues 
thereon, larger and longer beneath, and fmaller vpon the ftalke vpwards ; the flowers 
are many or few, according to the age of the plant, fertility of the foile, and time of 
ftanding where it groweth : and Hand vpon long greene footftalkes, of a faire white 
colour, with a long pointell in the middle, and white chiues tipt with yellow pendents 
about it ; the fmell is fomewhat heady and ftrong. 

Lilium Album Byzantinum. The White Lilly of Constantinople. 

The other White Lilly, differeth but little from the former White Lilly, either in 
roote, leafe, or flower, but only that this vfually groweth with more number of flow- 
ers, then euer we faw in our ordinary White Lilly : for I haue feene the ftalke of this 
Lilly turne flat, ot the breadth of an hand, bearing neere two hundred flowers vpon a 
head, yet molt commonly it beareth not aboue a dozen, or twenty flowers, but fmal- 
ler then the ordinary, as the greene leaues are likewife. 

The Place. 

The firtt groweth onely in Gardens, and hath not beene declared where 
it is found wilde, by any that I can heare of. The other hath beene lent from 
Constantinople, among other rootes, and therefore is likely to grow in 
fome parts neere thereunto. 

The Time. 

They flower in lune or thereabouts, but ftioote forth greene leaues in 


4-Q The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Autumne, which abide greene all the Winter, the ftalke fpringing vp be- 
tweene the lower leaues in the Spring. 

The Names. 

It is called Lilium Album, the White Lilly, by moft Writers; but by Po- 
ets Rofa lutionis, luno's Rofe. The other hath his name in his title. 

The Vertues. 

This Lilly aboue all the reft, yea, and I thinke this onely, and none of 
the reft is vfed in medicines now adayes, although in former times Empe- 
ricks vfed the red ; and therefore I haue fpoken nothing of them in the end 
, of their Chapters, referuing what is to be faid in this. This hath a mollify- 
ing, digefting, and cleanfing quality, helping to fuppurate tumours, and to 
digeft them, for which purpofe the roote is much vfed. The water of the 
flowers diftilled, is of excellent vertue for women in trauell of childe bea- 
ring, to procure an eafie deliuery, as Matthiolus and Camerarius report. It 
is vfed alfo of diuers women outwardly, for their faces to cleanfe the skin, 
and make it white and frefh. Diues other properties there are in thefe 
Lillies, which my purpofe is not to declare in this place. Nor is it the fcope 
of this worke ; this that hath been faid is fufficient : for were it not, that I 
would giue you fome tafte of the qualities of plants (as I faid in rny Preface) 
as I goe along with them, a generall worke were fitter to declare them 
then this. 

Fritillaria. The checkerd Daffodill. 

ALthough diuers learned men do by the name giuen vnto this delightfull plant, 
thinke it doth in fome things partake with a Tulipa or Daffodill, and haue 
therefore placed it betweene them ; yet I, finding it moft like vnto a little Lilly, 
both in roote, ftalke, leafe, flower, and feede, haue (as you fee here) placed it next 
vnto the Lillies, and before them. Hereof there are many forts found out of late, as 
white, red, blacke, and yellow, belides the purple, which was firft knowne ; and of 
each of them there are alfo diuers forts : and firft of that which is moft frequent, and 
then of the reft, euery one in his place and order. 


i . Frillaria vulgaris. The common checkerd Daffodill. 

The ordinary checkerd Daffodill (as it is vfually called, but might more properly 
be called the fmall checkerd Lilly) hath a fmall round white roote, and fomewhat 
flat, made as it were of two cloues, and diuided in a maner into two parts, yet ioyning 
together at the bottome or feate of the roote, which holdeth them both together : 
from betweene this cleft or diuifion, the budde for the ftalke &c. appeareth, which in 
time rifeth vp a foote, or a foote and a halfe high, being round and of a brownifli 
greene colour, efpecially neere vnto the ground, whereon there ftandeth difperfedly 
foure or fiue narrow long and greene leaues, being a little hollow : at the toppe of the 
ftalke, betweene the vpper leaues (which are fmaller then the loweft) the flower fhew- 
eth it felfe, hanging or turning downe the head, but not turning vp againe any of his 
leaues, as fome of the Lillies before defcribed doe ; (fometimes this ftalke beareth 
two flowers, and very feldome three) confifting of fixe leaues, of a reddifh purple co- 
lour, fpotted diuerfly with great fpots, appearing like vnto fquare checkers, of a dee- 
per colour ; the infide of the flower is of a brighter colour then the outfide, which 
hath fome greenneffe at the bottome of euery leafe : within the flower there appeare 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 

I Fritillaria vulgaris. The common Fritillaria. 2 rritillaria flort alrorvbtHtr. The darkc red Fritillaria. 4 Fritillarin 
alba. The white Fritillaria. 7 Fritillarin Sulfa funflala. The yellow checkerd Fritillaria. 8 Fritillaria Intea llaltca. The 
great yellow Italian Fritillaria. 10 Fritillaria lulta Lujltanita. The fmall yellow Fritillaria of Portugal). n Fritillaria 
Pyrrnaa. The blacke Fritillaria. 12 Fritillaria t mMliftra. The Spanilh blacke Fritillaria. 

The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

fixe chiues tipt with yellow pendents, and a three-forked ftile or pointell compaffing a 
greene head, which when the flower is part, rifeth vpright againe, and becommeth 
the feede veffell, being fomewhat long and round, yet hauing a fmall fhew of edges, 
flat at the head, like the head of a Lilly, and without any crowne as the Tulipa hath, 
wherein is contained pale coloured flat feede, like vnto a Lilly, but fmaller. 

Fritillaria vul- There is fome variety to be feene in this flower ; for in fome the colour is paler, and 
pallitKor, \ n others aeaine of a very high or deepe colour : fometimes alfo they haue eight leaues, 

-* fff fe- . i { n i i c 1 

and fometimes ten or twelue, as it two flowers were made one, which tome thereupon 
haue called a Double Fritillaria. Some of them likewife doe flower very early, euen 
with or before the early flowring Tulipas ; and fome againe flower not vntill a moneth 
or- more after the former. 

2. Fritillaria flore atrorubente. The bloud red Fritillaria. 

The roote of this Fritillaria is fomewhat rounder and clofer then the former, from 
whence the ftalke rifeth vp, being fhorter and lower then in any other of thefe kindes, 
hauing one or two leaues thereon, and at the top thereof two or three more fet clofer 
together, which are broader, fhorter, and whiter then any of them before, almoft like 
vnto the leaues of the yellow Fritillaria, from among which toppe leaues commeth 
forth the flower, fomewhat bending downe, or rather ftanding forth, being larger 
then any of the former, and almoft equall in bigneffe vnto the yellow Fritillaria, of a 
duskie gray colour all ouer on the outfide, and of a very darke red colour on the infide, 
diuerfly fpotted or ftraked : this very hardly encreafeth by the roote, and as feldome 
giueth ripe feede, but flowreth with the other firft forts, and before the blacke, and a- 
bideth leffe time in flower then any. 

3. Fritillaria maxima purpureajiue rubra. The great purple or red Fritillaria. 

This great Fritillaria hath his roote equall to the bigneffe of the reft of his parts, 
from whence rifeth vp one, & oftentimes two ftalks, hauing one, two or three flowers 
a peece on them, as nature and the feafons are fitting : euery one of thefe flowers are 
larger and greater then any of the former defcribed, and pendulous as they are, of a 
fad red or purplifh colour, with many thwart lines on them, and fmall long markes, 
which hardly feeme checkerwife, nor are fo eminent or confpicuous as in the former : 
the ftalke is ftrong and high, whereon are fet diuers long whitifh greene leaues, larger 
and broader then thofe of the former. 

4. Fritillaria alba. The white Fritillaria. 

The white Fritillaria is fo like vnto the firft, that I fhall not neede to make another 
defcription of this : it fhall (I hope) be fufficient to fhew the chiefe differences, and fo 
proceed to the reft. The ftalke and leaues of this are wholly greene, whereby it may 
eafily be knowne from the former, which, as is faid, is brownifh at the bottome. The 
flower is white, without almoft any fhew of fpot or marke in it, yet in fome the markes 
are fomewhat more plainly to be feene, and in fome againe there is a fhew of a faint 
kinde of blufh colour to be feene in the flower, efpecially in the infide, the bottomes 
of the leaues of euery flower fometimes are greenilh, hauing alfo a fmall lift of greene, 
comming downe towards the middle of each leafe : the head or feede veffell, as alfo 
the feede and the roote, are fo like vnto the former, that the moft cunning cannot di- 
ftinguifh them. 

5. Fritillaria flore duplicialbicante. The double blufh Fritillaria. 

This Fritillaria hath a round flattifh white roote, very like vnto the laft Fritillaria, 
bearing a ftalke with long greene leaues thereon, little differing from it, or the firft or- 
dinary Fritillaria : the flower is faid to be conftant, compofed of many leaues, being 
ten at the leaft, and moft vfually twelue, of a pale whitifh purple colour, fpotted like 
vnto the paler ordinary Fritillaria that is early, fo that one would verily thinke it were 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

but an accidentall kinde thereof, whereas it is (as is faid before) held to bee conrtant, 
continuing in this manner. 

6. Fritillaria fi>,rc lutco puro. The pure yellow Fritillaria. 

The pure yellow Fritillaria hath a more round, and not fo flat a whitiih roote as the 
former kindes, and ot a meant- hignefle; from the middle rifeth vp a ftalkc a footc and 
a halte high, and Ibmetimcs higher, whereon are fet without order diuers long and 
fomewhat broad leaues of a whitiih greene colour, like vnto the leaues of the blacke 
Fritillaria, but not aboue halfe fo broad : the flower is fomewhat fmall and long, not 
much vnlike to the blacke for fhape and fafhion, but that the leaues are fmallcr and 
rounder pointed, of a faint yellowilh colour, without any (hew of fpots or checkers 
at all, eyther within or without the flower, hauing fome chiues and yellow pendents in 
the middle, as is to be feene in all of them : the feede is like the firft kinde. 

7. Fritillariajiore luteo var/'o fiue punttato. The checkerd yellow Fritillaria. 

This Fritillaria groweth not much lower then the former, and brownifh at the ri- 
ling vp, hauing his leaues whiter, broader, and fhorter then it, and almoft round poin- 
ted. The flower is greater, and larger fpread then any other before, of a faire pale yel- 
low colour, fpotted in very good order, with fine fmall checkers, which adde a won- 
derfull plealing beauty thereunto : it hath alfo fome lifts of greene running downe the 
backe of euery leafe. It feldome giueth feede; the roote alfo is like the other, but not 
fo flat. 

8. Fritillaria lute a maxima Italica. The great yellow Italian Fritillaria. 

This kinde of Fritillaria rifeth vp with a round and browne greene ftalke, whereon 
are fet diuers leaues fomewhat broad and fhort, which compafle the ftalke at the bot- 
tome of them, of a darke greene colour ; at the toppe of the ftalke, which bendeth a 
little downewards, doe moft vfually ftand three or foure leaues, betweene which com- 
meth forth moft vfually but one flower, which is longer then the laft, hanging downe 
the head as all the others doe, confuting of fixe leaues, of a darke yellowifh purple 
colour, fpotted with fome fmall red checkers. This kinde flowreth late, and not vn- 
till all the reft are part. 

9. Fritillaria Italorum polyanthos Jiore parno. The fmall Italian Fritillaria. 

This fmall Italian Fritillaria carrieth more ftore of flowers on the ftalke, but they 
are much f mailer, and of a yellowifh greene colour, fpotted with long and fmall darke 
red checkers or markes : the ftalke hath diuers fmall Ihort greene leaues thereon, vnto 
the very toppe. 

I o. Fritillaria lutea luncifolia Lujitanica. The fmall yellow Fritillaria of Portugall. 

The leaues of this Fritillaria are fo fmall, narrow and long, that it hath caufed them 
to take the name of rufhes, as if you Ihould call it, The rufh leafed Fritillaria, which 
ftand on a long weake round ftalke, let without order : the flower is fmall and yellow, 
hut thicker checkerd with red fpots then any of the other yellow Fritillaria's ; the ftalk 
of the flower, at the head thereof, being alfo of a yellowifh colour. 

i i . Fritillaria Pyrenceajiue Apcnninea. The blacke Fritillaria. 

The roote of this kinde doth often grow fo great, that it feemeth like vnto the roote 
of a fmall Crowne Imperiall : the ftalke is ftrong, round, and high, fet without order, 
with broader and whiter greene leaues then any of the former, bearing one, two, or 
three flowers ; fometimes at the toppe, being not fo large as thofe of the ordinary pur- 
ple Fritillaria, but fmaller, longer, and rounder, fometimes a little turning vp the 
brims or edges of the leaues againe, and are ot a yellowilh Ihining greene colour on 


44 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

the infide, fometimes fpotted with red fpots almoft through the whole infide of the 
flower, vnto the very edge, which abideth of a pale yellow colour, and fometimes 
there are very few fpots to be feene, and thofe from the middle onely on the inlide 
(for on the outfide there neuer appeareth any fpots at all in this kinde) and fometimes 
with no mew of fpots at all, fometimes alfo of a more pale greene, and fometime of a 
more yellow colour : the outfide of the flowers doe likewife vary, for in fome the out- 
fide of the leaues are of a darke fullen yellow, &c. elfe more pale yellow, and in other 
of a darke purplifh yellow colour, which in fome is fo deepe, and fo much, that it ra- 
ther feemeth blacke then purple or yellow, and this efpecially about the bottome of 
the flower, next vnto the ftalke, but the edges are ftill of a yellowHh greene : the head 
of feede, and the feede likewife is like vnto the former, but bigger in all refpedls. 

12. Fritillaria Hifpanica vmbellifera. The Spanifh blacke Fritillaria. 

This Fritillaria is no doubt of kindred to the laft recited, it is fo like, but greater in 
all parts thereof, as if growing in a more fruitfull foile, it were the ftronger and luftier 
to beare more (lore of flowers : the flowers grow foure or fiue from the head together, 
hanging downe round about the ftalke, like vnto a Crowne Imperiall, and are of a 
yellowifh greene colour on the infide, fpotted with a few red fpots, the outfide being 
blackifh as the former. 

The Place. 

The firft of thefe plants was firft brought to our knowledge from France, 
where it groweth plentifully about Orleance ; the other forts grow in di- 
uers other Countries, as fome in Portugall, Spaine, Italy, &c. as their names 
doe import, and as in time they haue been obferued by thofe that were cu- 
rious fearchers of thefe rarities, haue been fent to vs. 

The Time. 

The early kindes doe flower in the beginning of Aprill or thereabouts, 
according to the mildenefle or fharpenefle of the precedent Winter. The 
other doe flower after the firft are paft, for a moneths fpace one after ano- 
ther, and the great yellow is very late, not flowring vntill about the middle 
or end of May. 

The Names. 

This hath receiued diuers names: fome calling it Flos Meleagridis, the 
Ginny Hen Flower, of the variety of the colours in the flower, agreeing with 
the feathers of that Bird. Some call it Narcijfiis Caparonius, of the name of 
the firft inuentor or finder thereof, called Noel Caperon, an Apothecary 
dwelling in Orleance, at the time he firft found it, and was fhortly after the 
finding thereof taken away in the Maflacre in France. It is now generally 
called Fritillaria, of the word Fritillus, which diuers doe take for the Chefle 
borde or table whereon they play, whereunto, by reafon of the refemblance 
of the great fquares or fpots fo like it, they did prefently referre it. It is 
called by Lobel LHhnarciffus purpureus variegafus, & sejfulatits, making it a 
kinde of Tulipa ; but as I faid in the beginning of the Chapter, it doth moft 
neerely refemble a fmall pendulous Lilly, and might therefore rightly hold 
the name of Li/ium variegafum, or in Englifh, the checkerd Lilly. But be- 
caufe the errour which firft referred it to a DafFodill, is growne ftrong by 
cuftome of continuance, I leaue to euery one their owne will, to call it in 
Englifh eyther Fritillaria, as it is called of moft, or the checkerd DafFodill, 
or the Ginnie Hen flower, or, as I doe, the checkerd Lilly. I mall not neede 
in this place further to explaine the feuerall names of euery of them, hauing 
giuen you them in their titles. 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 45 

The Vertues. 

I haue not found or heard by nny others of any property peculiar in this 
plant, to be applied either inwardly or outwardly for any difeafe : the 
chiefe or onely vfe thereof is, to be an ornament for the Gardens of the cu- 
rious louers of thefe delights, and to be wornc of them abroad, which for 
the gallant beauty of many of them, deferueth their courteous entertain- 
ment, among many other the like pleafures. 

Tulipa. The Turkcs Cap. 

"N T Ext vnto the Lillies, and before the Narcifli or Daffodils, the difcourfe of Tu- 
^^ lipas deferueth his place, for that it partaketh of both their natures; agreeing 
' with the Lillies in leaues, flowers, and feede, and fomewhat with the Daffo- 
dils in rootes. There are not onely diuers kindes of Tulipas, but fundry diuerfities of 
colours in them, found out in thefe later dayes by many the fearchers of natures va- 
rieties, which haue not formerly been obferued : our age being more delighted in the 
fearch, curiofity, and rarities of thefe pleafant delights, then any age I thinke before. 
But indeede, this flower, aboue many other, deferueth his true commendations and 
acceptance with all louers of thefe beauties, both for the ftately afpecl, and for the ad- 
mirable varietie of colours, that daily doe arife in them, farre beyond all other 
plants that grow, in fo much, that I doubt, although I (hall in this Chapter fet downe 
the varieties of a great many, I (hall leaue more vnfpoken of, then I mail defcribe ; for 
I may well fay, there is in this one plant no end of diueriity to be expelled, euery yeare 
yeelding a mixture and variety that hath not before been obferued, and all this arifing 
from the fowing of the feede. The chiefe diuiilon of Tulipas, is into two forts : Pra- 
, early flowring Tulipas, and Serotina, late flowring Tulipas. For that fort which 
is called Media or Dubia, that is, which flower in the middle time betweene them 
both, and may be thought to be a kinde or fort by it felfe, as well as any of the other 
two : yet becaufe they doe neerer participate with the Serotina then with the Pretcoces, 
not onely in the colour of the leafe, being of the fame greennefle with the Serotinee, 
and moll vfually alfo, for that it beareth his ftalke and flower, high and large like as 
the Serotiftee doe ; but efpecially, for that the feede of a Media Tulipa did neuer bring 
forth a Preecox flower (although I know Clufius, an induftrious, learned, and painfull 
fearcher and publilher of thefe rarities, faith otherwife) fo farre as euer I could, by 
mine owne care or knowledge, in fowing their feede apart, or the aflurance of any o- 
thers, the louers and fowers of Tulipa feede, obferue, learne, or know : and becaufe 
alfo that the feede of the Serotiiue bringeth forth Medias, and the feede of Medias Sero- 
t/n<e, they may well bee comprehended vnder the generall title of Scrotina : But be- 
caufe they haue generally receiued the name of Media, or middle flowring Tulipas, 
to diltinguilh between them, and thofe that vfually doe flower after them ; I am con- 
tent to fet them downe, and fpeake of them feuerally, as of three forts. Vnto the 
place and ranke likewife of the Pracoces, or early flowring Tulipas, there are fome other 
feuerall kinds of Tulipas to be added, which are notably differing, not onely from the 
former Preecox Tulipa, but euery one of them, one from another, in fome fpeciall note 
or other : as the Tulipa Bo/onienjis Jiore rubro, the red Bolonia Tulipa. 'Tulipa Bohn'vnjis 
ftore lute'/, the yellow Bolonia Tulipa. Tulipa Per/tea, the Perfian Tulipa. Tulipa Cre- 
ficti, the Candie Tulipa, and others : all which (hall bee described and entreated of, e- 
uery one apart by it felfe, in the end of the ranke of the Preecu\'s, becaufe all of them 
flower much about their time. To begin then with the Preecox, or early flowring Tu- 
lipas, and after them with the Medias and Serotinas, I (hall for the better method, diuide 
their flowers into foure primary or principall colours, that is to fay, White, Purple, 
Red, and Yellow, and vnder euery one of thefe colours, fet downe the feuerall varie- 

46 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

ties of mixtures we haue feene and obferued in them, that fo they may be both the bet- 
ter defcribed by me, and the better conceiued by others, and euery one placed in their 
proper ranke. Yet I fhall in this, as I intend to doe in diuers other plants that are va- 
riable, giue but one defcription in generall of the plant, and then fet downe the vari- 
etie of forme or colour afterwards briefly by themfelues. 

Tulipa preecox. The early flowring Tulipa. 

The early Tulipa (and fo all other Tulipas) fpringeth out of the ground with his 
leaues folded one within another, the firft or loweft leafe rifeth vp firft, fharpe poin- 
ted, and folded round together, vntill it be an inch or two aboue the ground, which 
then openeth it felfe, fhewing another leafe folded alfo in the bofome or belly of the 
firft, which in time likewife opening it felfe, fheweth forth a third, and fometimes a 
fourth and a fifth : the lower leaues are larger then the vpper, and are faire, thicke, 
broad, long, and hollow like a gutter, and fometimes crumpled on the edges, which 
will hold water that falleth thereon a long time, of a pale or whitifh greene colour, 
(and the Medice and Serotina more greene) couered ouer as it were with a mealineffe or 
hoarineffe, with an eye or fhew of redneffe towards the bottome of the leaues, and the 
edges in this kinde being more notable white, which are two principall notes to know 
a Pracox 'Tulipa from a Media or Serotina : the ftalke with the flower rifeth vp in the 
middle, as it were through thefe leaues, which in time ftand one aboue another, com- 
pafling it at certaine vnequall diftances, and is often obferued to bend it felfe crooked- 
ly downe to the ground, as if it would thruft his head thereinto, but turning vp his 
head (which will be the flower) againe, afterwards ftandeth vpright, fometimes but 
three or foure fingers or inches high, but more often halfe a foote, and a foot high, but 
the Medias, and Serotinas much higher, carrying (for the moft part) but one flower on 
the toppe thereof, like vnto a Lilly for the forme, confifting of fixe leaues, greene at 
the firft, and afterwards changing into diuers and fundry feuerall colours and varie- 
ties, the bottomes likewife of the leaues of thefe fometimes, but moft efpecially of the 
Medice, being as variable as the flower, which are in fome yellow, or green, or blacke, 
in others white, blew, purple, or tawnie ; and fometimes one colour circling another : 
fome of them haue little or no fent at all, and fome haue a better then others. After it 
hath been blowne open three or foure dayes or more, it will in the heate of the Sunne 
fpread it felfe open, and lay it felfe almoft flat to the ftalke : in the middle of the flower 
ftandeth a greene long head (which will be the feed veflell) compaffed about with fixe 
chiues, which doe much vary, in being fometimes of one, and fometimes of another 
colour, tipt with pendents diuerfly varied likewife : the head in the middle of the 
flower groweth after the flower is fallen, to be long, round, and edged, as it were 
three fquare, the edges meeting at the toppe, where it is fmalleft, and making as it 
were a crowne (which is not feen in the head of any Lilly) and when it is ripe, diuideth 
it felfe on the infide into fixe rowes, of flat, thinne, brownifh, griftly feede, very like 
vnto the feede of the Lillies, but brighter, ftiffer, and more tranfparent : the roote be- 
ing well growne is round, and fomewhat great, fmall and pointed at the toppe, and 
broader, yet roundifh at the bottome, with a certaine eminence or feate on the one 
fide, as the roote of the Colchicum hath ; but not fo long, or great, it hath alfo an 
hollownefTe on the one fide (if it haue borne a flower) where the ftalke grew, (for al- 
though in the time of the firft fpringing vp, vntill it fhew the budde for flower, the 
ftalke with the leaues thereon rife vp out of the middle of the roote ; yet when the 
ftalke is rifen vp, and fheweth the budde for flower, it commeth to one fide, making 
an impreflion therein) couered ouer with a brownifh thin coate or skin, like an Onion, 
hauing a little woollinefTe at the bottome ; but white within, and firme, yet compofed 
of many coates, one folding within another, as the roote of the Daffodils be, of a rea- 
fonable good tafte, neyther very fweete, nor yet vnpleafant. This defcription may 
well ferue for the other Tulipas, being Medias or Serotinas, concerning their fpringing 
and bearing, which haue not any other great variety therein worth the note, which is 
not exprefTed here ; the chiefe difference refting in the variety of the colours of the 
flower, and their feuerall mixtures and markes, as I faid before : fauing onely, that the 
flowers of fome are great and large, and of others frnaller, and the leaues of fome long 


The Garden of plcafant Flowers. 


1 Tulipa pracox albajiut rubra, frt. vnitu colorit. The early whit* or red Tulipa, &c. being of one colour. 

2 Tulipa prircox purpurfa orii albii. The early purple Tulipa with white edges, or the Prince. 3 Tulipa 
pracox variegata. The early ftript Tulipa. 4 Tulipa pracox rubra orii luteis. The early red Tulipa with 
yellow edges, or the Duke. 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

and pointed, and of others broad and round, or bluntly pointed, as fhall bee fhewed 
in the end of the Chapter : I fhall therefore onely exprefle the colours, with the 
mixture or compofure of them, and giue you withall the names of fome of them, (for 
it is impoffible I thinke to any man, to giue feuerall names to all varieties) as they are 
called by thofe that chiefly delight in them with vs. 

Tulip a praecox Alba. 

1 Niuea to fa interdum purpureis Jlaminibus, 
ve/ faltem luteis, fundo puro hand lu- 

2 Alba ftue niuea fundo luteo. 

3 Albida. 

4 Alba, venis ceeruleis in dorfo. 

5 Alba purpureis or is. (Harumjloresvel 

6 Alba carneis oris. -j constantes, ve/ 

7 A Iba fanguineis oris. \difpergentes. 

8 Alba oris magnis carneis ; & venis intro re- 

9 Alba extra, carnei vero colons intus, oras 
habens carneas faturatiores. 

10 Albida, oris rubris, ve/ oris purpu- 

1 1 Albida pur pur of centibusmaculis extra ,in- 
tus vero carnei viuacifsimi. 

1 2 Alba,purpureismaculisafperfaextra,in- 
tus vero alba pur pur antibus oris. 

13 Dux Alba, i. e. coceineis & a Ibis vari- 
atajiammis^ a medio ad oras intercurfan- 

1 4 Prince/fa, i.e. argenteicoloris maculispur- 

15 Regina pulcherrima, albis & fanguineis 
afperfa radijs Of punSlis. 

The early White Tulipa. 

1 The flower whereof is either pure fnow 
white, with purple fometimes, or at leaft 
with yellow chiues, without any yel- 
low bottome. 

2 Or pure white with a yellow bottome. 

3 Or milk white that is not fo pure white. 

4 White with blew veines on the outfide. 

5 White with purple edges. (Someofthefea- 

6 White with bluft edges. fe^S 

7 White with red edges. Idingorrunning. 

8 White with great blufh edges, and fome 
ftrakes running from the edge inward. 

9 White without, and fomewhat blufh 
within, with edges of a deeper blufh. 

i o Whitifh, or pale white with red or pur- 
ple edges. 

1 1 Whitifh without, with fome purplifh 
veins & fpots, & of a liuely blufh within. 

1 2 White without, fpotted with fmall pur- 
ple fpots, and white within with purple 

13 A white Duke, that is, parted with 
white & crimfon flames, from the mid- 
dle of each leafe to the edge. 

1 4 The PrincefTe, that is, a filuer colour 
fpotted with fine deepe blufh fpots. 

1 5 The Queen, that is, a fine white fprink- 
led with bloud red fpots, and greater 

Tulipa preecox pur pur ea. 

1 Purpurea fatura rubefcens, ve/ vio/acea. 

2 Purpurea pallida, Columbina diSla. 

3 Perfici color is faturi. 

4 Perfici coloris Pallidioris. 

5 P aeonice jloris coloris. 

6 Rofea. 

7 Cher mejiua peramcena. 

8 Chermefiua parumftriata. 

The early purple Tulipa. 

1 A deep reddifh purple, or more violet. 

2 A pale purple, called a Doue colour. 

3 A deep Peach colour. 

4 A paler Peach colour. 

5 A Peony flower colour. 

6 A Rofe colour. 

7 A Crimfon very bright. 

8 A Crimfon ftript with a little white. 

9 Princeps, 

The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


9 Princeps, i.e. purpurea faturatior -vel dilu- 
tior, oris albis magnis vel paruis, ftindo lu- 
teo, iv/ albo orbe, qua multum -cariatur, 
& colore, & oris, it a i'f purpurea ele- 
gant oris magnis albis, difta est, Prince 
excellens, & 

10 Princess Columbina, purpurea diluti- 

\ I Purpurea Chernie/ina, rubicandioris colo- 
ris, albidis vel albis oris. 

I 2 Purpurca, iv/ obfolcta albidis oris Prin- 
ceps Brandon. 

1 3 Purpurca diluta, oris dilutioris purpurei 

1 4 Purpurca in exterior ibus, carnei vero ad 
medium intus, oris a Ibis, f undo luteo. 

1 5 Purpurea albo plumata extra, oris albis, 
purpurafcfns intus, f undo luteo, vel orbe 

1 6 Alia, minus elegans plumata, minoribuffa, 
oris albidis. 

9 A Prince or Bracklar, that is, a decpc or 
pale purple, with white edges, greater 
or fmaller, and a yellow bottome, or 
circled with white, which varieth much, 
both in the purple & edges, fothat a faire 
deep purple, with great white edges, is 
called, The belt or chiefe Prince, and 

10 A paler purple with white edges, called 
a Doue coloured Prince. 

1 1 A Crimfon Prince or Bracklar. 

1 2 A Brandon Prince, or purple Brandon. 

1 3 A purple with more pale purple edges. 

14 Purple without, and blulh halfe way 
within, with white edges, and a yellow 

1 5 Purple feathered with white on the 
out fide, with white edges, and pale 
purple within, the ground being a little 
yellow, or circled with white. 

1 6 Another very neere vnto it, but not fo 
fairely feathered, being more obfcure, 
and the edges not fo great or whitidi. 

Tulipa pracox rubra. 

1 Rubra -culgaris fundo luteo, aliquando 

2 Rubra fatura oris luteis paruis, diRa 

3 Baro, i. t'. rubra magis intenfa, oris luteis 

4 Dux maior & minor, i. e. rubra magis aut 
minus elegans fatura, oris luteis maximis 
ve I minor ibus, & fundo luteo magno. Alia 
alijs eji magis am&na, in alijs etiam fundo 
nigro vel obfcuro 'uiridi. 

Ducijja, i. e. Dud Jiimilis, at plus lutei 
quam rubri, oris magnis luteis, & rubore 
magis aut minus intus in gyrum aflo, fundo 
item luteo magno. 

Testamentum Brancion, i. e. rubra fang ut- 
nea fatura, aut minus rubra, oris pallidis, 
magnis iv / paruis : alia alijs magis aut mi- 
nus elegans diuerjimodo. 

The early red Tulipa. 

1 An ordinary red, with a yellow, & fome- 
times a blacke bottome. 

2 A deep red, with a fmall edge of yellow, 
called a Roane. 

3 A Baron, that is, a faire red with a fmall 
yellow edge 

4 A Duke, a greater and a lefler, that is, a 
more or lefs faire deep red, with greater 
or lefler yellow edges, and a great yel- 
low bottome. Some of this fort are 
much more or lefle faire then others, 
fome alfo haue a blacke or darke greene 

5 A Dutchefle, that is like vnto the Duke, 
but more yellow then red, with greater 
yellow edges, and the red more or lefle 
circling the middle of the flower on the 
infide, with a large yellow bottome. 

6 A Teftament Brancion, or a Brancion 

G Duke, 

The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 

7 Flambans, ex rubore & flauedine radiata, 
uel Jlriata fundo luteo. 

8 Mali Aurantij color is, ex rubore, & Jlaue- 
dine integre, non feparatim mixta, oris 
lutels paruis, ve/ abfg, oris. 

9 Minij,Jiue Cinabaris colons, i.e. ex pur- 
purea, rubedine, &jlauedine radiata, im- 
guibus luteis, & aliquando oris. 

i o Rex Tuliparum, i.e. exfanguineo & aureo 
radiatim mixta, aflammea diuerfa,fundo 
luteo, orbe rubro. 

1 1 Tunica Morionis, i.e. ex rubore & aureo 
feparatim diuerfa. 

Duke, that is, a faire deepe red, or lefle 
red, with a pale yellow or butter co- 
loured edge, fome larger others fmal- 
ler : and fome more pleating then others, 
in a very variable manner. 

7 A Flambant, differing from the Dut- 
chefTe ; for this hath no fuch great yel- 
low edge, but ftreaks of yellow through 
the leafe vnto the very edge. 

8 An Orenge colour, that is, a reddifh yel- 
low, or a red and yellow equally mixed, 
with fmall yellow edges, and fome- 
times without. 

9 A Vermillion, that is, a purplifh red, 
ftreamed with yellow, the bottome 
yellow, and fometimes the edges. 

i o The Kings flower, that is, a crimfon or 
bloud red, ftreamed with a gold yel- 
low, differing from the Flambant, the 
bottome yellow, circled with red. 

1 1 A Fooles coate, parted with red and 
yellow guardes. 

Tulipa pracox lutea. 

1 Lutea jiueflaua. 

2 Pallida lutea Jiueftraminea. 

3 Aurea, oris rubicundis. 

4 Straminea, oris rubris. 

5 Aurea, rubore perfufa extra. 

6 Aurea, ve/ magis pallida, rubore in gyrum 
aSla Jimillima Ducijfee, nifi minus rube- 
dinis habet. 

7 Aurea, extremitatibus rubris, did potejl, 
Morionis Pilezus prcecox. 

The early yellow Tulipa. 

1 A faire gold yellow without mixture. 

2 A ftrawe colour. 

3 A faire yellow with reddifh edges. 

4 A ftrawe colour, with red edges. 

5 A faire yellow, reddifh on the out iide 

6 A gold or paler yellow, circled on the 
infide a little with red, very like the 
Dutchefle, but that it hath lefle red 

7 A gold yellow with red toppes, and may 
be called, The early Fooles Cap. 


The G aril en of pleafant Flowers. 51 

i/<- Ctiffn. The Tulipa of Caffa. 

There is another fort or kinde of early Tulipa, differing from the former, whofc 
pale' greene leaues being as broad and large as they, and fometimcs crumpled or wa- 
ued at the edges, in (bine haue the edges onely of the laid leaues for a good breadth, ot 
a whitilli or whitifh yellow colour, and in others, the leaues are lilted or parted with 
whitiih yellow and greene : the Italke rifeth not vp fo high as the former, and bearcth 
a flower at the toppe like vnto the former, in fome of a reddifh yellow colour, with a 
ruflet coloured ground or bottome, and in others, of other feuerall colours : the feede 
and roote is fo like vnto others of this kinde, that they cannot be diftinguilhed. 

There is (as I doe heare) of this kinde, both Prtecoces, and Serotinte, early flowring, 
and late flowring, whereof although wee haue not fo exact knowledge, as of the reft, 
yet I thought good to fpeake fo much, as I could hitherto vnderftand of them, and 
giue others leaue (if I doe not) hereafter to amplitie it. 

'Tulipa Bo/o/iit'ti/is, Jiuc Bombycina Jiorc rubro major. 
The greater red Bolonia Tulipa. 

There are likewife other kindes of early Tulipas to bee fpoken of, and firft of the 
red Bolonia Tulipa ; the roote whereof is plainly difcerned, to be differing from all o- 
thers : for that it is longer, and not hauing fo plaine an eminence at the bottome there- 
of, as the former and later Tulipas, but more efpecially becaufe the toppe is plenti- 
fully llored with a yellowilh lilke-like woollinefle : the outfide likewife or skinne is of 
a brighter or paler red, not fo ealie to be pilled away, and runneth vnder ground both 
downeright and fidewife (efpecially in the countrey ground and ayre, where it will 
encreafe aboundantly, but not either in our London ayre, or forc't grounds) fomewhat 
like vnto the yellow Bolonia Tulipa next following. It (hooteth out of the ground 
with broad and long leaues, like the former; but neither fo broad, nor of fo white or 
mealy a greene colour as the former, but more darke then the late flowring Tulipa, 
fo that this may bee eafily difcerned by his leafe from any other Tulipa aboue the 
ground, by one that is skilfull. It beareth likewife three or foure leaues vpon the 
nalke, like the former, and a flower alfo at the toppe of the fame fafhion, but that the 
leaues hereof are alwayes long, and fomewhat narrow, hauing a large blacke bot- 
tome, made like vnto a cheuerne, the point whereof rifeth vp vnto the middle of the 
leafe, higher then any other Tulipa ; the flower is of a pale red colour, nothing fo 
liuely as in the early or late red Tulipas, yet fweeter for the moft part then any of 
than, and neereft vnto the yellow Bolonia Tulipa, which is much about the fame 

Tulipit pum'tito rubra,Jiue Bergomenfis rubra media & minor. 
The dwarfe red Bergomo Tulipa, a bigger and a lefler. 

There are two other forts hereof, and becaufe they were found about Bergomo, do 
carry that name, the one bigger or lefler then another, yet neither fo great as the for- 
mer, hauing very little other difference to bee obferued in them, then that they are 
fmaller in all parts of them. 

Tulipa Bolonienjis flore luteo. The yellow Bolonia Tulipa. 

The roote of this Tulipa may likewife bee knowne from the former red (or any o- 
ther Tulipa) in that it feldome commeth to bee fo bigge, and is not fo woolly at the 
toppe, and the skinne or outfide is fomewhat paler, harder, and (harper pointed : but 
the bottome is like the former red, and not fo eminent as the early or late Tulipas. 
This beareth much longer and narrower leaues then any (except the Perfian & dwarfe 
yellow Tulipas) and of a whitilh greene colour : it beareth fometimes but one flower 
on a ftalke, and fometimes two or three wholly yellow, but fmaller, & more open then 
the other kinds, and (as I faid) fmelleth fweete, the head for feede is fmaller then in o- 
thers, and hath not that crowne at the head thereof, yet the feed is like, but fmaller. 


52 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Tulipa Narbonenjis,Jiue Monfpelienfis ve I pumilio. 
The French or dwarfe yellow Tulipa. 

This Tulipa is very like vnto the yellow Bolonia Tulipa, both in roote, leafe, and 
flower, as alfo in the colour thereof, being yellow : the onely difference is, that it is 
in all things leffer and lower, and is not fo apt to beare, nor fo plentifull to encreafe by 
the roote. 

Tulipa Italica maior & minor. The Italian Tulipa the greater and the leffer. 

Both thefe kindes of Tulipas doe fo neere refemble the laft kinde, that I might al- 
moft fay they were the fame, but that fome difference which I faw in them, maketh 
mee fet them apart ; and confifteth in thefe things, the ftalkes of neither of both thefe 
rife fo high, as of the firft yellow Bolonia Tulipa : the leaues of both forts are writhed 
in and out at the edges, or made like a waue of the fea, lying neerer the ground, and 
the flower being yellow within, is brownifh or reddifh on the backe, in the middle of 
the three outer leaues the edges appearing yellow. Both thefe kindes doe differ one 
from the other in nothing, but in that one is bigger, and the other fmaller then the o- 
ther which I faw with lohn Tradefcante, my very good friend often remembred. 

Tulipa LuJitanica^Jiue pumilio -verficolor. The dwarfe ftript Tulipa. 

This dwarfe Tulipa is alfo of the fame kindred with the three laft defcribed ; for 
there is no other difference in this from them, then that the flower hath fome red veins 
running in the leaues thereof. 

There are two other forts of dwarfe Tulipas with white flowers, whereof Lobel 
hath made mention in the Appendix to his Aduerfaria ; the one whereof is the fame 
that Clulius fetteth forth, vnder the title of Pumilio alter a : but becaufe I haue not feen 
either of them both, I fpeake no further of them. 

Tulipa pumilio alba. The white dwarfe Tulipa. 

But that white flower that lohn Tradefcante fhewed me, and as hee faith, was deli- 
uered him for a white Pumilio, had a ftalke longer then they fet out theirs to haue, 
and the flower alfo larger, but yet had narrower leaues then other forts of white Tu- 
lipas haue. 

Tulipa Bicolor. The fmall party coloured Tulipa. 

Vnto thefe kindes, I may well adde this kinde of Tulipa alfo, which was fent out of 
Italy, whofe leaues are fmall, long, and narrow, and of a darke greene colour, fome- 
what like vnto the leaues of an Hyacinth : the flower is fmall alfo, confiding of fixe 
leaues, as all other Tulipas doe, three whereof are wholly of a red colour, and the o- 
ther three wholly of a yellow. 

Tulipa Per/tea. The Perfian Tulipa. 

This rare Tulipa, wherewith we haue beene but lately acquainted, doth moft fitly 
deferue to be defcribed in this place, becaufe it doth fo neerely participate with the 
Bolonia and Italian Tulipas, in roote, leafe, and flower : the roote hereof is fmall, co- 
uered with a thicke hard blackifh fhell or skinne, with a yellowifh woollineffe both at 
the toppe, and vnder the fhell. It rifeth out of the ground at the firft, with one very 
long and fmall round leafe, which when it is three or foure inches high, doth open it 
felfe, and fhew forth another fmall leafe (as long almoft as the former) breaking out 
of the one fide thereat, and after it a third, and fometimes a fourth, and a fift; but each 
fhorter then other, which afterwards be of the breadth of the dwarfe yellow Tulipa, 
or fomewhat broader, but much longer then any other, and abiding more hollow, and 
of the colour of the early Tulipas on the infide : the ftalke rifeth vp a foot and a halfe 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


I Tulipa Bomhycinajloreriibro. The red Bolonia Tulipa. i Tulipa Bolonienfit flort lutto. The yellow Bolonia Tulipa. 3 Tiilipa fumilin nbra 
fine lutea. The red or yellow dwarfe Tulipa. 4 Folium Tulipa At Caff a ptr totumflriatum. The leafe of the Tulipa of Caffa ftriped throughout 
the whole leafe. 5 Folium Tulifvt dt Caffa f>rr iiras ftrialum. The leafe of the Tulipa of Caffa ftriped at the edges onely. 6 Tulipa Ptrfica. The 
Perfian Tulipa. 7 Titlifa Cretica. The Tulipa of Candie. 8 Tulifa Armntuua. The Tulipa of Amenia. 

54 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

high fometimes, bearing one flower thereon, compofed of fixe long and pointed 
leaues of the forme of other fmall Tulipas, and not fhewing much bigger then the yel- 
low Italian Tulipa, and is wholly white, both infide and outfide of all the leaues, ex- 
cept the three outtermoft, which haue on the backe of them, from the middle toward 
the edges, a fhew of a brownifh blufh or pale red colour, yet deeper in the midft, and 
the edges remaining wholly white : the bottomes of all thefe leaues are of a darke or 
dun tawnie colour, and the chiues and tippes of a darkifh purple or tawnie alfo. This 
doth beare feed but feldome in our country, that euer I could vnderftand, but when it 
doth, it is fmall like vnto the Bolonia or dwarfe yellow Tulipas, being not fo plentifull 
alfo in parting, or fetting of by the roote as they, and neuer groweth nor abideth fo 
great as it is brought vnto vs, and feldome likewife flowreth after the firft yeare : for 
the rootes for the moft part with euery one grow lefle and leffe, decaying euery yeare, 
and fo perifh for the moft part by reafon of the frofts and cold, and yet they haue been 
fet deepe to defend them, although of their owne nature they will runne downe deep 
into the ground. 

T.ulipa Byzantina duobus floribus Clujij. The fmall Tulipa of Conftantinople. 

The fmall Tulipa of Conftantinople, beareth for the moft part but two leaues on 
the ftalke, which are faire and broad, almoft like vnto the Candy Tulipa, next here- 
unto to be defcribed : the ftalke it felfe rifeth not aboue a foote high, bearing fome- 
times but one flower, but moft commonly two thereon, one below another, and are 
no bigger then the flowers of the yellow Bolonia Tulipa, but differing in colour ; for 
this is on the outfide of a purplifh colour, mixed with white and greene, and on the 
infide of a faire blufh colour, the bottome and chiues being yellow, and the tippes or 
pendents blackifh : the roote is very like the yellow Bolonia Tulipa. 

Tulipa Cretica. The Tulipa of Candie. 

This Tulipa is of later knowledge with vs then the Perfian, but doth more hardly 
thriue, in regard of our cold climate ; the defcription whereof, for fo much as wee 
haue knowledge, by the fight of the roote and leafe, and relation from others of the 
flower, (for I haue not yet heard that it hath very often flowred in our Country) is as 
followeth. It beareth faire broad leaues, refembling the leaues of a Lilly, of a greenifh 
colour, and not very whitifh : the ftalke beareth thereon one flower, larger and more 
open then many other, which is either wholly white, or of a deepe red colour, or 
elfe is variably mixed, white with a fine reddifh purple, the bottomes being yellow, 
with purplifh chiues tipt with blackifh pendents : the roote is fmall, and fomewhat 
like the dwarfe yellow Tulipa, but fomewhat bigger. 

Tulipa Armeniaca. The Tulipa of Armenia. 

This fmall Tulipa is much differing from all the former (except the fmall or dwarfe 
white Tulipas remembred by Lobel and Clufius, as is before fet downe) in that it 
beareth three or foure fmall, long, and fomewhat narrow greene leaues, altogether at 
one ioynt or place ; the ftalke being not high, and naked or without leaues from them 
to the toppe, where it beareth one fmall flower like vnto an ordinary red Tulipa, but 
fomewhat more yellow, tending to an Orenge colour with a blacke bottome : the 
roote is not much bigger then the ordinary yellow Bolonia Tulipa, before fet downe. 

And thefe are the forts of this firft Clafsis of early Tulipas. 

Tulipa Media. The meaner or middle flowring Tulipa. 

For any other, or further defcription of this kinde of Tulipa, it fhall not neede, ha- 
uing giuen it fufficiently in the former early Tulipa, the maine difference confifting 
firft in the time of flowring, which is about a moneth after the early Tulipas, yet fome 
more fome leffe : for euen in the Pracoces, or early ones, fome flower a little earlier, and 
later then others, and then in the colours of the flowers ; for wee haue obferued many 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


colours, and mixtures, or varieties of colours in the Medias, which we could neuer fee 
in the /Vr/v -.(<, and fo alfo fome in the P;-rfr'/tv.f, which are not in the Media s : yetthere 
is farre greater varieties of mixture of colours in thcfe Medias, then hath been obfcr- 
ued in all the Pretcwf, (although Clufius faith otherwife) eyther by my felfe, or by any 
other that I haue conuerfed with about this matter, and all this hath happened by the 
fowing of the feede, as I faid before. I will therefore in this place not trouble you 
with any further circumllance, then to diltinguifh them, as I haue done in the former 
arly Tulipas, into their foure primary colours, and vnder them, giue you their feucrall 
varieties and names, for fo much as hath come to my knowledge, not doubting, but 
that many that haue trauelled in the fowing of the feed of Tulipas many yeares, may 
obferue each of them to haue fome variety that others haue not : and therefore I thinke 
no one man can come to the knowledge of all particular diminutions. 

T'ulipa media alba. 

1 Nine a, fundo albo vel luteo. 

2 Argentca, quaji alba cineracea fundo lute- 
fcente, purpureisjiaminibus. 

3 Margaritina alba, carneo dilutifsima . 

4 Alba, fundo caruleo vel nigro. 

5 Albida. 

6 Alba, or is rubris. \H*c tria gtntra in 

7 Alba, purpureis oris. 

8 Alba, oris coccineis. 

ter tenent oras, in 

\a/ijs difptrgunt. 

9 Albida primum, deinde albidior, oris pur- 
pureis, & Tents intro refpicientibus, ditto 
nobis Hackquenay. 

\ o Alba,fanguineo color e variata, fundo ve/ 
albifsimo, vel alto. 

1 1 Alba, radiatim difpojitajiammis, & ma- 
culis coccineis. 

1 2 Alba, pur pur ea rubedine plumata, diuer- 
farum fpecierum, qua cum fuperiore, vel 

albo, vel luteo, vel par uo caruleo constant 
fundo, qua conjianter tenent punftatos co- 
lores, & non difpergunt,fedpoji trium aut 
quatuor dierumfpatium pulchriores appa- 

1 3 Panni argentei color is, i.e. alba, plumata, 
punctata, Jlriata, vel dine r/i mode variata, 
rubedine dilutiore, ve I futuratiore purpu- 
rea, interius vel exterius, vel vtrmg, 
diuerfarum fpecierum. 

14 Tunica morionis alba varia, i.e. t-x albo 

Thcfc three (otii 
doe hold their 
edge* coilfUnt 
in fome, but 
well fpreid in o- 

The white meane flowring Tulipa. 

1 A fnow white, with a white or yellow 

2 A filuer colour, that is, a very pale or 
whitifh afhe colour, with a yellowifh 
bottome and purple chiues. 

3 A Pearle colour, that is, white, with a 
wafh or (hew of blufh. 

4 A white, with a blew or blacke bottome. 

5 A Creame colour. 

6 A white, with red edges. 

7 A white, with purple edges. 

8 A white, with crimfon edges. 

9 A pale or whitifh yellow, which after a 
few dayes groweth more white, with 
purplifh red edges, and fome ftreakes 
running inward from the edge, which 
we call an Hackney. 

10. A white mixed with a bloud red very 
variably, and with a pure white, or o- 
ther coloured bottome. 

1 1 A white, dreamed with crimfon flames, 
and fpots through the whole flower. 

12 A white, fpeckled with a redd if h pur- 
ple, more or lefle, of diuers forts, with 
white, yellow, or blew bottomes, all 
which doe hold their markes conftant, 
and doe not fpread their colours, but 
Ihew fairer after they haue flood blown 
three or foure dayes. 

& purpureojbiatadiuerjimodejundoalbo 1 3 A cloth of liluer of diuers forts, that is, 
vel alto. a white fpotted, ftriped, or otherwife 

1 5 Holias alba vel albida, abfa, fundo, marked with red or purple, in fome pa- 

cundato, diuerse Jignata, vel variata intus 

ad medietatemfoliorum,furfum in orbem 
vt plurimum, vel ad oras pertingens am- 


ler, in fome deeper, either on the inlide, 
or on the outlide, or on both. 

14 A white Fooles coate of diuers forts, 

that is, purple or pale crimfon, and 

plas & albas. Hafpeciestantopere multi- white, as it were empaled together, ey- 
plicantur, vt vixjint explicabiles. ther with a white ground or other, 

whereof there is great variety. 
1 5 A white Holias, that is, a faire white, or 
paler white, eyther without a bottome, 
or with a blewifh purple bottome, or 
blew and white circling the bottome, 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Tanta eft buius varietas, vel multitudine, 
vet Jiriarum paucitate & di/HnSlione, vel 
fundis variantibus, v( ad tcedium ej/et per- 

and from the middle vpwards, fpeckled 
and ftraked on the infide for the mod 
part, with bloud red or purplifh fpots 
and lines vnto the very edges, which 
abide large and white. Of this kinde 
there are found very great varieties, not 
to be exprefled. 

Of this fort there is fo much variety, fome 
being larger or fairer marked then o- 
thers, their bottomes alfo varying, that 
it is almoft impoffible to exprefs them. 

Tulipa media pur pur ea. 

1 Purpureafatura. 

2 Purpurea dilutior, diuerfarum fpecierum, 
quarum Rqfea vna, Carneajit altera. 

3 Perftcicoloris, duarum auttriumfpecierum. 

4 Chermefina, obfcura aut pallida. 

5 Stamela, intenjior aut remifsior. 

6 Xerampelina. 

7 Purpurea, ftriata. 

8 Per/id faturi, ve/ dlluti colons ', vndulata, 
vel radiata. 

9 Columbina, oris & radijs albis. 

I o Purpurearubra,oris, albis JimilisPreecoci, 

difta Prlnceps. 

I 1 Chermefina, vel He/uo/a, lineis albis in 
media, & verfus or as,fundo ceeruleo, vel 
albo, itemf^, albo orbe. 

1 2 Purpurea remifsior, aut intenjior, oris al- 
bis, paruis aut magnis, vt in Principe prae- 
coci,fundo vel cceruleo orbe albo, vel albo 
orbe ceeruleo amplo. 

1 3 Holias He/uo/a, fanguineis guttis intus a 
mediofurfum in orbem,fundo ceeruleo. 

1 4 Tunica Morionis pur pur ea rubrafatura, 
albido Jiriata, quam in alba faturatior, 

fundo ex ceeruleo & albo. 

1 5 Purpurea rubrafatura veldiluta, albo vel 
albedine, punSlata vel Jiriata diuerjimode, 
diSla Cariophyllata. 

The meane flowring purple Tulipa. 

1 A faire deep purple. 

2 A paler purple, of many forts, whereof a 
Rofe colour is one, a Blufh another. 

3 A Peach colour of two or three forts. 

4 A Crimfon, deepe, or pale. 

5 A Stamell, darke or light. 

6 A Murrey. 

7 A purple, ftript and fpotted. 

8 A Peach colour, higher or paler, waued 
or ftript. 

9 A Doue colour, edged and ftraked with 

10 A faire red purple, with white edges, 
like vnto the early Tulipa, called a Prince. 

1 1 A faire crimfon, or Claret wine co- 
lour, with white lines both in the mid- 
dle, and towards the edges, moft haue a 
blew bottome, yet fome are white, or 
circled with white. 

12 A light or deepe purple, with white 
edges, greater or fmaller, like the early 
Prince, the bottomes eyther blew cir- 
cled with white, or white circled with 
a large blew. 

1 3 A purple Holias, the colour of a pale 
Claret wine, marked and fpotted with 
bloud red fpots, round about the mid- 
dle of each leafe vpward on the infide 
onely, the bottome being blew. 

14 A Crimfon Fooles Coate, a darke 
crimfon, and pale white empaled toge- 
ther, differing from the white Fooles 
Coate, the bottome blew and white. 

1 5 A deeper or paler reddifh purple, fpot- 
ted or ftriped with a paler or purer 
white, of diuers forts, called the Gillo- 
flower Tulipa. 


The Garden of plt'iij'ttnt l'lo\. 

i Tulifa rnbra .5- lulia t aria. The Fooles Coate red and yellow. 2 Tulifa Holtas alba abfq.fundo. The white Holeas without a 
bottome. 3 Tulifa argntta, tti'/>nftaia, <?-. . The ctoth of Oluer, or other fpotted Tulipa. 4 Tulifia alba flammu CMCttutt. T 
white KoolesCoatc. 5 Tulifa Half as all,a, &-c.fui<do furfureo, *v. A white Holeas, &c. with a purple bottome, &c. Tulifa 
nbr,, 6- luttafiammia. f*c. ' A red and yellow flamed Tulipa, &c. 7 Tulifa alkaftriala <- f,i*ctata. A white ftr.pcd and fpotted 
Tulipa. 8 Tulif,i alttra rariala. <?-f. Another variable Tulipa. 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Tulipa media ruhra. 

1 Rubra communis, fundo /ufeo, ve/ ni- 

2 Mali Aurantij coloris. 

3 Ginabaris coloris. 

4 Lateritij coloris. 

5 Rubra, /ufeo afperfa. 

6 Rubra, oris luteis. 

7 Tejiamentum Brandon rubra fatura, oris 
pallidis, diuerfarumfpecierum, rubore va- 
riantium, & orarum amplitudine. 

8 Cinabaris radiata, magis aut minus fero- 

9 Rubra purpurafcens obfoleta exteriori- 
busfolijs, perfufa luteo intus, oris pallidis 

i o Rubra purpurafcens elegans extra & in- 
tus lutefcens, or is pallidis luteis, fundo lu- 
teo ve/ viridi. 

1 1 Rubra Jiambans coccinea, crebris maculis 
luteis abfg^ fundo. 

1 2 Flambans elegantior rubra, i.e. radijs lu- 
teis inter curfantib us ruborem. 

1 3 Flambans remifsior vtrofa colore. 

1 4 Panni aurei coloris. 

1 5 Tunica Morionis verior,feu Pa/to du Sot. 
optima, tcenijs amp Us amoenis & crebris, ex- 
rubro & jlauo feparatim diui/is Gf excur- 
rentibus,Jios con/tans. 

1 6 'Tunica Morionis altera, teenijs minoribus 
& minus frequentibus, magis aut minus 
alia alijs inconftans. 

17 Tunica Morionis pallida, i.e. tcenijs ve/ 
Jirijsfrequentioribus in -utrog colore palli- 
dis, Jios eft conflans & elegans. 

1 8 Pileus Morionis, radijs luteis, in media 
foliorum latis, per ruborem excurrentibtts, 
fundo luteo, apicibus luteis, & tribus exte- 
rior ibus folijs luteis oris rubris, ve/ a 

The meane flowring red Tulipa. 

1 A faire red which is ordinary, with a yel- 
low or blacke bottome. 

2 A deepe Orenge colour. 

3 A Vermillion. 

4 A pale red, or Bricke colour. 

5 A Gingeline colour. 

6 A red with fmall yellow edges. 

7 A Teftament Brandon of diuers forts, 
differing both in the deepneffe of the 
red, and largeneffe of the pale coloured 

8 A Vermillion flamed, flowring later or 

9 A dead purplifh red without, and of a 
yellowifh red within, with pale yellow 

10 A bright Crimfon red on the outfide, 
more yellowifh on the infide, with pale 
yellow edges, and a bottome yellow or 

1 1 A red Flambant, fpotted thicke with 
yellow fpots without any bottome. 

12 A more excellent red Flambant, with 
flames of yellow running through the 

1 3 A pale coloured Flambant. 

14 A cloth of gold colour. 

1 5 A true Fooles Coate, the beft is a faire 
red & a faire yellow, parted into guards 
euery one apart, varied through euery 
leafe to the very edge, yet in moft abi- 
ding conftant. 

1 6 Another Fooles Coate, not fo fairely 
marked, nor fo much, fome of thefe are 
more or lefTe conftant in their marks, & 
fome more variable then others. 

1 7 A pale Fooles Coate, that is, with pale 
red, and pale yellow guardes or ftripes 
very faire and conftant. 

1 8 A Fooles Cappe, that is, with lifts or 
ftripes of yellow running through the 
middle of euery leafe of the red, broa- 
der at the bottome then aboue, the bot- 
tome being yellow, the three outer 
leaues being yellow with red edges, or 

19 Le 

The Garden of pleafiuit Flowers. 

in 01 twiner cauea uonan. 7 i uiipa u f.mifjt. n i uupa tiiicu u twnier. o / utipa aioa jtammit cocnnm. Another 
white Flambant or Fooles Coate. g Tulif>t> Cinmabarina albojlammata. The Vermillion flamed. 10 Titlifa flitmnla rubra * 

lutta. The feathered Tulipa red and yellow. 


The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 

1 9 LeSuiJfe, teenijs radiata magnis ex rubore 
& pallore. 

20 Alter a diSta Goliah a Jioris magnitudine, 
tanijs radiata Jimlllima le Suiffe, niji ru- 
bor & albedo Jint elegantiores. 

2 1 Hollas rubra, i.e.fangitinea argenteis ra- 
dijs, & guttis in orbem difpojitis, prcej'er- 
tim interim, fundo viridifaturo. 

2 2 Ho lias coccinea, rubra coccinea, albo radi- 
ata in orbem, circa medium foliorum in- 
terius, fundo albo. 

23 Alia huic Jimilis, fundo albo & cezru- 

19 A Swifle, pained with a faire red and 
pale white or flrawe colour. 

20 A Goliah, fo called of the bignefle of 
the flower, moft like to the Swifle in the 
marks and guardes, but that the red and 
white is more liuely. 

2 1 A red Holias. A bloud red ftript with 
filuer white veines and fpots, with a 
darke green bottome. 

22 A Crimfon red Holias, that is, a faire 
purplifh red, fpotted with white circle- 
wife about the middle of the inner 
leaues, and a white bottome. 

23 Another like thereunto, with a blew 
and white bottome. 

Tulipa media lutea. 

1 Lutea, Jiue Aurea vu/garis. 

2 Straminea. 

3 Sulphurea. 

4 Mali Aurantij pallidi color is. 

5 Lutea dilute purpurea Jlriata, aurei panni 
pallidi injiar. 

6 Pa/fide lutea fufcedine adumbrata. 

7 Flaua, or is rubris magnis, aut par ids. 

8 Straminea oris rubris magnis intenjis, vel 
paruis remifsis. 

9 Obfcura & fuliginofa lutea, inftar Folij 
decidui, ideo^ Folium mortuum appella- 

10 F/aua, rubore perfufa, etiamque Jiri- 
ata per totum, dorfo coccineo, oris pal- 

1 1 Pallide lute a, perfufa & magis aut minus 
rubore ftriata, fundo ve/ luteo, vel vi- 

12 Tejiamentum Clujij, i.e. lutea pallidafu- 
ligine obfufca, exterius & infer/us ad oras 
v f& pallidas, per totum vero Jioris medi- 
um, maculis interius afperfa injiar om- 
nium aliarum Holias, dorfo obfcuriore, 
fundo viridi. 

The meane flowring yellow Tulipa. 

1 A faire gold yellow. 

2 A Strawe colour. 

3 A Brimftone colour pale yellowifh 

4 A pale Orenge colour. 

5 A pale cloth of gold colour. 

6 A Curtard colour a pale yellow fhadow- 
ed ouer with a browne. 

7 A gold yellow with red edges, greater 
or fmaller. 

8 A Strawe colour with red edges, deeper 
or paler, greater or fmaller. 

9 A fullen or fmoakie yellow, like a dead 
leafe that is fallen, and therefore called, 
Fucille mart. 

i o A yellow fhadowed with red, and ftri- 
ped alfo through all the leaues, the 
backiide of them being of a red crim- 
fon, and the edges pale. 

1 1 A pale yellow, fhadowed and ftriped 
with red, in fome more in fome lefle, the 
bottomes being either yellow or green. 

1 2 A Tejiamentum Clujij, that is, a fhadow- 
ed pale yellow, both within & without, 
fpotted round about the middle on the 
infide, as all other Holias are, the backe 
of the leaues being more obfcure or fha- 
dowed with pale yellow edges, and a 
greene bottome. 

13 Flam- 

"The Garden of pie afant Flowers. 


I'' I am ha us lutea, diuerjimoife intus mag/s 
t'ut minus Jiriata, ;</ in tilijs extra ma-\ 
cu la t t t rubore, f'umio vt plurinmm nlgro, 

. .' in itlijs lut, . 

1 4 1'lambans pallidior Gf f/tgOftUT, 

15 HO/MS lutea intcn/ior ve/ remifsior di- 
ucr/ini'/de, in ',rbem radiata interim, ru- 
bris mac u In ad fupremas vffa oras, aliquo- 
ties crebre, alias parce, fundo viridi, vel 
tanetto obfcuro. 

1 6 Hollas /framitiea ruboreftriata &f>unfla- 
ta, in /lar alba Hollas. 

1 7 Tunica Morionis lutea, alijs difla Flam- 
mea, in qua color Jiaiusmagis Gf confpicuus 
rubore, diuer/imode radiata. 

Hue red ilc ml a ej/et -ciridarum Tu /if arum 
e/afsis, qua diner/arum etlam constatfpe- 
clcrum. Vna viridis intenjior, cuius 
Jios fcmpt'r fere fcniic/aitfus manet Jlami- 
nihus Jimbriath. Alter a remifsior, in/far 
l\littaeipennarum viridium, luteo variata 
oris alb'n. Tertia adhuc dilutiori viridi- 
tate oris purpureis. Quarta, cujus folia 
aqua liter pur pur a dilttta, & 'viriditate 
diui/'a funt. Quinta, folijs longifsimis 
/lellamodo expanjis, ex rubore & viridi- 

1 3 A yellow Flambant of diners forts, that 
is, the whole flower more or lefle llrea- 
ined or f potted on the inlide, and in 
fome on the outlide with red, the bot- 
tome in moll being blacke, yet in fome 

14 A paler yellow Flambant more beau- 

15 A yellow Holias, paler or deeper yel- 
low very variable, f potted on the inlide 
round about the middle, with red 
fometimes plentifully, or elfe fparing- 
ly, with a green or dark tawny bottome. 

1 6 A ftrawe coloured Holias, fpotted and 
rtreamed with red, as is to bee feene in 
the white Holias. 

1 7 A yellow Fooles coate, of fome called 
a flame colour, wherein the yellow is 
more then the red, diuerfly rtreamed. 

Vnto thefe may be added the greene Tuli- 
pa, which is alfo of diuers forts. One ha- 
uing a great flower of a deepe green co- 
lour, feldome opening it felfe, but abi- 
ding alwaies as it were halfe (hut vp 
and clofed, the chiues being as it were 
feathered. Another of a paler or yel- 
lowifh green, paned with yellow, and 
is called, The Parrel, &c. with white 
edges. A third of a more yellowilh 
green, with red or purplifh edges. A 
fourth, hath the leaues of the flower 
equally almoft parted, with greene and 
a light purple colour, which abiding a 
long time in flower, groweth in time to 
be fairer marked : for at the firrt it doth 
not (hew it felfe fo plainely diuided. 
Some call this a greene Swifler. A fifth 
hath the longeft leaues (landing like a 
ftarre, confifting of greene and purple. 

Tulipa St'rotina. The late flowring Tulipa. 

The late flowring Tulipa hath had his defcription exprefled in the precedent dif- 
courfe, fo that I (hall not neede to make a repetition of what hath already beene fet 
downe. The greateli matter of knowledge in this kinde is this, That it hath no fuch 
plentifull variety of colours or mixtures in his flowers, as are in the two former forts, 
but is confined within thefe limits here exprefled, as farre as hath come to our know- 

Tulipa Serotota. The late flowring Tulipa. 

/\ I'ea intenjior, nut remifsior. A Rofe colour deeper or paler. 

Rukra vu/garis, aut faturatior, & qtuijt An ordinary red, or elfe a deeper red like 
nigricans, fundo luteo vel nigro, vel ni-\ blacke bloud, with a blacke or yellow 

gro or be, aitreo inclu/'o, difta Oculus So- 


Lutea communts. 
Lutea oris ruhns. 

bottome, or backe circled with yel- 
low, called the Suns eye. 

An ordinary yellow. 

I A yellow with red edges. 

Lutea gttttis fanguineis, fundo nigro ve/ A yellow with red fpots and veines, the 
I'ario. bottome blacke or difcoloured. 


6 2 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

There yet remaine many obferuations, concerning thefe beautifull flowers, fit to be 
knowne, which could not, without too much prolixity, be comprehended within the 
body of the defcription of them ; but are referued to bee intreated of a part by them- 

All forts of Tulipas beare vfually but one ftalke, and that without any branches : 
but fometimes nature is fo plentifull in bearing, that it hath two or three ftalkes, and 
fometimes two, or more branches out of one ftalke (euery ftalke or branch bearing 
one flower at the toppe) but this is but feldome feene ; and when it doth happen once, 
it is hardly feene againe in the fame roote, but is a great figne, that the roote that 
doth thus, being an old roote, will the fame yeare part into diuers rootes, whereof 
euery one, being of a reafonable greatneffe, will beare both his ftalke and flower the 
next yeare, agreeing with the mother plant in colour, as all the of-fets of Tulipas doe 
for the mort part : for although the young of-fets of fome doe vary from the maine 
roote, euen while it groweth with them, yet being feparated, it will bee of the fame 
colour with the mother plant. 

There groweth oftentimes in the Medias, and fometimes alfo in the Preecoces, but 
more feldome, a frnall bulbe or roote, hard aboue the ground, at the bottome of the 
ftalke, and betweene it and the lower leafe, which when the ftalke is dry, and it ripe, 
being put into the ground, will bring forth in time a flower like vnto the mother plant, 
from whence it was taken. 

The flowers alfo of Tulipas confift mort commonly of fixe leaues, but fometimes 
they are feene to haue eight or tenne, or more leaues ; but vfually, thofe rootes beare 
but their ordinary number of fixe leaues the next yeare : the head for feede then, is 
for the moft part foure fquare, which at all other times is but three fquare, or when 
the flower wanteth a leafe or two, as fometimes alfo it doth, it then is flat, hauing but 
two fides. 

The forme of the flower is alfo very variable ; for the leaues of fome Tulipas are all 
fharpe pointed, or all blunt and round pointed, and many haue the three outer leaues 
fharpe pointed, and the three inner round or pointed, and fome contrariwife, the three 
outermoft round pointed, and the three inner fharpe pointed. Againe, fome haue all 
the leaues of the flowers long and narrow, and fome haue them broader and fliorter. 
Some Pracoces alfo haue their flowers very large and great, equall vnto eyther the 
Media, or Serotina, which moft commonly are the largeft, and others haue them as 
fmall as the Bolonia Tulipa. 

The bottomes of the leaues of the flowers are alfo variably diuerfified, and fo are 
both the chiues or threeds that ftand vp about the head, and the tips or pendents that 
are hanging loofe on the toppes of them ; and by the difference of the bottomes or 
chiues, many flowers are diftinguifhed, which elfe are very like in colour, and alike 
alfo marked. 

For the fmell alfo there is fome diuerfity ; for that the flowers of fome are very 
fweete, of others nothing at all, and fome betweene both, of a fmall fent, but not offen- 
fiue : and yet fome I haue obferued haue had a ftrong ill fent ; but how to fhew you to 
diftinguifh them, more then by your owne fenfe, I cannot : for the feedes of fweete 
fmelling Tulipas doe not follow their mother plant, no more then they doe in the 

And laftly, take this, which is not the leaft obferuation, worth the noting, that I 
haue obferued in many : When they haue beene of one entire colour for diuers yeares, 
yet in fome yeare they haue altered very much, as if it had not beene the fame, viz. 
from a purple or ftamell, it hath beene variably either parted, or mixed, or ftriped 
with white, eyther in part, or through the whole flower, and fo in a red or yellow 
flower, that it hath had eyther red or yellow edges, or yellow or red fpots, lines, 
veines, or flames, running through the red or yellow colour, and fometimes it hath 
happened, that three leaues haue been equally parted in the middle with red and yel- 
low, the other three abiding of one colour, and in fome the red had fome yellow in it, 
and the yellow fome red fpots in it alfo ; whereof I haue obferued, that all fuch flow- 
ers, not hauing their originall in that manner, (for fome that haue fuch or the like 
markes from the beginning, that is, from the firft and fecond yeares flowring, are con- 
ftant, and doe not change) but as I faid, were of one colour at the firft, doe fhew the 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 63 

weaknefTe and decay of the roote, and that this extraordinary beauty in the flower, is 
but us the brightnefle of a light, vpon the very extinguilhing thereot, and doth plainly 
declare, that it can doe his Mailer no more feruice, and therefore with this iollity doth 
bid him good night. I know there is a common opinion among many (and very con- 
fidently maintained) that a Tulipa with a white flower, hath changed to beare a red or 
yellow, and fo of the red or yellow, and other colours, that they are likewife incon- 
ftant, as though no flowers were certaine : but I could neuer either fee or heare for 
certaine any fuch alteration, nor any other variation, but what is formerly cxprefled. 
Let not therefore any iudicious be carried away with any fuch idle conceit, but rather 
fufpect fome deceit in their Gardeners or others, by taking vp one, and putting in an- 
other in the place, or elfe their owne miftaking. 

Now tor the fowing, planting, tranfplanting, choife, and ordering of Tulipas, 
which is not the leaft of regard, concerning this fubiedt in hand, but (as I think) would 
be willingly entertained; What I haue by my beft endeauours learned, by mine owne 
paines in almoft forty yeares trauell, or from others informations, I am willing here 
to let downe; not doubting, but that fome may adde what hath not come to my 

Firft, in the fowing of feedes of Tulipas, I haue not obferued (whatfoeuer others 
haue written) nor could of certainty learne of others, that there doth arife from the 
feedes of Pr<fcoces any Media* or Seratmt Tulipas, (or but very feldome) nor am cer- 
tainly aflured of any: but that the feedes of all Frances (fo they be not doubtfull, or 
of the lalt rlowring forts) will bring Pracoces : And I am out of doubt, that I neuer faw, 
nor could learne, that euer the feede of the Media* or Serotines haue giuen Pracoces ; 
but Mcd'uis or S<-r'ttines, according to their naturall kinde. But if there fhould bee any 
degeneration, I rather incline to thinke, that it fooner commeth to pafle (a nu-liore ad 
pf/us, for fad /is eft defcenfus, that is) that Preecoces may giue Me</ias, then that Media* or 
Serofim's fhould giue Preecoces. 

For the choife of your feede to fowe. Firft, for the Pracoces, Clufius faith, that the 
Pr<tcox Tulipa, that beareth a white flower, is the beft to giue the greateft variety of co- 
lours. Some among vs haue reported, that they haue found great variety rife from the 
feede of the red Pracox, which I can more hardly beleeue : but Clufius his experience 
hath the greater probabilty, but efpecially if it haue fome mixture of red or purple in 
it. The purple I haue found to be the beft, next thereunto is the purple with white 
edges, and fo likewife the red with yellow edges, each of them will bring moft of 
their owne colours. Then the choife of the beft Medias, is to take thofe colours that 
are light, rather white then yellow, and purple then red; yea white, not yellow, pur- 
ple, not red : but thefe againe to be fpotted is the beft, and the more the better ; but 
withall, or aboue all in thefe, refpect the ground or bottome of the flower, (which in 
the Prcenx Tulipa cannot, becaufe you fhall feldome fee any other ground in them but 
yellow) for if the flower be white, or whitifh, fpotted, or edged, and rtraked, and the 
bottome blew or purple (fuch as is found in the Holias, and in the Cloth of filuer, this 
is beyond all other the moft excellent, and out of queftion the choifeft of an hundred, 
to haue the greateft and molt pleafant variety and rarity. And fo in degree, the meaner 
in beauty you fowe, the lefTer fhall your pleafure in rarities be. Beftowe not your time 
in fowing red or yellow Tulipa feede, or the diners mixtures of them ; for they will (as 
I haue found by experience) feldome be worth your paines. The Serotma, or late flow- 
ring Tulipa, becaufe it is feldome feene, with any efpeciall beautifull variety, you may 
eafily your felues ghefTe that it can bring forth (euen as I haue alfo learned) no raritie, 
and little or no diuerlity at all. 

The time and manner to fowe thefe feedes is next to be coniidered. You may not 
fowe them in the fpring of the yeare, if you hope to haue any good of them ; but in the 
Autumne, or prefently after they be thorough ripe and dry : yet if you fowe them not 
vntill the end of October, they will come forward neuer the worfe, but rather the bet- 
ter ; for it is often feene, that ouer early fowing caufeth them to fpring out of the 
ground ouer early, fo that if a fharp fpring chance to follow, it may go neere to 
fpoile all, or the moft of your feede. Wee vfually fowe the fame yeares feede, yet if 
you chance to keepe of your owne, or haue from others fuch feed, as is two years old, 
they will thriue and doe well enough, efpecially if they were ripe and well gathered : 


64 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

You muft not fowe them too thicke, for fo doing hath loft many a pecke of good 
feede, as I can tell ; for if the feede lye one vpon another, that it hath not roome vpon 
the fprouting, to enter and take roote in the earth, it perifheth by and by. Some vfe to 
tread downe the ground, where they meane to fowe their feede, and hauing fowne 
them thereon, doe couer them ouer the thicknefle of a mans thumbe with fine fifted 
earth, and they thinke they doe well, and haue good reafon for it : for confidering the 
nature of the young Tulipa rootes, is to runne downe deeper into the ground, euery 
yeare more then other, they thinke to hinder their quicke defcent by the faftnefle of 
the ground, that fo they may encreafe the better. This way may pleafe fome, but I 
doe not vfe it, nor can finde the reafon fufficient ; for they doe not confider, that the 
fti.fFeneffe of the earth, doth caufe the rootes of the young Tulipas to bee long before 
they grow great, in that a ftiffe ground doth more hinder the well thriuing of the 
rootes, then a loofe doth, and although the rootes doe runne downe deeper in a loofe 
earth, yet they may eafily by tranf planting be holpen, and raised vp high enough. I 
haue alfo feene fome Tulipas not once remoued from their fowing to their flowring ; 
but if you will not lofe them, you muft take them vp while their leafe or ftalk is frefh, 
and not withered : for if you doe not follow the ftalke downe to the roote, be it neuer 
fo deepe, you will leaue them behinde you. The ground alfo muft be refpefted ; for 
the finer, fofter, and richer the mould is, wherein you fowe your feede, the greater 
(hall be your encreafe and varietie : Sift it therefore from all ftones and rubbifh, and 
let it be either fat naturall ground of it felfe, or being muckt, that it bee thoroughly 
rotten : but fome I know, to mend their ground, doe make fuch a mixture of grounds, 
that they marre it in the making. 

After the feede is thus fowne, the firft yeares fpringing bringeth forth leaues, little 
bigger then the ordinary grafle leaues ; the fecond yeare bigger, and fo by degrees 
euery yeare bigger then other. The leaues of the Prcecoces while they are young, may 
be difcerned from the Medias by this note, which I haue obferued. The leaues of them 
doe wholly ftand vp aboue the ground, mewing the fmall footftalkes, whereby euerie 
leafe doth ftand, but the leaues of the Medias or Serotines doe neuer wholly appeare 
out of the ground, but the lower part which is broad, abideth vnder the vpper face of 
the earth. Thofe Tulipas now growing to bee three yeares old, (yet fome at the fe- 
cond, if the ground and ayre be correfpondent) are to bee taken vp out of the ground, 
wherein yee fhall finde they haue runne deepe, and to be anew planted, after they haue 
been a little dryed and cleanfed, eyther in the fame, or another ground againe, pla- 
cing them reafonable neare one vnto another, according to their greatneffe, which be- 
ing planted and couered ouer with earth againe, of about an inch or two thicknefle, 
may be left vntaken vp againe for two yeare longer, if you will, or elfe remoued euery 
yeare after, as you pleafe ; and thus by tranfplanting them in their due feafon (which 
is ftill in the end of luly, or beginning of Auguft, or thereabouts) you (hall according 
to your feede and foyle, haue fome come to bearing, in the fifth yeare after the flow- 
ring, (and fome haue had them in the fourth, but that hath beene but few, and none of 
the beft, or in a rich ground) fome in the lixth and feuenth, and fome peraduenture, not 
vntill the eighth or tenth yeare : but ftill remember, that as your rootes grow grea- 
ter, that in re-planting you giue them the more roome to be diftant one from another, 
or elfe the one will hinder, if not rot the other. 

The feede of the Preecoces, doe not thriue and come forward fo faft as the Medias or 
Serotines, nor doe giue any of-fets in their running downe as the Medias doe, which 
vfually leaue a fmall roote at the head of the other that is runne downe euery yeare ; 
and betides, are more tender, and require more care and attendance then the Medias, 
and therefore they are the more refpecled. 

This is a generall and certaine rule in all Tulipas, that all the while they beare but 
one leafe, they will not beare flower, whether they bee feedlings, or the of-fets of 
elder rootes, or the rootes themfelues, that haue heretofore borne flowers ; but when 
they fhew a fecond leafe, breaking out of the firft, it is a certaine iigne, that it will 
then beare a flower, vnlefle fome casualty hinder it, as froft or raine, to nip or fpoile 
the bud, or other vntimely accident befall it. 

To fet or plant your beft and bearing Tulipas fomewhat deeper then other rootes, 
I hold it the beft way ; for if the ground bee either cold, or lye too open to the cold 


The Garden of plcajant Flowers. 65 

Northerne ayrr, they will lie the better defended therein, and not fuffer the frorts or 
cold to pierce them to hvmc: tor the deepe trolls and fnowes doc pinch the Pnrcoces 
chiefly, it" they bee too neare the vppermoll crull ot" the earth; and therefore many, 
with good fuccelTe, couer oner their ground before Winter, with either frefh or old 
rotten dung, and that will imruelloully preferue them. The like courfe you may hold 
with feed lings, to caufe them to come on the forwarder, fo it bee after the firft yearcs 
fowing, and not till then. 

To remoue Tulipas after they haue mot forth their fibres or fmall firings, which 
grow vnder the great round rootes, (that is, from September vntill they bee in flower) 

very dangerous; for by remouing them when they haue taken fart hold in the 
ground, you doe both hinder them in the bearing out their flower, and befides, put 
them in hazzard to perifh, at leafi to bee put backe from bearing for a while after, as 
oftentimes I haue proued by experience : But when they are now rifen to flower, and 
fo for any time after, you may lately take them vp if you will, and remoue them 
without danger, if you haue any good regard vnto them, vnlefle it be a young bearing 
roote, which you lhall in fo doing much hinder, becaufe it is yet tender, by reafon it 
now beareth his firlt flower. But all Tulipa roots when thnr rtalke and leaues are dry, 
may moll lately then be taken vp out of the ground, and be fo kept (fo that they lye in 
a dry, and not in a moill place) for fixe moneths without any great harmc : yea I haue 
knowne them that haue had them nine moneths out of the ground, and haue done rea- 
fonable well, but this you mull vnderrtand withall, that they haue not been young but 
elder rootes, and they haue been orderly taken vp and preferued. The dryer you keep 
a Tulipa roote the better, fo as you let it not lye in the funne or winde, which will 
pierce it and fpoile it. 

Thus Gentlewomen for your delights, (for thefe pleafures are the delights of lea- 
fure, which hath bred your loue & liking to them, and although you are herein predo- 
minant, yet cannot they be barred from your beloued, who I doubt not, wil fhare with 
you in the delight as much as is fit) haue I taken this paines, to fet downe, and bring to 
your knowledge fuch rules of art, as my fmall skill hath enabled mee withall concer- 
ning this fubiecl, which of all other, feemed fitteft in this manner to be enlarged, both 
tor the varietie of matter, and excellency of beautie herein, and alfo that thefe rules 
fet forth together in one place, might faue many repetitions in other places, fo that 
for the planting and ordering of all other bulbous rootes, and the fowing the feedes of 
them, you may haue recourfe vnto thefe rules, (tanquatn ad norman & examen) which 
may ferue in generall for all other, little diuerfitie of particulars needing exception. 

The Place. 

The greater Tulipas haue firft beene fent vs from Conftantinople, and 
other parts of Turkic, where it is faid they grow naturally wilde in the 
Fields, Woods, and Mountaines; as Thracia, Macedonia, Fontus about 
the Euxine Sea, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and about Tripolis and Aleppo in 
Syria alfo: the lefler haue come from other feuerall places, as their names 
doe decipher it out vnto vs; as Armenia, Perlia, Candye, Portugall, 
Spaine, Italy, and France. They are all now made denizens in our Gar- 
dens, where they yeeld vs more delight, and more encreafe for their pro- 
portion, by reafon of the culture, then they did vnto their owne naturals. 

The Time. 

Thefe doe flower fome earlier, fome later, for three whole moneths to- 
gether at the lealt, therein adorning out a Garden moll glorioufly, in that 
being but one kinde of flower, it is fo full of variety, as no other (except the 
Daffodils, which yet are not comparable, in that they yeeld not that allu- 
ring pleafant variety) doe the like befides. Some of the Praecwes haue beene 
in flower with vs, (for I fpeake not of their owne naturall places, where the 
Winters are milder, and the Spring earlier then ours) in the moneth of la- 
nuary, when the Winter before hath beene milde, but many in February, 

I and 

66 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

and all the Prcecoces, from the beginning to the end of March, if the yeare 
be kindly : at what time the Medias doe begin, and abide all Aprill, and 
part of May, when the Serotines flower and fade ; but this, as I faid, if the 
yeare be kindly, or elfe each kinde will be a moneth later. The feede is ripe 
in lune and luly, according to their early or late flowring. 

The Names. 

There haue beene diuers opinions among our moderne Writers, by 
what name this plant was knowne to the ancient Authors. Some would 
haue it be Cofmofandatos, of the Ancient. Dodonaeus referreth it to Trvn-wf of 
Theophraftus, in his feuenth Booke and thirteenth Chapter : but thereof 
he is fo briefe, that belides the bare name, wee cannot finde him to make 
any further relation of forme, or quality. And Bauhinus, vpon Matthiolus 
Commentaries of Diofcorides, and in his Pinax alfo, followeth his opini- 
on. Camerarius in his Hortus Medicus is of opinion, it may be referred to 
the Helychryfum of Crateua. Gefner, as I thinke, firft of all, and after him 
Lobel, Camerarius, Clufius and many others, referre it to the Satyrium of 
Diofcorides: and furely this opinion is the moft probable for many rea- 
fons. Firft, for that this plant doth grow very frequent in many places of 
Greece, and the lefler Afia, which were no doubt fufficiently knowne both 
to Theophraftus, and Diofcorides, and was accounted among bulbous 
rootes, although by fundry names. And fecondly, as Diofcorides fetteth 
forth his Satyrium, fo this moft commonly beareth three leaues vpon a 
ftalke (although fometimes with vs it hath foure or fiue) like vnto a Lilly, 
whereof fome are often feen to be both red, in the firft fpringing, and alfo 
vpon the decaying, efpecially in a dry time, and in a dry ground : the flower 
likewife of fome is white, and like a Lilly ; the roote is round, and as white 
within as the white of an egge, couered with a browne coate, hauing a 
fweetifti, but not vnpleafant tafte, as any man without danger many try. 
This defcription doth fo liuely fet forth this plant, that I thinke wee mall 
not neede to be any longer in doubt, where to finde Diofcorides his Saty- 
rium Triphyllum, feeing wee haue fuch plenty growing with vs. And 
thirdly, there is no doubt, but that it hath the fame qualities, as you mall 
hereafter heare further. And laftly, that plant likewife that beareth a red 
flower, may very well agree with his Erythronium ; for the defcriptions in 
Diofcorides are both alike, as are their qualities, the greateft doubt may be 
in the feede, which yet may agree vnto Lin or Flaxe as fitly, or rather more 
then many other plants doe, in many of his comparifons, which yet wee re- 
ceiue for currant. For the feede of Tulipas are flat, hard, and mining as the 
feede of Linum or Flaxe, although of another colour, and bigger, as Dio- 
fcorides himfelfe fetteth it downe. But if there mould be a miftaking in the 
writing of XiVs for x 1 '/ 37 " 8 * in the Greeke Text, as the flippe is both eafie and 
likely, it were then out of all queftion the fame : for the feede is very like 
vnto the feede of Lillies, as any man may eafily difcerne that know them, or 
will compare them. It is generally called by all the late Writers, Tulipa, 
which is deriued from the name Tulpan, whereby the Turkes of Da/mafia 
doe entitle their head Tyres, or Caps ; and this flower being blowne, laide 
open, and inuerted, doth very well referable them. We haue receiued the 
early kinde from Conftantinople, by the name of Cafa /a/e, and the other 
by the name of Gauala /a/e. Lobel and others doe call it Lilio-narciffus, be- 
caufe it doth refemble a Lilly in the leafe, flower, and feede, and a DafFodill 
in the roote. We call it in Englifh the Turkes Cap, but moft vfually Tulipa, 
as moft other Chriftian Countries that delight therein doe. Dalefchampius 
calleth it Oulada. 

The Vertues. 

Diofcorides writeth, that his firft Satyrium is profitable for them that 


The Garden of pleajant Mowers. 67 

haue a convulfion in their necke, (which wee call a cricke in the necke) if it 
be drunke in harih (which we call red) wine. 

That the roots of Tulipas arc mnirilliing, there is no doubt, the pleafant, 
or at leaft the no vnpleafant tafte, may hereunto perfwade; for diuers haue 
had them lent by their friends from beyond Sea, and miftaking them to bee 
Onions, haue vied them as Onions in their pottage or broth, and ncuer 
found any caufc of millike, or any fenfe of euill quality produced by them, 
but accounted them fweete Onions. 

Further, I haue made tryall of them my fclfe in this manner. I haue prc- 
ferued the rootes of thefe Tulipas in Sugar, as I haue done the rootes of E- 
ringus, Orchis, or any other fuch like, and haue found them to be almoft as 
pleafant as the Eringus rootes, being firme and found, fit to be prefented to 
the curious ; but tor force of Venereous quality, I cannot fay, either from my 
felfe, not hauing eaten many, or from any other, on whom I haue bellowed 
them : but furely, if there be any fpeciall propertie in the rootes of Orchis, 
or fome other tending to that purpofe, I thinke this may as well haue it as 
they. It Ihould feeme, that Diofcorides doth attribute a great Venereous 
faculty to the feede, whereof I know not any hath made any efpeciall ex- 
periment with vs as yet. 


Narci/us. The Daffodill. 

THere hath beene great confulion among many of our moderne Writers of 
plants, in not diftinguilhing the manifold varieties of Daffodils; for euery one 
almoft, without conlideration of kinde or forme, or other fpeciall note, gi- 
ueth names fo diuerfly one from another, that if any one fhall receiue from feuerall 
places the Catalogues of their names (as I haue had many) as they fet them down, and 
compare the one Catalogue with the other, he (hall fcarce haue three names in a dozen 
to agree together, one calling that by one name, which another calleth by another, that 
very few can tell what they meane. And this their confufion, in not diftinguifhing 
the name of NarciJ/us from PfeudonarciJ/us, is of all other in this kinde the greateft and 
grolfeft errour. To auoide therefore that gulfe, whereof I complaine that fo manic 
haue bin endrenched ; and to reduce the Daffodils into fuch a methodicall order, that 
euery one may know, to what C/afsis or forme any one doth appertaine, I will firft 
diuide them into two principall or primary kindes : that is, into NarciJ/bs, true Daffo- 
dils, and Pft'tuhthirciJ/bs, baftard Daffodils: which distinction I hold to be molt necef- 
farie to be fet downe firit of all, that euery one may be named without confulion vnder 
his owne primary kind, and then to let the other parts of the fubdiuifion follow, as is 
proper to them, and titteft to exprelfe them. Now to caufe you to vnderftand the 
difference betweene a true Daffodill and a falfe, is this ; it confifteth onely in the flow- 
er, (when as in all other parts they cannot bee diftinguilhed) and chiefly in the middle 
cup or chalice ; for that we doe in a manner onely account thofe to bee Pfeudonarciffbs, 
baftard Daffodils, whofe middle cup is altogether as long, and fometime a little longer 
then the outter leaues that doe encompalfe it, fo that it feemeth rather like a trunke or 
long nofe, then a cup or chalice, fuch as almoft all the Narcifsi, or true Daffodils haue; 
I fay almoft, becaufe I know that fome of them haue their middle cup fo fmall, that 
we rather call it a crowne then a cup ; and againe, fome of them haue them fo long, 
that they may feem to be of the number of the Pfctuionarcifii, or baftard Daffodils : but 
yet may ealily be knowne from them, in that, although the cup of fome of the true 
Daffodils be great, yet it is wider open at the brim or edge, and not fo long and narrow 
all alike as the baftard kindes are; and this is the chiefe and onely way to know how to 
feuer thefe kindes, which rule holdeth certaine in all, except that kinde which is called 
Narcijfus luncifolius rejkxo fore, whofe cup is narrow, and as long as the leaues that 
turne vp againe. 


68 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Secondly, I will fubdiuide each of thefe again apart by themfelues, into foure forts ; 
and firft the Narciffbs, or true Daffodils into 

Latifolios, broad leafed Daffodils. 

Angujlif olios, narrow leafed Daffodils. 

luncifolios, Rufhe Daffodils, and 

Marinas, Sea Daffodils. 

Thefe forts againe doe comprehend vnder them fome other diuiflons, whereby 
they may the better be diftinguifhed, and yet ftill bee referred to one of thofe foure 
former forts: as 

Monanthos, that is, Daffodils that beare but one flower, or two at the molt vpon a 
ftalke, and 

Polyanthus, thofe that beare many flowers together vpon a ftalke : as alfo 

Simp lid Jtore, thofe that beare lingle flowers, and 

Multiplici Jiore, or Jiore plena, that is, haue double flowers. 

Vernales, thofe that flower in the Spring, and among them fome that are earlier ; and 
therefore called 

Preecoces, early flowring Daffodils, and 

Autumnales, thofe that flower in Autumne onely. 

And laftly, with the PfeudonarciJ/os, or baftard Daffodils, I will keepe the fame or- 
der, to diftinguifh them likewife into their foure feuerall forts ; and as with the true 
Daffodils, fo with thefe falfe, defcribe vnder euery fort : firft, thofe that beare fingle 
flowers, whether one or many vpon a ftalke ; and then thofe that beare double flow- 
ers, one or many alfo. As for the diftinclions of maior and minor, greater and leffer, 
and of maximus and minimus, greateft and leaft, they doe not onely belong to thefe 
Daffodils ; and therefore muft be vfed as occafion permitteth, but vnto all other fort 
of plants. To begin therefore, I thinke fittelt with that ftately Daffodill, which for his 
excellency carrieth the name of None fuch. 

I. Narciffiis latifolius omnium maximus, amplo calice Jtauo, jiue Nompareille. 
The great None fuch Daffodill, or Incomparable Daffodill. 

This NarciJJus Nompareille hath three or foure long and broad leaues, of a grayifti 
greene colour, among which rifeth vp a ftalke two foote high at the leaft, at the toppe 
whereof, out of a thinne skinnie huske, as all Daffodils haue, commeth forth one large 
fingle flower, and no more vfually, confifting of iixe very pale yellow large leaues, 
almoft round at the point, with a large cuppe in the middle, fonrewhat yellower then 
the leaues, the bottome whereof next vnto the ftalke is narrow and round, rifing wider 
to the mouth, which is very large and open, and vneuenly cut in or indented about 
the edges. The cup doth very well refemble the chalice, that in former dayes with vs, 
and beyond the Seas is ftill vfed to hold the Sacramentall Wine, that is with a nar- 
rower bottome, and a wide mouth. After the flower is paft, fometimes there com- 
meth (for it doth not often) a round greene head, and blacke round feede therein, like 
vnto other Daffodils, but greater. The roote is great, as other Daffodils that beare 
large flowers, and is couered ouer with a brownifh coate or skinne. The flower hath 
little or no fent at all. 

Flare geminate. This doth fometimes bring forth a flower with ten or twelue leaues, and a cup much 
larger, as if it would be two, euen as the flower feemeth. 

2. Narciffus omnium maximus Jiore & calice Jtauo. 
The great yellow Incomparable Daffodill. 

This other kinde differeth neither in forme, nor bigneffe of leafe or flower from the 
former, but in the colour of the circling leaues of the flower, which are of the fame 
yellow colour with the cup. 

Flore gem'mato. This doth fometimes degenerate and grow luxurious alfo, bringing forth two flow- 
ers vpon a ftalke, each diftin6t from other, and fometimes two flowers thruft together, 
as if they were but one, although it be but feldome ; for it is not a peculiar kinde that 
is conftant, yearly abiding in the fame forme. 

3. Narci/fus 

The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 69 

3. Narcffiu maximtis grtfius cafof Jfaio. The gray Peerlelle Daffbdill. 

This Peerleire Daffbdill well deferueth hi> among thefe kindes, tor that it 
doth much relemble them, and peraduenture is but a difference raifed from the feede 
of the former, it is fo like in leafe and flower, but that the leauesfeeme to be fomewhat 
greater, and the fixe outer leaues of the flower to be of a glittering whitifh gray colour, 
and the cup yellow, as the former, but larger. 

4. Nartiffiu latifoiius fiatto Jiort iimph calicc, Jiuc 
The leller yellow Nompareille, or the Lady Mattenefies Daffbdill. 

The leaues of this Daffbdill, are fomewhat like vnto the leaues of the firlt kind, but 
not altogether fo long or broad : the ftalke likewife rifeth not vp fully fo high, and 
beareth one flower like the former, but letter, and both the cuppe and the leaues are of 
one colour, that is, of a pale yellow, yet more yellow then in the former : the cup of 
this alfo is leller, and a little differing ; for it is neither fully fo fmall in the bottome, 
nor fo large at the edges, nor fo crumpled at the brimmes, fo that all thefe differences 
doe plainly (hew it to be another kinde, quite from the former. 

The Place. 

The places of none of thefe are certainly knowne to vs where they grow 
naturally, but we haue them onely in our Gardens, and haue beene fent, and 
procured from diuers places. 

The Time. 

They flower fometimes in the end of March, but chiefly in Aprill. 

The Names. 

The firft and fecond haue been fent vs by the name of NarciJ/e Nompare- 
//A-, as it is called in French ; and in Latine, Narci/its omnium maximus amplo 
callcc flaiM, and NarciJ/us Incomparabilis, that is, the Incomparable Daffbdill, 
or the greateft Daffbdill of all other, with a large yellow cuppe : but aflu- 
redly, although this Daffbdill doth exceed many other, both in length and 
bignelle, yet the great Spanifh baftard Daffbdill, which (hall be fpoken of 
hereafter, is in my perfwalion oftentimes a farre higher and larger flower; 
and therefore this name was giuen but relatiuely, we may call it in Englifh, 
The great None fuch Daffbdill, or the Incomparable Daffbdill, or the great 
Peerleile Daffbdill, or the Nompareille Daffbdill, which you will : for 
they all doe anfwer either the French or the Latine name ; and becaufe this 
name Nompartilte is growne currant by cuftome, I know not well how to 
alter it. The third kinde may pafle with the title giuen it, without con- 
troule. The laft is very well knowne beyond the Seas, efpecially in the 
Low Countries, and thofe parts, by the Lady Mattenefle Daffbdill, becaufe 
Clulius receiued it from her. We may call it in Englifh, for the correfpon- 
dency with the former, The lefler yellow Nompareille, or Peerlelle Daffb- 
dill, or the Lady Mattenefle DafFodill, which you will. 

NarciJ/us Indicus jlore ruAro, diflus lacobaus. 
The Indian Daffbdill with a red flower. 

This Indian Daffbdill is fo differing, both in forme, not hauing a cuppe, and in co- 
lour, being red, from the whole Family of the Daffodils (except the next that follow- 
eth, and the Autumne Daffodils) that fome might iuftly queftion the fitnefle of his 
place here. But becaufe as all the plants, whether bulbous or other, that come from 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

the Indies, either Eaft or Weft (although they differ very notably, from thofe that 
grow in thefe parts of the world) muft in a generall furuey and mufter be ranked euery 
one, as neere as the furueiours wit will direct him, vnder fome other growing with vs, 
that is of neereft likenefle ; Euen fo vntill fome other can direct his place more fitly, I 
fhall require you to accept of him in this, with this defcription that followeth, which 
I muft tell you alfo, is more by relation then knowledge, or fight of the plant it felfe. 
This Daffodill hath diuers broad leaues, fomewhat like vnto the common or ordinary 
white Daffodill, of a grayifh greene colour ; from the fides whereof, as alfo from the 
middle of them, rife vp fometimes two ftalkes together, but moft vfually one after an- 
other (for very often it flowreth twice in a Summer) and often alfo but one ftalke a- 
lone, which is of a faint reddifh colour, about a foote high or more, at the toppe 
whereof, out of a deepe red skinne or huske, commeth forth one flower bending 
downewards, confifting of fixe long leaues without any cup in the middle, of an ex- 
cellent red colour, tending to a crimfon ; three of thefe leaues that turne vpwards, are 
fomewhat larger then thofe three that hang downewards, hauing fixe threads or 
chiues in the middle, tipt with yellow pendents, and a three forked ftile longer then 
the reft, and turning vp the end thereof againe : the roote is round and bigge, of a 
brownifh colour on the outfide, and white within. This is fet forth by Aldinus, Car- 
dinall Farnefius his Phyfitian, that at Rome it rofe vp with ftalkes of flowers, be- 
fore any leaues appeared. 

The Place, Time, and Names. 

This naturally groweth in the Weft Indies, from whence it was brought 
into Spaine, where it bore both in lune and luly, and by the Indians in their 
tongue named AZCAL XOCHITL, and hath beene fent from Spaine, vnto 
diuers louers of plants, into feuerall parts of Chriftendome, but haue not 
thriued long in thefe tranfalpine colder Countries, fo far as I can heare. 

Narctffus Trapezunticus JJore luteo prcecocifsimus. 
The early Daffodill of Trebizond. 

Becaufe this Daffodill is fo like in flower vnto the former, although differing in co- 
lour, I thought it the fitteft place to ioyne it the next thereunto. This early Daffodill 
hath three or foure fhort very greene leaues, fo like vnto the leaues of the Autumne 
Daffodill, that many may eafily bee deceiued in miftaking one for another, the diffe- 
rence confifting chiefly in this, that the leaues of this are not fo broad or fo long, nor 
rife vp in Autumne : in the midft of thefe leaues rifeth vp a fhort green ftalke, an hand- 
full high, or not much higher vfually, (I fpeake of it as it hath often flowred with mee, 
whether the caufe be the coldnefle of the time wherein it flowreth, or the nature of 
the plant, or of our climate, I am in fome doubt ; but I doe well remember, that the 
ftalkes of fome plants, that haue flowred later with me then the firft, haue by the grea- 
ter ftrength, and comfort of the Sunne, rifen a good deale higher then the firft) bearing 
at the top, out of a whitifh thinne skinne ftripped with greene, one flower a little ben- 
ding downewards, confifting of fixe leaues, laid open almoft in the fame manner with 
the former Indian Daffodill, whereof fome doe a little turne vp their points againe, of 
a faire pale yellow colour, hauing fixe white chiues within it, tipt with yellow pen- 
dents, and a longer pointell : the roote is not very great, but blackifh on the outfide, 
fo like vnto the Autumne Daffodill, but that it is yellow vnder the firft or outermoft 
coate, that one may eafily miftake one for another. 

The Place. 

It was fent vs from Conftantinople among other rootes, but as wee may 
gheffe by the name, it fhould come thither from Trapezunte or Trebizond. 

The Time. 

It flowreth fometimes in December, if the former part of the Winter 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

i \aniffm Xonpareillf. The incomparable Daffodil!. 2 Nareiffus Matttntft. The lefler yellow Nomparclle Daffodil). 3 A'or- 
tiffui lacobttut flare rvbra. The red Indian Daffodil). 4 Narctffui Trafxiunticm. The early Daffodil) of Trabefond. 5 Nor- 

ctjfui Monlantts albut apopkyflmi pr<rdilni. The white winged Daffodil). 6 Narcif/ut Montatius,jiu( Nomportillt totui albui. 
white Nnmpareille, or Peerlefle Daffodill. 7 .Varcif/ut 0/6*1 oblongo calid. The white Daffodil! with a long cup. 


72 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

haue been milde ; but moft vfually about the end of January, or elfe in Fe- 
bruarie the beginning or the end. 

The Names. 

Wee doe vfually call it from the Turkifh name, Narciffus T'rapezunticus, 
and fome alfo call it Narci/fus vernus pr&cox, as Clufius doth, in Englifh, 
The early Daffodill of Trebizond. 

Narcijfus Montanus albus apophyjibus preeditus. 

The white Mountaine Daffodill with eares, or 

The white winged Daffodill. 

This Mountaine Daffodill rifeth vp with three or foure broad leaues, fomewhat 
long, of a whitifh greene colour, among which rifeth vp a ftalke a foote and a halfe 
high, whereon ftandeth one large flower, and fometimes two, confifting of fixe white 
leaues a peece, not very broad, and without any fhew of yellowneffe in them, three 
whereof haue vfually each of them on the backe part, at the bottome vpon the one fide 
of them, and not on both, a little fmall white peece of a leafe like an eare, the other 
three hauing none at all : the cup is almoft as large, or not much leffe then the fmall 
Nompareille, fmall at the bottome, and very large, open at the brimme, of a faire yel- 
low colour, and fometimes the edges or brimmes of the cup will haue a deeper yel- 
low colour about it, like as if it were difcoloured with Saffron : the flower is verie 
fweete, the roote is great and white, couered with a pale coate or skinne, not verie 
blacke, and is not very apt to encreafe, feldome giuing of-fets ; neither haue I euer ga- 
thered feede thereof, becaufe it pafTeth away without bearing any with me. 

Narciffus Motitanus, fiue Nompareille totus albus amplo calice. 
The white Nompareille Daffodill. 

This white Nompareille Daffodill, is in roote and leafe very like vnto the former 
mountain or winged Daffodill, but that they are a little larger : the ftalke from among 
the leaues rifeth vp not much higher then it, bearing at the top one large flower, com- 
pofed of fixe long white leaues, each whereof is as it were folded halfe way together, 
in the middle whereof ftandeth forth a large white cup, broader at the mouth or brims 
then at the bottome, very like vnto the leffer Nompareille Daffodill before remem- 
bred, which hath caufed it to be fo entituled : the fent whereof is no leffe fweete then 
the former. 

The Place. 

The naturall places of thefe Daffodils are not certainly knowne to vs; 
but by the names they carry, they fhould feeme to bee bred in the Moun- 

The Time. 

Thefe flower not fo early as many other kindes doe, but rather are to bee 
accounted among the late flowring Daffodils; for they fhew not their 
flowers vntill the beginning of May, or the latter end of Aprill, with the 

The Names. 

The names fet downe ouer the heads of either of them be f uch, whereby 
they are knowne to vs : yet fome doe call the firlt Narciffus auriculatus, that 
is to fay, The Daffodill with eares : and the other, NarciJ/tts Nompareille 
totus albus, that is to fay, The white Nompareille, or Peerleffe Daffodill. 

I. Narciffus 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 73 

I . Narci/fus u I bus oblongo calice lutto preecox minor. 
The fmall early white Daffodill with a long cup. 

The leaues of this early Daffodill are broad, very greene, and not whitifh as others, 
three or tbure Itanding together, about a foote long or better, among which rifeth vp a 
greene Italke, not full fo high as the leaues, bearing one flower at the toppe thereof of 
a reafonable bigneffe, but not fo great as the later kindes that follow are, confifling of 
lix whitilh leaues, but not perfect white, hauing a (hew of a Creame colour appearing 
in them ; in the middle is a long round yellow cup, about halfe an inch long or better. 
The fmell of this flower is reafonable fweete, the roote is of a reafonable bignefle, yet 
Idfer then the rootes of the later kindes. 

2. Narciffus pa Hi Jus oblongo calice Jlauo preecox. 
The early Strawe coloured Daffodill with a long cup. 

The leaues of this Daffodill are as greene as the former, but much narrower; and 
the leaues of the flower are more enclining to yellow, but yet very pale, as if it were a 
light Itrawe colour, and feeme to bee a little more narrow and pointed then the for- 
mer : the cup of this, is as long and yellow as the precedent. The fmell whereof is very 
like the former, yet neither of them being fo fweete as thofe that follow. 

3. Narcijfus albus oblongo calice luteo ferotinus maior. 
The great late flowring white Daffodill with a long cup. 

This later flowring Daffodill hath his leaues fomewhat narrow & long, of a grayifh 
or whitifh greene colour, among which the ftalke rifeth vp a foote and a halfe high, 
bearing one flower at the toppe, made of fix white leaues, hauing the cup in the mid- 
dle thereof as long as the former, and of a deepe yellow : the edges of this cuppe are 
fometimes plaine, and fometimes a little crumpled ; they are often alfo circled at the 
brimmes with a Saffron colour, and often alfo without it, the fmell whereof is very 
pleafant, and not heady : the roote hereof is reafonable bigge, and couered ouer ra- 
ther with a pale then blackifh skinne. This flower doth fometimes alter his forme into 
eight leaues, which being narrow and long, feeme like a white ftarre, compafling a 
yellow trunke. 

4. Narciffus totus pallidus oblongo calice ferotinus minor. 
The late pale coloured Daffodill with a long cup. 

There is another of this kinde, whofe flowers is wholly of a pale white, or yellowim 
colour, differing neither in leafe nor roote from the former. 

5. NarciJ/us pallidus oblongo calice Jlauo ferotinus. 
The Strawe coloured late flowring Daffodill with a long yellow cup. 

The chiefe difference of this Daffodill from the former, confifteth in the colour of 
the top of the flower, which is of a more yellow colour, and a little larger then the 
former, and the brimmes or edges of the cup of a deeper yellow, or Saffron colour. 
The fmell of this is no lefle fweete then in the former. 

6. NarciJ/us albus oblongo calice flauo ferotinus, duobus Jloribus in caule. 
The late white Daffodill with a long cup, and two flowers on a ftalke. 

This Daffodill is furely a kinde of it felfe, although it be fo like the former, abiding 
conftant in his forme and manner of flowring, vfually bearing without mifling two 
flowers vpon a ftalke, very like vnto the former great white kinde, that one cannot 
know any greater matter of difference betweene them, then that it beareth two flowers 
on a Italke : the cuppes whereof are foldome touched with any fhew of Saffron colour 
on them at the brimmes or edges, as fome of the former haue. 

K The 

74 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Place. 

All thefe Daffodils doe grow on the Pyrenaean mountaines, and haue 
been fought out, and brought into thefe parts, by thofe curious or couetous 
fearchers of thefe delights, that haue made vs partakers of them. 

The Time. 

The former kindes flower earlier by a fortnight then the later, the one in 
the later end of March, and the other not vntill the middle of Aprill. 

The Names. 

Their names are giuen to euery one of them in their feuerall titles, as fitly 
as may beft agree with their natures ; and therefore I (hall not neede to 
fpeake any further of them. 

Narciffus medioluteus vu/gans. 
The common white Daffodill called Primrofe PeerlefTe. 

This Daffodill is fo common in euery Countrey Garden almoft through England, 
that I doubt I mall but fpend my time in vaine, to defcribe that which is fo well 
knowne, yet for their fakes that know it not, I will fet downe the defcription of it in 
this manner. It hath long limber and broad leaues, of a grayifh greene colour, a- 
mong which rifeth vp a ftalke, bearing at the toppe out of a skinnie huske fometimes 
but one flower, but moft commonly two flowers, and feldome three or more, but lar- 
ger for the moft part, then any that beare many flowers vpon a ftalke, of a pale whitifh 
Creame colour, tending fomewhat neare vnto the colour of a pale Primrofe (which 
hath caufed our Countrey Gentlewomen, I thinke, to entitle it Primrofe Peerlefle) 
with a fmall round flat Crowne, rather then a cup in the middle, of a pale yellow co- 
lour, with fome pale chiues ftanding therein, being of a fweete, but fluffing fent : the 
roote is reafonable great, and encreafing more then a better plant. 

Narciffus mediocroceus ferotinus. The late flowring white Daffodill. 

This Daffodill hath much fmaller leaues, and fhorter then the laft, the ftalke alfo 
rifeth not fo high by much, and beareth but one flower thereon, of a pure white co- 
lour, made of fix fmall leaues, and fomewhat narrow, ftanding feuerally one from 
another, and not fo clofe together as the former, but appearing like a ftarre : the cup is 
fmall and round, of a pale yellow colour, but faffrony about the brims, hauing fix 
fmall pale chiues in the middle, the fmell whereof is much fweeter then in the former. 

The Pkce. 

The firft is thought to grow naturally in England, but I could neuer heare 
of his naturall place. I am fure it is plentifull enough in all Country Gar- 
dens, fo that wee fcarce giue it place in our more curious parkes. The fe- 
cond liueth onely with them that delight in varieties. 

The Time. 

The firft Daffodill flowreth in the middle time, being neither of the 
earlieft, nor of the lateft ; but about the middle, or end of Aprill. The o- 
ther flowreth with the lateft in May. 

The Names. 

I fhall not neede to trouble you with further repetitions of names, they 
hauing been fet downe in their titles, which are proper to them. 

I. Narciffus 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


I Xarciflui vulgaris media lultm. The common white Daffodil), or Primrofe Pcerleffe. 2 Narciffui media (ntrpurtui maximum 

The great white purple ringed Daffodill. 3 Nar<ilfut mtiio purfurtm fracoji. The early purple ringed Daffodil!. 4 Narci/fus 
audio purpurtus fttllatui. The harry purple ringed Daffodill. 5 Harciffui Ptrfcus. The Perfian Daffodill. 6 Narcif/ui An- 
Ittmnalii minor. The leffer Winter Daffodill. 7 Narci/fui AuttimMalii maior. The greater Winter Daffodill. 

7 6 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

1. Narciffus medio purpureus preecox. The early purple ringed Daffodill. 

This early Daffodill hath many long grayifh greene leaues, fomewhat narrower 
and differ then the former common white Daffodill, among which rifeth vp a long 
naked hollow ftalke (as all other Daffodils haue) bearing at the toppe one flower, and 
feldome two, made of fixe long white leaues, (landing clofe together about the ftalke; 
the cup is yellow, and fo flat, that it might rather bee called a crowne : for it ftandeth 
very clofe to the middle, and very open at the brimmes, circled with a reddifh or pur- 
ple coloured ring, hauing certaine chiues in the middle of it alfo. The fmell hereof is 
very fweete, exceeding many other. 

2. Narciffus medio purpureus ferotinus. The late purple ringed Daffodill. 

The leaues of this Daffodill are alwayes broader then the former early one, and 
fome are very neare twice as broad : the flower is very like the former, being large, 
and his leaues (landing clofe one to the fide of another ; the ring likewife that compaf- 
feth the yellow coronet, is fometimes of a paler reddifh purple, and fometimes as 
deepe a red as the former: fo that it differeth not in any other materiall point, then 
that it flowreth not vntill the other is part and gone. The fent of this is like the for- 
mer, the roote hereof is greater, as well as the leafe and flower. 

3. Narciffus medio purpureus maximus. 
The great white purple ringed Daffodill. 

There is another kinde, whofe flower (as well as leaues and rootes) is larger then 
any other of this kinde, which onely maketh it a diftincl fort from the other : it flow- 
reth alfo with the later fort of thefe purple ringed Daffodils. 

4. Narciffus medio purpureus ftellaris. The ftarry purple ringed Daffodill. 

This Daffodill hath his leaues a little narrower and greener then the former forts, 
the flower alfo of this hath his fixe white leaues not fo broad, but narrower, and fee- 
ming longer then they, not clofing together, but (landing apart one from another, ma- 
king it feeme like a white (larre : it hath alfo a yellow coronet in the middle, circled 
about with purple, like the former. This doth fmell nothing fo fweete as the firft, but 
yet hath a good fent. 

The Place. 

The firft, third, and fourth of thefe Daffodils, haue alwayes beene fent 
vs from Conftantinople among other bulbous rootes, fo that wee know no 
further of their naturall places. 

The fecond groweth in many places of Europe, both in Germany, 
France, and Italy, as Clufius hath noted. 

The Time. 

The firft flowreth very early in March, euen with the firft Daffodils. The 
fecond, third, and fourth, about a moneth after. 

The Names. 

The early and ftarre Daffodils, haue been fent vs by the Turkifh name of 
Deuebohini, and Serincade. But their names, they haue receiued fince, to bee 
endenizond with vs, are fet downe in their feuerall titles. 

Narci/us Perficus. The Perfian Daffodill. 

This Perfian Daffodill differeth from all other kindes of Daffodils in his manner of 


The Garden of plcafant Flowers. 77 

growing, for it ncuer hath leaues and flowers at one time together, wherein it is like 
vnto a Colchicum, yet in roote and leafe it is a Daffodill. The roote is a little hlackifh 
on the outlide, fomewhat like the roote of the Autumne Daffodill, from whence rifeth 
vp a naked foote (lalke, bearing one pale yellow flower, breaking through a thinne 
skinne, which firll enclofed it, compofed of lix leaues, the three outermoll being a 
little larger then the reft, in the middle of the flower there are fix fmall chiues, and a 
longer pointell. The whole flower is of an vnpleafant fent : After the flower is part, 
come vp the leaues, fometimes before Winter, but moll vfually after the deepe of 
\Vinter is pall with vs, in the beginning of the yeare, which are broad, long, and of a 
pale greene colour, like the leaues of other Daffodils, but not greene as the Autumne 
DafFodill is, and belides they doe a little twine themfelues, as fome of the Pancratium, 
or ballard Sea Daffodils doe. 

NarciJ/'us Autumnalis maior. The greater Autumne or Winter DafFodill. 

The greater Autumne DafFodill rifeth vp with three or foure faire broad and (hort 
leaues at the rirll, but afterwards grow longer, of a very deepe or darke greene colour, 
in the middle of which rifeth vp a (hort, lliffe, round footeflalke, bearing one faire yel- 
low flower on the head thereof (inclofed at the firil in a thinne skinne, or huske) and 
confilleth of lix leaues as the former, with certaine chiues in the middle, as all or mofl 
other Daffodils haue, which paffeth away without (hew of any feed, or head for feed, 
although vnder the head there is a little greene knot, which peraduenture would beare 
feede, if our (harpe Winters did not hinder it. The roote is great and round, couered 
ouer with a blackifh skinne or coate. 

NarciJ/'us Autumnalis minor. The lefFer Autumne or Winter Daffodill. 

Clulius fetteth downe, that the manner of the flowring of this leffer Daffodill, is 
more like vnto the Perlian Daffodill, then vnto the former greater Autumne kind; but 
I doe finde that it doth in the fame fort, as the greater kinde, rife vp with his leaues firfl, 
and the flowers a while after : the flower of this is leffer, and a little paler then the 
flower of the greater kinde, but coniifting in like fort of fix leaues, narrow and f harpe 
pointed; the greene leaues alfo are almofl of as deepe a greene colour, as the greater 
kinde, but fmallc-r and narrower, and a little hollow in the middle. The roote is alfo 
alike, but lelFer, and couered with a blackifh skinne as the former. This hath fome- 
times borne blacke round feede in three fquare heads. 

The Place. 

The Perlian Daffodill hath beene fent fometimes, but very feldome, a- 
mong other rootes from Conflantinople, and it is probable by the name 
whereby it was fent, that it fhould naturally grow in Perfia. 

The other two haue likewife beene fent from Conllantinople, and as it 
is thought, grow in Thracia, or thereabouts. 

The Time. 

They all doe flower much about one time, that is, about the end of Sep- 
tember, and in October. 

The Names. 

The firfl hath been fent by the name of Scrincadf Per/iana, and thereupon 
is called Narciffus Per/icus, The Perfian Daffodill. 

The other two haue been thought by diuers to be Colchica, and fo haue 
they called them, vpon no other ground, but that their flower is in forme 
and time fomewhat like Colchicum, when as if they had marked them bet- 
ter, they might plainly difcerne, that in all other things they did refemble 
Daffodils ; but now the names of Colchicum luteum maius, & minus, is quite 


7 8 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

loft, time hauing worne them out, and they are called by moft Herbarifts 
now adayes, Narcijfus Autumnalis maior & minor, The greater and the 
leffer Autumne Daffodill. 

Thus farre haue I proceeded with thofe Daffodils, that hauing broad leaues, beare 
but one lingle flower, or two at the moft vpon a ftalke : And now to proceed with the 
reft, that haue broad leaues, and beare fingle flowers, but many vpon a ftalke. 


Narctfftts Africanus aureus maior. The great yellow Daffodill of Africa. 

This braue and (lately Daffodill hath many very long and broad leaues, of a better 
greene colour, then many others that are grayifh, among which appeareth a rtalke, 
not rifing to the height of the leaues, bearing at the toppe out of a skinnie hofe many 
faire, goodly, and large flowers, to the number of ten or twelue, if the roote bee well 
growne, and ftand in a warme place, euery one being larger then any of the French, 
Spanifh, or Turkic Daffodils, that beare many fingle flowers vpon a ftalke, and com- 
meth neere vnto the bigneffe of the Englifh Daffodill, called Primrofe Peerleffe, be- 
fore defcribed, or that French kinde hereafter defcribed, that beareth the largeft 
flowers, many vpon a ftalke (which fome would make to bee a kinde of that Englifh 
Daffodill, but bearing more flowers) and of a faire fhining yellow colour, hauing 
large, round, and open cups or boules, yellower then the outer leaues; and is of fo ex- 
ceeding fweete a fent, that it doth rather offend the fenfes by the aboundance thereof: 
the roote is great, and couered with a blackifh browne coate or skinne. 

v NarciJJus Africanus aureus minor. The leffer Barbary Daffodill. 

This leffer kinde is very neere the fame with the former, but that it lacketh fome- 
what of his ftatelineffe of height, largeneffe of flower and cup (being of a paler yel- 
low) and beauty of colour, for it beareth neither of thefe equall vnto the former, but 
is in them all inferiour. And thus by this priuatiue, you may vnderftand his pofitiue, 
and that fhall be fufficient at this time. 

Narcijus Byzantinus totus luteus. The yellow Turkic Daffodill. 

Whereas the laft defcribed, came fhort of the beauty of the former, fo this lacketh 
of that beauty is in the laft ; for this, although it haue very long leaues, and a high 
ftalke, yet the flowers are neither fo many, as not being aboue foure or fiue, nor fo 
large, being not much greater then the ordinary French Daffodill hereafter defcri- 
bed, nor the colour fo faire, but much paler, and the cup alfo fmaller ; and herein con- 
fifteth the chiefeft differences betweene this, and both the other, but that the fent of 
this is alfo weaker. 

The Place. 

The firft and the fecond grow in Barbary, about Argiers, and Fez, as by 
the relation of them, that haue brought them into thefe parts, wee haue 
been enformed. 

The laft hath been often brought from Conftantinople among other va- 
rieties of Daffodils, but from whence they receiued them, I could neuer 

The Time. 

Thefe Daffodils do flower very early, euen with the firft fort of Daffo- 
dils, I meane after they haue been accuftomed vnto our climate : for often- 
times vpon their firft bringing ouer, they flower in lanuary or February, 
efpecially if they be preferued from the frofts, and kept in any warme place ; 
for they are very tender, and will foone perifh, being left abroad. 

The Names. 

The firft is called by diuers in French, Narcijfe if Algiers, and in many 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 79 

places of the Low Countries, Narcijfcn run Htck, or Narcijfus Heckius ; by 
rliuers others Narcijfus Afrtcanus aun-us maior, we may call it in Englifh, The 
great African DafFodill, or the great Barbary DafFodill, or the great yellow 
DafFodill of Argiers, which you pleafe. 

The fecond hath no other variation of name, then a diminutiue of the 
former, as is fct downe in the title. 

The third is no doubt the fame, that Clufius fetteth downc in the twelfth 
Chapter of his fecond Booke of the Hiftory of more rare plants, and ma- 
keth the fourth fort, which came from Constantinople, and may alfo be the 
lame, which he maketh his fifth, which (as he faith) he receiued from Do- 
ctour Simor Touar of Seuill in Spainc. Wee call it, from the place from 
whence we receiued it, Narcijfus Byzantirius, with the addition of totus lu- 
/Vtfj, to put a difference from other forts that come from thence alfo : in En- 
glifh, The yellow fmgle DafFodill of Turkic. 

Narcijfus Sulphureus maior. The greater Lemon coloured DafFodill. 

The greater of thefe Daffodils, beareth three or foure greene and very long leaues, 
a foote and a halfe long at the leafl, among which rifeth vp a round, yet crefted ftalke, 
not fo high as the leaues, bearing flue or fixe fingle flowers thereon, euery one of them 
being greater then the ordinary French or Italian Daffodils, with many flowers vpon 
a italke; of a faint, but yet pleafant yellow colour at the firft, which after they haue 
been in flower a fortnight or thereabouts, change into a deeper, or more fullen yellow 
colour : the cup in the middle is likewife larger, then in thofe formerly named, and of 
a deeper yellow colour then the outer leaues, hauing onely three chiues within it. The 
fmell is very pleafant. 

Narcijfus Sulphureus minor. The lefler Lemon coloured DafFodill. 

This lefler DafFodill hath broader and fhorter leaues then the former, of the colour 
of other Daffodils, and not greene like the former : the (lalke of this rifeth vp higher 
then the leaues, bearing foure or fiue flowers vpon fhorter footeftalkes, and no bigger 
then the French DafFodill, of a pale yellow, which moft doe call a Brimftone colour, 
the cup or rather crowne in the middle, is fmall, and broad open, of a little deeper yel- 
low, hauing many chiues within it, and is as it were fprinkled ouer with a kinde of 
mealineffe. The fmell of this is not full fo pleafant as the former. 

The Place. 

Both thefe haue been gathered on the Pyrensean Mountaines, and both 
likewife haue been fent out of Italy. 

The Time. 

They both flower in the middle time of the Daffodils flowring, that is, in 

The Names. 

They haue their Latine names expreffed in their titles, and fo are their 
Englifh alfo, if you pleafe fo to let them paffe; or elfe according to the La- 
tine, you may call them, The greater and the lefler Brimftone coloured 
Daffodils ; fome haue called them Narcijfus Italicus, but the Italians them- 
felues haue fent them by the name of Narcijfo Solfarigno. 

Narcijfus totus albus polyanthos. The milke white DafFodill many vpon a Italke. 

The leaues of this DafFodill are of a meane fize, both for length and breadth, yet 
fomewhat greener then in the ordinary forts, that haue fome whitenefle in them : the 


Ho The Garden of pleafant F/owers. 

flowers are many vpon the ftalke, as fmall for the mod part, as any of thefe kindes that 
beare many together, being wholly of a milke, or rather fnow white colour, both the 
cuppe, which is fmall, and the outer leaues that compafle it ; after which come fmall 
heads, wherein is contained round blacke feede, as all other Daffodils doe, although 
fome greater, and others leffer, according to the proportion of the plants : the roote is 
couered ouer with a blackifh skinne or coate ; the fmell is very fweete. 

There are two other forts more of this kinde, the differences whereof are, that the 
one hath his leaues fomewhat broader, and the flowers greater then the former : And 
the other fmaller leaues and flowers alfo, whofe cups being fmall, are neuer feene fully 
open, but as it were halfe clofed at the brimmes. 

NarciJ/us latifolius totus albus, mediocri c a lice reflexus. 
The milke white DafFbdill with the great cup. 

There is yet another fort of thefe milke white Daffodils, whofe leaues are as broad 
as any of the former, and whofe cup in the middle of the flower, is fomewhat larger 
then in any of the leffer forts, and lefler then in the greater kinde : but the leaues of the 
flowers doe a little turne themfelues vpwards, which maketh a chiefe difference. 

The Place. 

Thefe Daffodils grow in Spaine, from whence I receiued many that 
flourifhed a while, but perifhed by fome fierce cold Winters : they likewife 
grow in France, from whence many alfo haue been brought vnto vs. They 
haue likewife been fent from Conftantinople to vs, among other kindes of 

The Time. 

They that come from Conftantinople, for the moft part doe flower 
earlier then the other, euen after they are accuftomed to our ayre. Some of 
them flower notwithftanding in the end of March, the reft in Aprill. 

The Names. 

They are vfually called Narcijfus totus albus polyanthos, adding thereunto 
the differences of maior, medius, and minor, that is, The milke white Daffo- 
dill, the greater, the middle, and the lefler ; for fo fome doe diftinguifh 
them. The laft, for diftin&ion, hath his name in his title fufficient to ex- 
prefle him. 

I . Narciffus Narbonenfis^ftue media luteus preecox. 
The early French Daffodill. 

The leaues of this Daffodill, fpring vp out of the ground a moneth or two fome- 
times before the other of this kinde, that follow ; being alfo fhorter and narrower : 
the ftalke likewife is not very high, bearing diuers flowers at the top, breaking through 
a thinne skinne, as is vfuall with all the Daffodils, euery one whereof is fmall, confi- 
fting of fix white leaues, and a fmall yellow cup in the middle, which is of a prettie 
fmall fent, nothing fo ftrong as many others: the roote is great and round, and fel- 
dome parteth into of-fets, euen as all the other that follow, bearing many fmgle flow- 
ers, doe. 

2. Narciffus Narbonenfis vulgaris. The ordinary French Daffodill. 

This Daffodill hath long and broad greene leaues, a little hollowifh in the middle, 
and edged on both fides ; the ftalke is a foote and a halfe high, bearing at the toppe di- 
uers flowers, fomewhat larger then the former, confiding of fix white leaues, fome- 
what round; the cup is yellow in the middle, fmall and round, like vnto an Acorne 
cuppe, or a little fuller in the middle : this is the forme of that fort which was firft 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


i Xariiffus Afruaxui aureus motor. The great yellow Daffodill of Africa. 2 Narcif/ut A/ricamis tuUus minor. The letter 
yellov, UarTodill of Africa. 3 \arciffns S,irbontnfn mrilio luteut. Tht- I-'rench DafTodilt. 4 Nani/fus Pifauus, vel tntus albui. 
The Italian Daffodill, or thr all white "Dafibdill. 5 Nartifftu Hmffurt. Muffanhis Daffodil). 6. N arciff$ Anglicm fvlyantlios. 
The great Englifh DafTodill. 

82 The Garden of pleaja nt Flowers, 

brought vnto vs : But fince there is found out fome, whofe cup is fhorter, others flat- 
ter, fome of a paler, others of a deeper yellow colour, and fome that haue their cuppe 
longer then the reft. The rootes of them all are couered with a blackif h skin or coate. 

3. Narciffus Narbonenjis maior amp lo fare. 
The French Daffodil! with great flowers. 

The leaues of this Daffodill are fomewhat like vnto the laft, but not fo broad, yet 
full as long, and fpring fooner out of the ground, yet not fo early as the firft of thefe 
kindes : the ftalke hereof is flatter, and rifeth higher, bearing foure or fiue flowers, 
much larger then any of this kinde ; for euery one of them doth equall the Englifh 
Daffodill, before defcribed, but whiter then it, and the yellow cup larger, and more 
open then in any of the reft. The roote of this is not fo great, or round, as the former, 
but is more plentifull in of-fets, then any other of thefe French, or Italian kindes. 

4. Narcijfus Pi/anus. The Italian Daffodill. 

This Italian Daffodill hath his leaues as large, or larger then the fecond French 
Daffodill, and his ftalke fomewhat higher, bearing many white flowers, very like vn- 
to the common French Daffodill, but fomewhat larger alfo ; and the yellow cup in the 
middle likewife is larger, and rounder, then is vfually feen in any of the French kinds, 
except the laft with the greateft flowers. 

5. Narciffus mediocroceus polyant/ios. 
The French Daffodill with Saffron coloured cups. 

This French Daffodill hath diuers leaues of a grayifh greene colour, not fo broad 
or long as the laft recited Daffodill, but comming neerer vnto the fecond French 
kinde, the flowers likewife are white, and many vpon a ftalke, like thereunto, but the 
yellow cup is fomewhat large, and circled with a Saffron like brimme or edge, which 
maketh the chiefeft difference. 

6. Narci/fus mediocroceus alter ; diftus Mu//art. Muflart his Daffodill. . 

The affinity between this & the laft, (for it is not the fame to be exprefled vnder one 
title) hath made me ioyne it next vnto it, yet becaufe it hath a notable difference, it 
deferueth a place by himfelfe. The leaues are large and long, and the flowers, being 
white, are larger alfo then in any other, except the greateft, but the cup hereof is fmall 
and fhort, rather feeming a coronet then a cup, of a deepe Saffron colour all about the 
brimmes or edges. 

7. NarciJJ'us Anglicus polyanthos. The great Englifh Daffodill. 

This Daffodill hath his leaues not much broader or longer, then the French kinde 
with great flowers, before defcribed, the ftalke with flowers rifeth not fully fo high as 
it, bearing many flowers thereon, not altogether fo white, yet whiter then the former 
Englifh Daffodill, called Primrofe Peerleffe, but nothing fo large, and with fhort, 
broad, and almoft round leaues, ftanding clofe one vnto another : the yellow cup in 
the middle is bowle fafhion, being fomewhat deeper then in any of the former kinds, 
but not much greater : the fmell hereof is very fweete and pleafant. 

8. NarciJ]'us Narbonenjis, Jiue media luteus ferot'uius maior. 
The greater late flowring French Daffodill. 

The roote as well as the leaues of this Daffodill, are greater, larger, broader, and 
longer then in any other of the former French, or Italian kindes ; the ftalke is as high 
as any of them, bearing at the toppe fiue or fixe white flowers, ftanding open fpread 
like a ftarre, and not clofe together, euery one whereof is large, and round pointed, 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 83 

the cup is yellow, fimll and lliort, yet not lying flat to the flower, but a little (landing 
out with Tome threads in the middle, as all the former Daffodils hauc. This is not fo 

fweete as the earlier kindes. 

9. NtirciJ/'m mcili'jluteiis iilter ferotinus calice hrcui. 
The lelfer late flowring French Daffodill. 

This Daffodill is of the fame kinde with the laft defcribed, the onely difference is, 
that it is Idler, and the yellow cuppe in the middle of the flower, is fomewhat (horter 
then the former, although the former be (horter then many others, otherwife it diffe- 
rcth not, no not in time ; for it flowreth late as the former doth. 

The Place. 

Thefe Daffodils haue been brought vs from diuers places; The firft and 
fecond grow naturally in many places of Spaine, that are open to the Sea : 
they grow likewife about Mompelier, and thofe parts in France. They haue 
ken likewife fent among many other forts of Daffodils from Conftantino- 
ple, fo that I may thinke, they grow in fome places neere thereunto. 

The fourth groweth plentifully in Italy, about Pifa in Tufcane, from 
whence we haue had plants to furnifh our Gardens. 

The feuenth is accounted beyond Sea to be natural! of our Country, but 
I know not any with vs that haue it, but they haue had it from them. 

The reft haue been brought at diuers times, but wee know no further of 
their natural! places. 

The Time. 

The firft flowreth earlier then any of the reft by a moneth, euen in the 
beginning of March, or earlier, if the weather be milde. The other in April!, 
fome a little before or after another. The late kinds flower not vntill May. 

The Names. 

There can be no more faid of the names of any of them, then hath beene 
fet out in their titles; for they diftinguifh euery fort as fitly as we can : onely 
fome doe call the firft two forts, by the name of Donax Narbonenfts. 

After all thefe Daffodils, that hauing broad leaues beare fingle flowers, either one or 
many vpon a ftalke, I (hall now goe on to fet forth thofe broad leafed Daffodils, that 
carry double flowers, either one or many vpon a ftalke together, in the fame order 
that we haue vfed before. 

i . Ntirci/fus albus multiplex. The double white Daffodill. 

The leaues of this Daffodill are not very broad, but rather of a meane lize, being of 
the fame largenelTe with the leaues of the purple ringed Daffodill, the ftalke rifeth vp 
to be a foote and a halfe high, bearing out of a thinne white skinne or hofe, one flower 
and no more, conlifting of many leaues, of a faire white colour, the flower is larger 
then any other double white Daffodill, hauing euery leafe, efpecially the outermoft, 
as large almoft as any leafe of the (ingle Daffodill with the yellow cup, or purple ring. 
Sometimes it happeneth, that the flower is very little double, and almoft (ingle, but 
that is either in a bad ground, or for that it hath ftood long in a place without remo- 
uin^ ; for then it hath fuch a great encreafe of rootes about it, that it draweth away in- 
to many parts, the nourilhment that (hould be for a few : but if you doe tranfplant it, 
taking away the of-fets, and fet his rootes fingle, it will then thriue, and beare his 
flower as goodly and double, as I haue before defcribed it : and is very fweete. 

2. Ntirci/fui meiii'jpurpureui multiplex. The double purple ringed Daffodill. 

There is little difference in the leaues of this kinde, from the leaues of the fingle pur- 


84 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

pie ringed Daffodill ; for it is probable it is of the fame kinde, but by natures gift (and 
not by any humane art) made more plentifull, which abideth conftant, and hath not 
that dalliance, which oftentimes nature fheweth, to recreate the fenfes of men for the 
prefent, and appeareth not againe in the fame forme : the chiefeft difference is, that the 
flower (being but fometimes one on a ftalke, and fometimes two) confifteth of fix 
white outer leaues, as large as the leaues of the lingle kinde, hauing many fmall yellow 
peeces, edged with purple circles round about them, inftead of a cup ; and in the mid- 
dle of thefe peeces, ftand other fix white leaues, letter then the former, and a yellow 
cup edged with a purple circle likewife, parted into peeces, and they comprehend a 
few other white leaues, fmaller then any of the other, hauing among them fome bro- 
ken peeces of the cup, with a few chiues alfo in the middle of the flower. The flower 
is very fweete. 

There is of this kinde another, whofe flower hath not fo plaine a diftinclion, of a 
triple rowe of leaues in it : but the whole flower is confufedly fet together, the outer 
leaues being not fo large, and the inner leaues larger then the former ; the broken yel- 
low cuppe, which is tipt with purple, running diuerfly among the leaues ; fo that it 
fheweth a fairer, and more double flower then the former, as it is indeed. 

3. Narcijfus medioluteus corona duplicl. 
The Turkic Daffodill with a double crowne. 

This Daffodill hath three or foure leaues, as large and long almoft, as the great 
double Daffodill of Conftantinople next following hath : the rtalke likewife is very 
neere as great, but as high altogether, bearing at the toppe foure or fiue flowers, the 
leaues whereof are as large, as of the firft or fecond kinde of French Daffodils, before 
defcribed, but not altogether of fo pure a white colour ; and being fix in number, ftand 
like the former fingle French Daffodils, but that the yellow cup in the middle of this is 
thicke and double, or as it were crumpled together, not ftanding very high to be con- 
fpicuous, but abiding lowe and fhort, fo that it is not prefently marked, vnleffe one 
looke vpon it precifely ; yet is exceeding fweete. The roote is like vnto the roote of 
the purple ringed Daffodill, or fomewhat bigger. 

4. Narcijfus Chalcedonicus jtore pleno albo polyanthos. 
The double white Daffodill of Conftantinople. 

This beautifull and goodly Daffodill (wherewith all Florifts greatly defire to bee 
acquainted, as well for the beauty of his double flowers, as alfo for his fuperaboun- 
ding fweete fmell, one ftalke with flowers being inftead of a nofegay) hath many very 
broad, and very long leaues, fomewhat greener then gray, among which rifeth vp a 
ftrong round ftalke, being fometimes almoft flat, and ribbed, bearing foure or fiue, or 
more white flowers at the toppe, euery one being very great, large, and double, the 
leaues being confufedly fet together, hauing little peeces of a yellow cup running a- 
mong them, without any fhew of that purple ring that is in the former, and fall a- 
way without bearing feed, euen as all, or moft other double flowers doe : the fmell 
is fo exceeding fweet and ftrong, that it will foone offend the fenfes of any, that 
fhall fmell much vnto it : the roote is great and thicke, couered with a blackifh 

5. Narcijfus Ghalcedomcusfimbriatus multiplex poly anthos. 
The great double purple ringed Daffodill of Conftantinople. 

This Daffodill differeth very little or nothing in leafe from the former, the onely 
difference is in the flowers, which although they bee double, and beare many vpon a 
rtalke, like vnto them, yet this hath the peeces of the yellow cuppes tipt with purple, 
as if they were fhred or fcattered among the white leaues, whereas the other hath only 
the yellow, without any fhew of purple tips vpon them : the fmell of this is as ftrong 
as of the other. 

6. Narciffus 

The Garden of fl enfant blowers. 


aUins 'multiplex. The double white Daffodil!. 3 Nartiffiit m*dintnltui carotin iluplifi. The Turkic DalVodill with u 
double crowne. 3 \,irfif/ui mfilwf'iirfurdii multifltx. The double purple ringed Daffodil), 4 Nareiffut CJlaUtjonitut /Ion 
tlno alba polyanthat. The double white UalTodill of Confiantinoplt. 

86 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

6. Narciflus Cyprius Jlore pleno luteo po/yanthos, 
The double yellow Daffodill of Cyprus. 

The leaues of this Daffodill are almoft as broad and long as the former, the ftalke is 
a foot high and more, bearing foure or fiue flowers on the top, euery one very double, 
and of a fine pale yellow colour, of a ftrong heady fent. The root of this is alfo like the 

The Place. 

The firrt of thefe Daffodils, was firft brought into England by M r . lohn 
de Franqueuille the elder, who gathered it in his owne Countrey of Cam- 
bray, where it groweth wilde, from whofe fonne, M r . lohn de Franqueuille, 
now liuing, we all haue had it. The reft haue come from Conftantinople at 
feuerall times ; and the laft is thought to come from Cyprus. Wee haue it 
credibly affirmed alfo, that it groweth in Barbary about Fez and Argiers. 
Some of the double white kindes grow in Candy, and about Aleppo alfo. 

The Time. 

The Turkic kindes doe for the moft part all flower early, in the end of 
March, or beginning of Aprill at the furtheft, and the firft double, about 
the middle or end of Aprill. 

The Names. 

All thefe Daffodils, except the firrt, haue had diuers Turkifh names fet 
vpon the packets, wherein they haue been fent, but there is fmall regard of 
certainty to be expected from them; for that the name Serincadc, without 
any more addition, which is a (ingle Daffodill, hath beene impofed vpon 
that parcell of rootes, that haue borne moft of them double flowers of di- 
uers forts ; and the name Serincade Catamcr lale, which fignifieth a double 
flowred Daffodill, hath had many fingle white flowers, with yellow cups, 
and fome whofe flowers haue been wholly white, cuppe and all, and fome 
purple ringed, and double alfo among them. Their names, whereby they 
are knowne and called with vs, are, as fitly as may be, impofed in their titles: 
And this I hope fhall fuffice, to haue fpoken of thefe forts of Daffodils. 

Hauing finifhed the difcourfe of the former fort of broad leafed Daffodils, it is fit to 
proceede to the next, which are Angustifolios Narcijfos, thofe Daffodils that haue 
narrow leaues, and firft to fet downe thofe that beare fingle flowers, whether one or 
many flowers vpon a ftalke, and then thofe that beare double flowers in the fame man- 

NarciJ/'us Virgincus. The Virginia Daffodill. 

This plant I thought fitteft to place here in the beginning of this C/afsh, not finding 
where better to fhroud it. It hath two or three long, and very narrow leaues, as greene 
as the leaues of the great Lcucoium bulbofum, and mining withall, which grow fome- 
times reddifh, efpecially at the edges : the ftalke rifeth vp a fpanne high, bearing one 
flower and no more on the head thereof, ftanding vpright like a little Lilly or Tulipa, 
made of fix leaues, wholly white, both within and without, except that at the bottome 
next to the rtalke, and a little on the backfide of the three outer leaues, it hath a fmall 
dafh or mew of a reddifh purple colour : it hath in the middle a few chiues, ftanding 
about a fmall head pointed; which head groweth to bee fmall and long, containing 
fmall blackifh flat feede : the roote is fmall, long, and round, a little blackifh on the 
outfide, and white on the infide. 


The Garden of plcajant F/ou; 87 

The Place. 

This bulbous plant was brought vs from Virginia, where they grow a- 
boundantly ; but they hardly thriue and abide in our Gardens to beare 

The Time. 

It flowreth in May, and feldome before. 

The Names. 

The Indians in Virginia do call it Attamufco, fome among vs do call it 
Liliwarcij/'us I'irginianus* of the likenefTe of the flower to a Lilly, and the 
leaues and roote to a DafFodill. Wee for breuity doe call it Narci//'us Virgi- 
//cv/.f, that is, The DafFodill of Virginia, or elfe you may call it according to 
the former Latine name, The Lilly DafFodill of Virginia, which you will ; 
for both names may ferue well to exprefFe the plant. 

Narcij/us angujUf^liua alhidus preccox oblongo calicc. 
The early white narrow leafed DafFodill with a long cup. 

This DafFodill hath three or foure narrow, long, and very greene leaues, a foote 
long tor the moll part : the Italke rifeth not vp fo high as the leaues, whereon ftandeth 
one flower, not altogether fo great as the late flowring DafFodill, with a long cuppe, 
defcribed before among the broad leafed ones, which confifteth of fix pale coloured 
leaues, not pure white, but hauing a wafh of light yellow among the white : the cuppe 
in the middle is round and long, yet not fo long as to bee accounted a baflard DafFo- 
dill, within which is a middle pointell, compafFed with fix chiues, hauing yellow 
mealy pendents. 

The Place. 

This DafFodill groweth with the other forts of broad leafed ones, on the 
Pyreniean Mountaines, from whence they haue beene brought vnto vs, to 
furnilh our Gardens. 

The Time. 

It flovvreth early, a moneth before the other forts of the fame fafhion, 
that is, in the beginning of March, if the time be milde, which the other 
before fpoken of doe not. 


The Names. 

It hath no other name that I know, then is exprefTed in the title. 
. NiirciJ/its mt'iiiocroceus tt'fiu/fo/iu.<. The fmall DafFodill with a SafFron crown. 

is fmall DafFodill hath foure or fiue narrow leaues, about a fpanne long, among 
which rifeth vp a llalke fome nine inches high, bearing at the toppe one fmall white 
flower, made of fix leaues, with a fmall yellow cup in the middle, fhadowed ouer at 
the brimmes with a SafFron colour : the roote is fmall, round, and little long withall, 
couered with a blackilh skinne or coate. 

3. NarciJ/us minimus mediofltrpttreils. The lealt purple ringed DafFodill. 

This little DafFodill hath fmall narrow leaues, (horter by much then any of the pur- 
ple ringed Daffodils, before defcribed : the lialke and flower keepe an equall propor- 
tion to the rell of the plant, being in forme and colour of the flower, like vnto the 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 

Starre Daffodill before recited, but vnlike in the greatnefFe : this alfo is to bee obfer- 
ued, that the purple colour that circleth the brimmes of the cuppe, is fo fmall, that 
fometimes it is not well perceiued. 

4. Narcijfus minimus luncifolij Jiore. The leaft DafFodill of all. 

This leart DafFodill hath two or three whitifh greene leaues, narrower then the two 
laft recited Daffodils, and fhorter by halfe, being not aboue two or three inches long, 
the ftalke likewife is not aboue three or foure inches high, bearing one fingle flower at 
the toppe, fomewhat bigger then the fmalnefFe of the plant fhould feeme to beare, 
very like vnto the leaft Rufh DafFodill, and of the fame bignefTe, or rather fomewhat 
bigger, being of a faint yellow colour, both leaues, and cup, or crowne, (if you pleafe 
fo to call it) ; for the middle part is fpread very much, euen to the middle of the leaues 
almoft, and lyeth flat open vpon the flower : the roote is fmall, euen the fmalleft of any 
DafFodill, and couered with a blackifh skinne or coate. 

The Place. 

The firfl of thefe DafFodils haue beene brought vs from the Pyrenasan 
Mountaines, among a number of other rare plants, and the laft by a French 
man, called Francis le Veau, the honefteft roote-gatherer that euer came o- 
uer to vs. The fecond was fent to M r . lohn de Franqueuille, before remem- 
bred, who imparted it to mee, as hee hath done many other good things ; 
but his naturall place wee know not. 

The Time. 

They all flower about the latter end of Aprill. 

The Names. 

Being brought without names, wee haue giuen them their names accor- 
ding to their face and fafhion, as they are fet downe in their titles. 

Narclflus Autumnalis minor albus. The little white Autumne DafFodill. 

This little Autumne DafFodill rifeth with his flowers firft out of the ground, without 
any leaues at all. It fpringeth vp with one or two ftalkes about a finger long, euery one 
bearing out of a fmall huske one fmall white flower, laid open abroad like vnto the 
Starre white DafFodill, before fpoken of: in the middle of the flower is a fmall yel- 
low cup of a ineane fize, and after the flower is paft, there commeth in the fame place 
a fmall head, containing fmall, round, blacke feede, like vnto the Autumne Hyacinth : 
the leaues come vp after the feede is ripe and gone, being fmall and narrow, not much 
bigger then the Autumne Hyacinth : the roote is fmall and blackifh on the outiide. 

The Place. 

This DafFodill groweth in Spaine, where Clufius faw it, and brought it 
into thefe parts. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in the beginning of Autumne, and his feede is ripe in the end 
of October in thofe hot Countries, but in ours it will fcarce abide to f hew a 

The Names. 

The Spaniards, as Clufms reporteth, call it Tonada^ and he vpon the fight 


The Garden of pleafant F/owers. 


i .\arciffnt Virginns. The Virginian Daffodill. 2 Narciffos minimal luKcifolij flort. The leaft Daffodill of all. 3 Aora/Tus 

Axtumnalis- minor albus. The little white Autumne Daffodill. 4 Xnrciffus albus Atitumnaltt media ab/olrtui. The white Autumne 

Daffodill with a fullen crown. 5 NareifftaUfneifMtit maximiis amplo calice. The great lunquilia with the largeft flower or cup. 

.//"KJ form o/fci flort plena Virginian*!. The double white Daffodill of Virginia. 


go The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

thereof, Narcijfus Autumnalis minor albus, and wee in Englifh thereafter, 
The little white Autumne Daffodill. 

Narciff'us albus Autumnalis media obfoletus. 
The white Autumne Daffodill with a fullen crowne. 

This Autumne Daffodill hath two or three leaues at the moft, and very narrow, fo 
that fome doe reckon it among the Rufli Daffodils, being fomewhat broad at the bot- 
tome, and more pointed at the toppe, betweene thefe leaues commeth vp the ftalke, 
bearing vfually two flowers and no more at the toppe, made of fixe white leaues a 
peece, pointed and not round : the cup is fmall and round, like vnto the cup or crowne 
of the leaft Rum Daffodill, of a yellow colour at the bottome, but toward the edge 
a dunne or fullen colour. 

NarciJ/'tts anguftifolius luteus femper Jiorens Caccini. 
The yellow Italian Daffodill of Caccini. 

This Daffodill beareth a number of fmall, long, narrow, and very green e leaue 
broader then the leaues of any Rum Daffodill, among which rife vp diuers ftalke 
bearing at the head two or three flowers a peece, each of them being fmall and yellow, 
the cup or crowne is fmall alfo, of a deeper yellow then the flower. The Nobleman of 
Florence, who firft fent this plant to Chriftian Porret at Leyden, after the death of ( 
rolus Clufius, writeth that euery ftalke doth beare with him more ftore of flower 
then are formerly fet downe, and that it neuer ceafeth to beare flowers, but that afte 
one or more ftalkes haue been in flower together, and are paft, there fucceed other ii 
their places. 

The Place. 


The firft is naturall of Spain, the naturall place of the other is not kno\ 
to vs. 

The Time. 

The times of the flowring, are fet downe both in the title and in the d 
fcriptions ; the one to be in Autumne, the other to be all the Summer lonj 

The Names. 

The Latine names are impofed on them, as are fitteft for them, and 
laft by that honourable man that fent it, which is moft fit to continue, anc 
not to bee changed. But wee, to let it bee knowne by an Englifh name 
Englifh people, haue entituled it, The yellow Italian Daffodill of Caccini : 
if any man can giue it a more proper name, I fhall bee therewith right well 

NarciJ/us anguftifolius,Jlue luncifolius maximus amplo calice. 
The great lunquilia with the large flower or cup. 

Although this Daffodill importeth by his name, not to be of this family, but of the 
next, confidering it is fo like vnto them, but bigger ; yet I haue thought good to place 
it in the end of thefe narrow leafed Daffodils, as being indifferent, whether it 
mould bee referred to this or to that. For this carrieth diuers long greene leaues, 
like vnto the other Rum Daffodils, but thicker and broader, fo that it may with- 
out any great errour, bee reckoned among thefe narrow leafed Daffodils, bearing at 
the toppe two or three very faire large flowers, with a large and more open cuppe, 
then in any other of the Rum Daffodils, both of them of a faire yellow colour, yet 
the cuppe a little deeper then the flower, and a little crumpled about the edges, and , 
hath a pretty fharpe fent : the roote is greater and longer then the other Rum Daffo- 
dill, and couered likewife with a blackifh coate. 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Place. 
We haue this in Gardens onely, and haue not heard of his natural! place. 

The Time. 
It flowreth in Aprill. 

The Names. 

I leaue it indifferent, as I faid, whether you will call it Narctffus angujtifo- 
/ius, or Ittncifolius magno ca/ice, or maximas, bccaufe it is the greateft of all 
the reft of that kinde. 

Narcijfus tofus alhus Jiore f/eno Virginianus. 
The double while Daffodill of Virginia. 

ic roote of this Daffodill, is very like vnto the former fingle Virginia Daffodill, 
let forth in the tirft place of this ranke of narrow leafed Daffodils, but that it is a little 
bigger and rounder, being a little long withall, and blackifh alfo on the outfide, as 
that is : from whence rifeth vp two leaues, fomewhat broader then the former : but of 
a like greennefle : the ftalke rifeth vp betweene thefe two leaues, about a fpan high, or 
not much higher, bearing one faire double fnow white flower, very like in the fafhion 
vnto the pale yellow double Daffodill, or baftard Daffodill of Robinus, hereafter de- 
fcribed : For it is in the like manner laid open flat, and compofed of fix rowes of 
leaues, euery rowe lying in order iuft oppofite, or one before another, whereof thofe 
fix leaues that make the firft or outermoft courfe, are the greateft, and all the reft lying, 
as I faid, one vpon or before another, are euery rowe fmaller then others from the 
middle of this flower, thrufteth forth a fmall long pointed forke or home, white as 
the flower is. 

The Place. 

The place is named to be Virginia, but in what part it is not known to vs. 

The Time. 
It flowreth in the end of Aprill. 

The Names. 

It may be that this doth grow among the former fingle kinde, and called 
by the fame name Attamufco, for that the plant is not much differing, yet 
hereof I am not certaine : But we, from the forme and countenance of the 
plant, doe call it Narcijjus Virginianus, The Virginian Daffodill, and be- 
caufe it beareth a double flower, it hath the title of double added vnto it. 

The third order of Daffodils, I faid in the beginning, was of lunctfo/ios, Rufh Daffo- 
dils, which are now next to be entreated of, I (hall herein keepe the fame order I vfed 
in the former ; but becaufe I finde none of this order, that beare but one flower vpon a 
ftalke, I muft begin with thofe that beare many. 

I. Narcffus luncifolius albus. The white lunquilia. 

This white Ruili Daffodill hath fmall long leaues, a little broader, and of a whi- 
ter greene colour then the ordinary yellow Rufh Daffodils: the ftalke rifeth vp 
halfe a foote high or more, bearing two or three fmall white flowers vpon a 
ftalke, yet fomewhat bigger then the common yellow Rufh Daffodill, hauing a 
fmall round cuppe in the middle, white alfo as the leaues are. The feede is fmall, 


92 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

blacke, and round, as other feedes of Daffodils are : the roote is fmall and round, co- 
uered with a blackifh coate. 

Narcijfus luncifolius albus magtio calice. The white lunquilia with a great cup. 

There is of this kinde another fort, that hath the cup in the middle of the flower, a 
little larger then the other, but in all other things alike. 

2. Narciffus luncifolius Jlore a I bo rejiexo. 
The white turning lunquilia, or Rufh Daffodill. 

This turning white Daffodill hath foure or fiue long greene leaues, yet fhorter and 
broader then the ordinary yellow lunquilia, and fully as greene alfo, from among 
which rifeth vp a flender greene ftalke, a foote high, bearing out of a thinne skinnie 
huske, three or foure, or more fnow white flowers, ftanding vpon long greene foot- 
ftalkes, euery flower hanging downe his head, and turning vp his fix narrow and long 
leaues, euen to the very foot-ftalke againe : from the middle of the flower hangeth 
downe a long round cuppe, as white as the leaues, within which are contained three 
fmall white chiues, tipt with yellow, and a fmall long pointell, thrufting out beyond 
the brimmes of the cup : after the flowers are pad, there come vp in their places fmall 
three fquare heads, wherein is contained very fmall, round, and blacke fhining feede : 
the roote is fmall, round, and a little long withall, couered with a blackifh browne 
coate or skin. The flower is quite without any good fent, or indeed rather none at all. 

3. Narciffus luncifolius flore luteo rejlexo. 
The yellow turning lunquilia, or Rufh Daffodill. 

The leaues of this Rufh Daffodill are greater and longer then the former, and of a 
paler greene colour : the ftalke rifeth fomewhat higher, bearing two or three flowers 
thereon wholly of a gold yellow colour, both the cuppe and the leaues that turne vp 

4. Narciffus luncifolius calice albo rejiexisfolijs luteis. 
The yellow turning lunquilia with a white cup. 

This Daffodill hath his long rufh-like leaues rtanding vpright as the former, be- 
tweene which rifeth vp a greene ftalke, about a foote high or more, bearing two or 
three flowers thereon, whofe turning leaues are of a faire pale yellow, and the cuppe 
pale white, and not fo pure a white as the former. 

5. Narcijfus luncifolius calice luteo rejiexisfolijs albidis. 
The white turning lunquilia with a yellow cup. 

As the laft had the leaues of the flower that turne vp againe yellow, and the cuppe 
whitifh, fo this hath contrariwife the turning leaues of a whitifh yellow, and the long 
cup yellower, elfe in his long green leaues, or any other thing, there is fmall difference. 

6. Narciffus luncifolius luteus magno calice. 
The lunquilia, or Rufh Daffodill with a great cup. 

This Rufh Daffodill hath bigger leaues, and longer then the ordinary yellow Rufh 
Daffodill, being a little flat on the one fide, and round on the other, but of the fame 
greenneffe with all the reft: the ftalke rifeth vp two foote high, bearing two, and 
fometimes three flowers thereon, being of a faire yellow colour, with a large open 
cup in the middle, of a little deeper yellow colour, like vnto the great lunquilia with 
the large flower, before fet downe, whereof this is a kinde, no doubt ; but that is larger 
and greater then this, both in leafe, flower, cup, &c. and this onely fomewhat leffe in 
all parts then that. 

7. Narci/fus 

77; e Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

I Sarciffus Inn, ifolius albus 
~ *'aritf/us /urn I/O/IHI calici 

yellow lunquilia with a great cuppe. ' 5 Narciffut liindfolitti luttui major rulgarii.' The ordinary yellow "lunquilia. 

The white lunquilia. 
ri/(/i5 caiia luteo reflfjris folijs albts. 

Naniffus lun^i/olnis ft,,re allio rtfltxn. Tht white turning lunquilia. 
The yellow turning lunquilia. 4 Narciffin luncifoluu liittui magno calice. 

3 A aril 

The yel 

6 Karciffm lutuifoliut Autumnalii Jtort viridi. The ereene Autumne lunquilia. 7 Narciffin OHfufli/aliui aurens multiplex. 

The golden double narrow leafed Daffodil!. 8 Narcifjus luiuifoliui ftart f>Uno. The double lunquilia. 

94 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

7. Narcijfus luncifolius luteus vu/garis maior. 
The ordinary lunquilia, or Rufh DafFodill. 

This ordinary Rufh DafFodill hath foure or fiue long greene round leaues, like vnto 
Rufhes, whereof it tooke the name : among thefe leaues rifeth vp the ftalke, round and 
greene, a foote and a halfe high very often, bearing at the toppe three or foure flowers 
all yellow, but much fmaller then the laft, and fo is the cup alfo : the feede is fmall and 
blacke, inclofed in fmall cornered heads; the roote is blackifh on the outlide. The 
fmell of the flower is very fweete in all thefe forts of Rufh Daffodils. 

8. NarciJ/us luncifolius luteus medius. The fmaller lunquilia, or Rufh Daffodill. 

The leaues of this Daffodill are like vnto the former, but fmaller and rounder, the 
ftalke rifeth vp fo high, nor are the flowers fo great, but the leaues of the flower 
are a little rounder, and not fo pointed as in the former, in all things elfe alike, fauing 

9. Narciffus luncifolius luteus minor. The leaft lunquilia, or Rufh Daffodill. 

This leaft Daffodill hath fiue or fix fmall greene leaues, a little broader, and not fo 
long as the laft, among which rifeth vp a ftalke almoft a foote high, bearing one or 
two fmall flowers at the toppe, of a paler yellow colour then the former, with a yellow 
open cuppe, or crowne rather in the middle, bigger then in either of the laft two : the 
roote is very fmall and blacke, like vnto the laft in roundnefTe and colour. 

10. NarciJ/us luncifolius luteus albicantibus line is dijtinSlus. 
The yellow lunquilia, or Rufh Daffodill with white lines. 

This Rufh Daffodill, hath round, greene, and long leaues, like vnto the ordinary 
Rufh Daffodill, with a ftalke bearing two or three yellow flowers, hauing leaues fome- 
what round at the point or end, with a line or ftrake of white in the middle of euerie 
one of them, the cup is fhort, and crowne fafhion, a little crumpled about the brims : 
the feede, roote, or any thing elfe differeth not. 

1 1. NarciJ/us luncifolius Autumnal is Jiore viridi. 
The Autumne Rufh Daffodill with a greene flower. 

This ftrange Rufh Daffodill (I call it ftrange, not onely becaufe it differeth from a! 
others of this kinde, but alfo becaufe there are but few in thefe parts that haue had it, 
and fewer that doe ftill enioy it, in that it is perifhed withall that had it) hath but one 
onely leafe, very long, round, and greene, in all that euer I faw growing, which bea- 
reth no flower while that greene leafe is frefh, and to bee feene : but afterwards the 
ftalke rifeth vp, being like vnto the former greene leafe, round, naked, and greene vp 
to the toppe, where two or three flowers breake forth out of a fmall thin skinne, euery 
one confifting of fix fmall and narrow greene leaues, very fharpe pointed at the end, 
and as it were ending in a fmall pricke or thorne : in the middle whereof is a fmall 
round cup, or rather crowne, of the fame colour with the leaues and ftalke, which 
flower fmelleth very fweete, fomewhat like vnto the reft of the Rufh Daffodils : this 
fheweth not his flower vntill October, and the frofts quickly following after their 
flowring, caufe them foone to perifh. 

1 2. NarciJ/us angujtifolius aureus multiplex. 
The golden double narrow leafed Daffodill. 

The leaues of this Daffodill are very narrow, and of a whitifh greene colour, not 
aboue foure or fiue inches long, from among which rifeth vp a ftalke about a foote 
high, bearing at the top one flower, confifting of fome outer leaues, which are of a yel- 



The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 95 

low colour, and of many other leaues in the middle being fmaller, and let thicke and 
round together ut' ;i more yellow gold colour, but with uune whiter leaues am 
them, the middle part a little pointing forth : the flower llandeth long before it doth 
perfect hi:- colour, and ahideth long in flower before the colour decay : the roote is in 
faihion almoll like the ordinary lunquilia, or Rulh Daffodil). I acknowledge this 
Darfodill hath not his proper place ; but becaufe the figure is fet in this table, let it thus 
palfe at this time. 

13. NarciJ/us luncifulius lutcus fiorc plcno. The double lunquilia, or Ru(h Daffbdill. 

The double Rulh DafFodill hath his long greene leaues round, like the leaues of the 
common or ordinary Rulh DafFodill, and ot the fame bignefle, among which rifeth 
vp a long flender greene ftalke, bearing two or three, feldome more fmall flowers, 
yellow and double, that is, with diuers rowes of leaues, hauing the yellow cup fuch as 
is in the tingle flower, broken into fmall fhreads or peeces, running among the leaues 
of the flower, which peeces in fome flowers are not fo eafily feene, being fmaller then 
in others, this beareth no button or head vnder the flower for feede, his roote is round 
and blackilh, browne on the outlide, fo like vnto the common Rufh DafFodill, that it 
is almoll impollible to know the one from the other. 

There is another of this kinde, whofe flowers are fmaller, and not fo double, one, Alttr 
two, or three at the molt vpon a llalkc, and of lefFe beauty by much. fi trt - 

The Place. 

All thefe Rufh Daffodils, doe for the moft part grow in Spaine and 
France, and on the Pyrensan Mountaines, which are betweene Spaine and 
France, which Mountains are the Nourferies of many of the fineft flowers, 
that doe adorne the Gardens of thefe louers of natures pride, and gathered 
in part by induflrious, learned, generous men, inhabiting neare thereunto, 
and in part by fuch as make a gaine of their labours, beftowed vpon thefe 
things. Onely that with the greene flower was gathered in Barbary, and 
imparted vnto vs from France. 

The Time. 

They flower in the Spring, that is, in March and Aprill, except fuch 
whofe time is fet downe to be in Autumne. 

The Names. 

Their names are fpecified in their titles, and therefore I (hall not need to 
fet downe any further repetitions. 

To conclude therefore this difcourfe of true Daffodils, there remaineth to fpeake 
of the Sea Daffodils, which (as I faid in the beginning) is but one, that is frequent, and 
doth abide with vs. But there bee fome others found about the Cape of good Hope, 
and in the Weft Indies, and brought into thefe parts rather for ollentation, then con- 
tinuance, where they haue flowred onely once (if peraduenture fo often) fo that being 
fuch Grangers, of fo remote Countries, and of fo diuers natures, I (hall but fhew you 
fome of them, rather curforily then curioufly ; and but onely for your fatisfaction, giue 
you knowledge of two or three of them, that there haue beene feene fuch in flower, 
and that they are fcarce to bee feene againe, except they bee fetcht a new euery yeare 
that they be feene. 

Narcij/'us Marinus, Jiuc tcrtius Matf/iio/i. 
The great white Sea DafFodill, or Matthiolus his third DafFodill. 

The roote of this DafFodill by long continuance, rtanding in one place without be- 
ing remoued, groweth to be much greater and larger, then any other DafFodill what- 


96 'The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

foeuer, and as bigge as any meane Squilla or Sea Onion roote, hauing many long, 
thicke, and white fibres, or long rootes, diuerfly branched, and fpread vnder the vp- 
per part of the earth, befide fome others that grow downward, and perifh not euery 
yeare, as the fibres of all, or moft of the other Daffodils doe ; and therefore this plant 
will not thriue, and beare flowers, if it be often tranfplanted, but rather defire to a- 
bide in one place without remouing, as I faid, and that not to be ouerfhadowed, or co- 
uered with other herbes (landing too neare it, which then will flourifh, and beare a- 
boundantly : from this roote, which is couered with many blackifh coates, arifeth fix 
or feuen, or more leaues, twice fo broad almoft, as any of the former Daffodils, but 
not fo long by halfe as many of them, being but fhort, in comparifon of the breadth, 
and of a white greene colour ; from the middle of which leaues, as alfo from the fides 
fometimes, fpringeth vp one or two, or more ftalkes, roundifh and thicke, and fome- 
times a little flat and cornered, a foote high or fomewhat more, bearing at the toppe, 
out of a skinnie huske, eight, ten, twelue, or more very large flowers, confifting of fix 
white leaues a peece, fpread or laid open, with a white fhort cuppe or crowne in the 
middle, lying flat vpon the leaues, cut or diuided into fix corners (and not whole, as 
the cuppe or crowne of any other fingle Daffodill) from euery of which edges, or 
corners of this cup or crowne, ftandeth one white long thread, a little crooked or tur- 
ning vp at the end, tipt with a yellow pendent, and fome other white threads tipt with 
yellow pendents, (landing alfo in the middle : after the flower is part, there come vp 
great three fquare heads, wherein the feede is contained, which is great, blacke, and 
round, like vnto the feede of other Daffodils, but greater : the flower hath a reafona- 
ble good fent, but not very ftrong. 

The Place. 

It was firft found by the Sea fide, in the Ifle of Sardinia, and on the high 
Mountaines alfo of the fame Ifle, where it hath borne by report, thirty flue 
flowers vpon a (talke : it groweth likewife about Illyricum, and in diuers 
other places. 

The Time. 

It fpringeth later out of the ground then any other Daffodill, that is to 
fay, not vntill the later end of March, or beginning of Aprill, and flowreth 
in the end of May, or the beginning of lune : the feede is ripe in the end of 
luly, or beginning of Augult. 

The Names. 

The firft that hath made mention of this Daffodill, was Matthiolus, who 
placed it in the third place among his Daffodils, and is moft vfually now a- 
dayes called, Narcijjus tertius Matthioli, Matthiolus his third Daffodill, 
the rather, becaufe Clufius vpon a more mature deliberation, firft referred 
it thereunto, but called it at the firft, Lilionarci/fus Hemerocallidis facie, and, 
as hee faith, lacobus Plateau (who firft fent him the figure hereof, with the 
defcription) called it LilionarciJ/us Orientalis, but Clufius vpon certaine in- 
formation, that it grew in the places aforefaid, mifliked the name of Orieti- 
talis, and added Hemerocallis, which yet is not fit, for that his Hemerocnllis 
Valentina, is a plaine Pancration or Sea baftard Daffodill, whofe middle 
cup is longer then the cup of any true Daffodill, which (as I faid in the be- 
ginning of this Chapter) is the chiefeft note of difference, betweene a true 
and a baftard Daffodill. I receiued the feede of this Daffodill among many 
other feedes of rare plants, from the liberality of M r . Doctor Flud, one of 
the Phyfitians of the Colledge in London, who gathered them in the Vni- 
uerfity Garden at Pifa in Italy, and brought them with him, returning home 
from his trauailes into thofe parts, by the name of Martagon rarifsimum, 
(and hauing fowne them, expecled fourteene yeares, before I faw them 
beare a flower, which the firft yeare that it did flower, bore foure ftalkes of 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


i Xartif/us itrtius Malthioli. The great white Sea Daffodil!. 
3 .\arci//ut marinut Africaitui. The Sea Daffodil I of Africa. 

2 ffarcif/Mt iMditusAutuHiH.ilis. The Indian Autumnc Daffodil!. 
4 Narctffta marinus txoticus. The ftrange Sea Daffodil!. 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 

flowers, with euery one of them eight or ten flowers on them) which of all 
other names, doth leaft anfwer the forme or qualities of this plant. It may 
moft fitly be called Narcifflis marinus maximus, in Englifh, The great Sea 
DafFodill, both becaufe it is a true DafFodill, and the greateft of all other, 
and alfo becaufe it hath not been found, but in Iflands, or elfe in other pla- 
ces neare the Sea. Lobelius entituleth it Pancratium Indicum alterum iiernum, 
Jiue NarciJJus Indicus alter facie Pancratij Monfpeliaci, but all this is wide from 
the matter, as may eafily be known, by that that hath been faid before. It is 
generally (as I faid before) called of all NarciJ/its tertius Matthioli, Matthi- 
olus his third DafFodill, which may either fo pafFe with vs, or as I called it, 
The great Sea DafFodill, which you will, & fo Clufius doth laftly entitle it. 

i . Pancratium Indicum, aut NarciJ/us Indicus Autumnalis quorundam Lobelij. 
The Indian Autumne DafFodill of Lobel. 

This plant hath in my opinion, a farre nearer refemblance vnto an Hyacinthus, 
vnto any DafFodill : But becaufe Lobel hath fo fet i't forth, I will fo publifh it vnto 
you, leauing it to iudgement. The roote is, as he faith, a fpan long, and of the thick- 
nefTe of a mans arme, couered with many white (hells, whereof the outermoft are of a 
darke red or Chefnut colour : the flowers rife vp in September, and October, being 
eight or ten in number, euery one by it felfe vpon a fmall footftalke, made of fix leaues 
a peece, fomewhat long, narrow, and pointed, like vnto the flowers of the Englifh 
Colchicum, or Medowe SafFron, of a whitifh yellow dunne colour, with fix long 
threads in the middle : the greene leaues are long and broad, and broad pointed. 

2. NarciJJus Marinus Africanus,Jiue Exoticus Lobe It j. 
The Sea DafFodill of Africa. 

The roote of this ftrange plant (which of fome likenefFe is called a DafFodill) is very 
great, made as it were of many fcaly cloues, from whence rifeth vp a fmall fhort ftalke, 
bearing hard aboue the ground two faire broad greene pointed leaues, more long then 
broad, fo compafling the ftalke at the bottome, that it feemeth to run through them : 
the ftalke is fpotted with diuers difcoloured fpots, and is bare or naked from thefe two 
leaues vnto the toppe, where it beareth one faire double flower, like vnto a double A- 
nemone, of a delayed reddifh colour, tending to a blufh, with many threads fet about 
the middle head. 

3. NarciJ/us Marinus Exoticus. The ftrange Sea DafFodill. 

This ftrange Sea DafFodill, hath fiue or fix large and long leaues of a pale greene co- 
lour, from among which rifeth vp a ftrong and bigge ftalke, bearing at the toppe, out 
of a thinne hofe or skinne, many very large flowers, made of fix long and pointed 
leaues apeece, of a blewifh purple colour, with a large round open cup in the middle, 
of a fadder colour then the leaues : the roote is very great, yet like vnto other great 
DafFodils, the outer skins whereof are of a darke browne colour. 

The Place. 

The Indian DafFodils grew in the vpper part of Hifpaniola in the Weft 
Indies, and brought hither, where they all foone perifhed. 

The other grew neare the Cape of good Hope, and was brought into the 
parts of Holland and thereabouts, from whence we had it, & perifhed alfo. 

The laft is vnknowne where it was gathered. 

The Time. 

The firft flowred in Autumne, as it is faid. 

The other in the firft Summer of their bringing. 

And fo did the laft, but the fame rootes will not flower with vs againe. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 99 

The Names. 

So much hath been laid ot their names in their titles, as hath come to our 
knowledge ; and therefore let that fufficc. 

Thus hauing gone through the whole Family of the true Daffodils, (for fo much as 
th come to our knowledge) and fet them downe euery one by his name, and in this 
order ; it is tit that we I poke of their baftard brethern, and (hew you them alfo, in the 
lame order held with the former, as neare as the plenty of variety herein, which is not 
the like with the former, will giue leaue, that when you know them both by face and 
name, you may the better know to place or diftinguifh of others, that haue not parted 
vnder this rod. 

Pffudonarciffiis aureus Hifpanicus maximus. 
The great yellow Spanifh baftard Daffodill. 

The roote of this kinde of Daffodill is reafonable great, and blackifh on the out- 
fide, defiring to be deepe in the ground ; and therefore will runne downe, where it 
will then encreafe into many of-fets, from whence rife vp many thickc, long, and ftiffe 
leaues, of a grayifh greene colour, among which rifeth vp a round ftrong ftalke, fome- 
times three foote high or better, bearing at the toppe one onely faire great yellow 
flower, Handing forth right, and not pendulous, confining of fix fhort and fomewhat 
broad leaues, with a very great, large, and long trunke, of an equall largeneffe, but 
open at the mouth, and turning vp the brimmes a little, which are fomewhat crum- 
pled : after the flower is part, there commeth in the place a three fquare head, contai- 
ning round, blacke feede, like vnto other Daffodils. 

Pyrenaus Hifpanico & Anglico Jimilis. 
The Mountaine baftard Daffodill of diuers kindes. 

There is much variety in this kinde of baftard Daffodill : For one fort hath verie 
broad and whitifh greene leaues, fomewhat fhort in comparifon of others, that are of 
that breadth : the flower is wholly yellow, but a little paler then the former Spanifh 
kinde, hauing the leaues of his flower long, and fomewhat narrow, ftanding like wings 
about the middle trunke, which is as long as the leaues, and fmaller then in many other 
of this kinde, but a little yellower then the wings. Another fort hath narrower green 
leaues then this laft, and longer, the flower is all yellow, but the trunke is larger, wider, 
and more open at the mouth then the former, and almoft as large as the former Spa- 
nifh, but not fo high as the laft. A third hath the wings of the flower of a Strawe co- 
lour, but the trunke is long and narrow, of a faire yellow. A fourth hath fuch like 
flowers, but that it is fhorter, both the wings and the trunke : Some likewife haue the 
wings of the flower longer, then the long trunke, and fome fhorter. Some alfo are all 
yellow, and fome haue their wings onely a little more pale or white, like the Englifh 
kinde: Some againe haue their trunkes long and narrow, others haue them larger and 
wider open, and crumpled at the brimmes ; fo that it is needlelTe, to fpend a great deale 
of time and labour vpon fuch finally refpected flowers, but that in the beholding of 
them, we may therein admire the worke of the Creatour, who can frame fuch diuerfity 
in one thing : But this is befide the text, yet not impertinent. 

Pfcudonarcijjus pallviut prttcox. The early Strawe coloured baftard Daffodill. 

The leaues of this Daffodill are of a meane fize, betweene the broadeft and the nar- 
rower kindes, of a grayifh greene colour, and not very long : the ftalke rifeth vp a foot 
high or more, whereon ftandeth one large great flower, equalling the greateft Spanifli 
bollard Daffodill, before defcribed, in the largenefle of his trunke, and hauing the 
brimmes turned vp a little, which maketh it feeme the larger : the wings or outer leaues 
are in a maner as (hort, as they are in the greateft Spanifh kinde, (and not long flagging 
down, like vnto the Mountain kinds) and ftand ftraight outright : all the whole flower is 


ioo The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 

of one euen colour, that is, of a fine pale yellow, fomewhat like vnto the colour of a 
Lemon peele or rinde, but fomewhat whiter, which vfually we call a Strawe colour : 
the greatneffe of the flower, the earlineffe of the flowring, and the difference of colour 
from all the reft of this kinde, hath made me entreate of it apart by it felfe, as being no 
leffe worthy. 

PfeudonarciJJus Hifpanicus fare albo maior. 

The great white Spanifh baftard Daffodill. 

This baftard Daffodill hath diuers leaues rifmg vp together, long and broad, fome- 
what like vnto the firft Spanifh kinde, but a little broader, and of a whiter greene co- 
lour, yet not fo white, as in the leffer Spanifh white kindes, hereafter defcribed : among 
thefe leaues rifeth vp a round ftrong ftalke, about two foote high, bearing one white 
flower at the toppe, bending downe the head, as all thefe white kindes doe, but is not 
of fo pure a white, as the leffer kindes that follow, yet whiter then the greateft white 
Spanifh kinde, next of all to be defcribed : the whole flower, as well trunke as wings, 
is much larger then the leffer white kindes, and almoft equalling the firft Spanifh yel- 
low, but a little longer and narrower, a little crumpled and turning vp at the brimmes : 
the head and feede are like the firft ; the roote is greater and thicker then the firft Spa- 
nifh, and doth not encreafe fo much, nor is couered with a blacke, but rather with a 
whitifh coate. 

PfeudonarciJJus Hifpanicus maximus albidus, 
The greateft Spanifh white baftard Daffodill. 

This kinde of baftard Daffodill is very like the laft mentioned Daffodill, both in 
leaues and flowers, but larger in both : the flower of this is not full fo white, but hath 
fome fhew of paleneffe therein, and more vpon the firft opening of the flower then af- 
terwards, and is as great altogether, as the great Spanifh yellow, at the leaft with a 
longer, and fomewhat narrower trunke : the feede is like vnto the former, and fo is the 
roote alfo, but greater, being white on the outfide, and not blacke. 

PfeudonarciJJus Hifpanicus Jlore albo medius & minor, 
The two lefler white Spanifh baftard Daffodils. 

There are two other of thefe kindes of white Spanifh Daffodils, one greater or lef- 
fer then the other, but neither of them fo great as the former. The leaues of both are 
of a whitifh greene colour, one a little broader then the other : the flowers of both are 
pure white, and bending downe the heads, that they almoft touch the ftalke againe, 
the greater flower hath the longer and narrower trunke; and the leffer flower, the 
fhorter and wider open, yet both a little crumpled at the edges or brimmes : the rootes 
of both are like one vnto another, but differ in the greatneffe. From the feede of thefe 
haue fprung much variety, few or none keeping either colour or height with the mo- 
ther plants. 

PfeudonarciJJus Anglicus vu/garis. Our common Englifh wilde baftard Daffodill. 

This baftard Daffodill is fo common in all England, both in Copfes, Woods, and 
Orchards, that I might well forbeare the defcription thereof, and efpecially, in that 
growing wilde, it is of little refpeft in our Garden : but yet, left I bee challenged of 
ignorance in common plants, and in regard of fome variety therein worth the mark- 
ing, I will fet downe his defcription and variety as briefly as I may : It hath three or 
foure grayifh greene leaues, long and fomewhat narrow, among which rifeth vp the 
ftalke, about a fpan high or little higher, bearing at the toppe, out of a skinnie huske, 
as all other Daffodils haue, one flower (although fometimes I haue feene two toge- 
ther) fomewhat large, hauing the fix leaues that ftand like wings, of a pale yellow co- 
lour, and the long trunke in the middle of a faire yellow, with the edges or brimmes 
a little crumpled or vneuen : after the flower is paft, it beareth a round head, feeming 
three fquare, containing round blacke feede ; the roote is fomewhat blackifh on the 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

i< i 

PftitJonaniffiis Hifpanimi MII::IS aiircus. The great yellow Spanifh haftard Daffodil!. z P/eiidnnani//ns Pvrenirus vari- 
fonnis. The Mountaine baftard DarTodill of diuers kindes. 3 Pftudonari if/us Hi/fanit us maioralbus. The greater white Spanifh 
baftard Daffodil!. 4 ffntdonarcifftn Hijpanieut minor albnt. The lelTcr Spanifh white baftard DarTodill. 5 Pfrudoitarcif/ut tu hi 
fexattgulari. The fix cornered baftard DarTodill. 6 Pfiudonorciffits marimns aurtus.fiue Ko/rns Tradtfcnnli. lohn Tradcfcantv 
<reat Kofc Daffodil!. 7 PfeuiloHarci/fus anrtiis Angltcut maximus. Mafter Wilmers great double Daffodill. 8 Pffiidonarciffus 
Hi/fanifus nurnsjlort fltno. The double Spanifh Daffodil!, or Parkinfona double Daffodil!. 9 Pftudunareiffus Gallic ttt major 
flnrt plrno. The greater double French DarTodill. to P/nidonartiffiit A ttg Item fort plena. The double Enelifh Daffodil!, or 
Genacds double DalTodill. 

IO2 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

But there is another of this kinde like vnto the former, whofe further defcription 
you haue here before ; the wings of which flower are much more white then the for- 
mer, and in a manner of a milke white colour, the trunke remaining almoft as yellow 
as the former, and not differing in any thing elfe. 

Pfeudonarcijjiis tubo fexangulari. The fix cornered baftard Daffodill. 

This kinde of Daffodill hath two or three long, and fomewhat broader leaues then 
the laft, between which commeth forth a ftalke, bearing one flower fomewhat large, 
hauing the fix outer leaues of a pale yellow colour, and the long trunke plaited or cor- 
nered all along vnto the very edge into fix parts, of a little deeper yellow then the 

The Place. 

The firft great Spanifh kinde was brought out of Spaine. The reft from 
the Pyrenaean Mountaines, onely the laft fauing one is plentifull in our 
owne Countrey, but the white fort of that kinde came with the reft from 
the fame Mountaines. 

The Time. 

The pale or third kinde, and the Englifh bee the moft early, all the reft 
flower in Aprill, and the greateft yellow fomewhat earlier, then the other 
greater or leffer white. 

The Names. 

Their feuerall names are exprefled in their titles fufficient to diftinguifh 
them, and therefore there needeth no more to be faid of them. 

i._ Pfeudonarcifjus aureus maximus flore pleno,jiue Rqfeus Tradefcanti. 

The greateft double yellow baftard Daffodill, or 

lohn Tradefcant his great Rofe Daffodill. 

This Prince of Daffodils (belongeth primarily to lohn Tradefcant, as the firft foun- 
der thereof, that we know, and may well bee entituled the Glory of Daffodils) hath a 
great round roote, like vnto other Daffodils, couered with a brownifh outer skinne or 
peeling, from whence rifeth vp foure or fiue fomewhat large and broad leaues, of a 
grayifti greene colour, yet not fully fo long and large as the next following Daffodill : 
from the middle whereof rifeth vp a ftalke almoft as high and great as it, bearing at 
the toppe (out of a skinnie huske) one faire large great flower (the budde, before it 
breake open, being fhorter and thicker in the middle, and ending in a longer and (har- 
per point then any of the other Daffodils) very much fpread open, confifting of fmal- 
ler and fhorter leaues then the next, but more in number, and thicker and rounder fet 
together, making it feeme as great and double as any Prouince Rofe, and intermixt 
with diuers yellow and pale leaues, as it were on rowes one vnder another. It abideth 
long in flower, and fpreadeth, by ftanding long, to be the broadeft in compaffe of any 
of the Daffodils, but falleth away at the laft without giuing any feede, as all double 
Daffodils doe. 

2. Pfeudonarciffus aureus Anglicm maximus. M'. Wilmers great double Daffodill. 

The other great double Daffodill doth fo neare refemble our ordinary English 
double kinde, that I doe not finde therein any greater difference, then the largenefTe 
both of leaues and flowers, &c. and the ftatelinefle of growth. It beareth three or 
foure large, long, and broad leaues, fomewhat longer and broader then the former, 
and of a whitifh greene colour : the ftalke rifeth to bee two foote high, growing (in a 
fruitfull and fat foyle) ftrong, and fomewhat round, bearing at the toppe, out of a thin 
skinne, one great and faire double flower, each leafe whereof is twice as large and 


T/ic Garden of pleafant Flowers. 103 

broad as the former, diuerlly intcrmixt with a rowc of paler, and a rowe of deeper 
yellow leaues, wholly difperfed throughout the flower, the pale colour as well as the 
deeper yellow, in this as in the other ("mall Englifh kinde, growing deeper hy (tan- 
ding : Ibmetimes the leaues hereof are fcattered, and fpread wholly, making it (hew a 
faire, broad, open flower: and Comet lines the outer leaues Ihind feparate from the 
middle trunke, which is whole and vnbroken, and very thicke of leaues: and fomc- 
time> the middle trunke, will bee halfe broken, neither exprefling a full open double 
rlower, nor a clofe double trunke, as it is likewife feene in the finall Englilh kinde, as 
fhall bee declared in his place: this beareth no fecde; the roote hereof is thicke and 
great, and encreafeth as well as any other Daffodill. 

3. Pfeudonarc i/us aureus Hifpanicus Jim pleno. 
The great double yellow Spanilh baftard Daffodill, or Parkinfons Daffodill. 

This double Spanifh DafFodill hath diuers leaues rifmg from the roote, differ, nar- 
rower, and not ot fo whitifh a greene colour as the former, but more fullen or grayilh, 
plainely refembling the leaues of the lingle great kinde, from whence this hath rifen : 
the Ihilke hereof likewife rifeth alinolt as high as it, and neare the height of the laft re- 
cited double, bearing one double flower at the toppe, alwayes fpread open, and neuer 
forming a double trunke like the former, yet not fo faire and large as it, the outermoft 
leaues whereof being of a greenifh colour at the firrt, and afterward more yellow, doe 
a little turne themfelues backe againe to the (lalke, the other leaues are fome of a pale 
yellow, and others of a more gold yellow colour, thofe that ftand in the middle are 
(mailer, and fome of them (hew as if they were hollow trunked, fo that they feeme to 
be greenilh, whitifh, yellow, and gold yellow, all mixed one among another: the root 
is great, round, and whitilh on the infule, couered with darke coloured skinnes or 
peelings. I thinke none euer had this kinde before my felfe, nor did I my felfe euer fee 
it before the yeare 1 6 1 8, for it is of mine own railing and flowring firft in my Garden. 

4. Pfeudonarajfus Gallic us maior Jiore plena. 
The greater double French baftard Daffodill. 

This greater double Daffodill, hath his whitifh greene leaues longer and broader 
then the Imaller French kinde, hereafter following, to bee defcribed, and broader, 
longer, and more limber then the double Englifh kinde : the ftalke rifeth vp not much 
higher, then the fmaller French kinde, but a little bigger, bearing at the top one great 
double flower, which when it is fully and perfectly blowne open (which is but fel- 
doine ; for that it is very tender, the leaues being much thinner, and thereby continu- 
ally I ubiect, vpon any little diftemperature of the time, to cleaue fo faft one vnto an- 
other, that the flower cannot blow open faire) is a faire and goodly flower, larger by 
halfe then the fmaller kinde, and fuller of leaues, of the fame pale whitifh yellow, or 
Lemon colour, with the letfer, or rather a little whiter, and not fet in the fame order of 
rowes as it is, but more confufedly together, and turning backe the ends of the outer- 
moil leaues to the (talke againe, and hauing the bottome of the flower on the backfide 
lomewhat greene, neither of which is found in the lefler kinde : the roote is very like 
vnto the lefler kinde, but a little bigger and longer. 

5. PfcuJonarciJ/us Anglicus Jiore plcn r *. 
The double Englifh baltard Daffodill, or Gerrards double Daffodill. 

e leaues of this double Daffodill are very like vnto the (ingle kinde, being of a 
whitilh greene colour, and fomewhat broad, a little fhorter and narrower, yet differ 
then the former French kinde: the flalke rifeth vp about a toote high, bearing at the 
toppe one very double flower, the outermolt leaues being of the fame pale colour, 
that is to bee feene in the wings of the lingle kinde ; thofe that ftand next them, are 
fome as deepe a yellow as the trunke of the (ingle, and others of the fame pale colour, 
with fome greene (tripes on the backe of diuers of the leaues : thus is the whole flower 
variably intermix! with pale and deepe yellow, and fome greene (tripes among them, 


104 The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 

when it is fully open, and the leaues difperfed and broken. For fometimes the flower 
fheweth a clofe and round yellow trunke in the middle, feparate from the pale outer 
wings, which trunke is very double, mewing fome pale leaues within it, difperfed 
among the yellow : And fometimes the trunke is more open, or in part broken, mew- 
ing forth the fame colours intermix! within it : the flower paffeth away without gi- 
uing any feede, as all other bulbous rootes doe that beare double flowers : the roote is 
fmall, very like vnto the French double kindes, efpecially the lefler, that it is verie 
hard to know the one from the other. 

The Place. 

The firft and greateft kinde, we had firft from lohn Tradefcante (as I faid 
before) whether raifed from feed, or gained from beyond Sea, I know not 

The fecond we firft had from Vincent Sion, borne in Flanders, dwelling 
on the Bank fide, in his Hues time, but now dead ; an induftrious and wor- 
thy louer of faire flowers, who cherifhed it in his Garden for many yeares 
without bearing of any flowers vntill the yeare 1620, that hauing flowrec 
with him, (and hee not knowing of whom hee receiued it, nor hauing cue 
feene the like flower before) he Theweth it to M r . lohn de Franqueuille, o 
whom he fuppofed he had receiued it, (for from beyond Sea he neuer recei 
ued any) who finding it to bee a kinde neuer feene or knowne to vs before 
caufed him to refpect it the more, as it is well worthy. And M r . Georg 
Wilmer of Stratford Bowe Efquire, in his Hues time hauing likewife recei 
ued it of him (as my felfe did alfo) would needes appropriate it to himfelfc 
as if he were the firft founder thereof, and call it by his owne name Wi! 
mers double DafFodill, which fince hath fo continued. 

The third is of mine owne foftering or railing, as I faid before ; for afll 
redly, it is rifen from the feede of the great Spanifh fingle kinde, which 
fowed in mine owne Garden, and cherifhed it, vntill it gaue fuch a flow< 
as is defcribed. 

The fourth is not certainly knowne where his originall mould be : Sorr 
thinke it to be of France, and others of Germany. 

The laft is afluredly firft naturall of our owne Countrey, for M r . Gerrai 
firft difcouered it to the world, finding it in a poore womans Garden in 
Weft parts of England, where it grew before the woman came to d 
there, and, as I haue heard fince, is naturall of the Ifle of Wight. 

The Time. 

They doe all flower much about one time, that is, from the mi 
end of March, as the yeare is forward, vnto the middle of Aprill. 

The Names. 

Vpon the three firft I haue impofed the names in Latine, as they are e 
prefTed in their titles : and for the Englifh names, if you pleafe, you may 
them pafle likewife as they are exprefled there alfo, that thereby euery c 
may be truely diftinguifhed, and not confounded. The fourth, befides t 
name in the title, is called of fome NarciJ/us Germanicus, which whether 
be of Germany, or no, I know not ; but that the name mould import fo mui 
The laft doth vfually carry M r . Gerrards name, and called Gerrards dou e 

i. Pfeedonarciflus atigujlifolius flore jiauefcente tubo quaji abfcijjb. 
The narrow leafed baftard DafFodill with the dipt trunke. 

This kinde of DafFodill hath long and narrow grayifh greene leaues, bearing 
fingle flower at the toppe of his ftalke, like vnto the former fingle baftard kindes, 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 105 

lore fpecitied, hailing his outer leaues of a pale yellow colour, and his trunke of a dee- 
per yellow: the diiefe differences in this from the former, is in the leaues, being nar- 
row, and then in the trunke of the Mower, which is not crumpled or turned vp, as molt 
of the other are; and that the hrimmes or edges of the flower is as if it had beene dipt 
off, or cut euen. 

2. P/l-HtfonarciJ/'us llifpankin mc,lins & minor lut,u>. 
The two letter Spanifh yellow baftard Daffodils. 

Thefe two letter kindes of Spanilh Daffodils, doc but differ in grcatncfle the one 
i the other, and not in any thing elfe; fo that in declaring the one, you may vn- 
and the other to bee a little greater. The letter then hath three or foure narrow 
whitilh greenc le.iues, from among which commcth forth a Iliort ftalke, not a- 
an hand breadth, or hall'e a foote high, bearing one (ingle flower, not fully ftan- 
outright, hut a little bending downe, confuting of fix fmall leaues, Handing as 
'.-lit a fmall, hut long trunke, a little crumpled at the brimmcs: the whole 
rr, as well leaues as trunke, are of one deepe yellow colour, like vnto the great 
ilh kinde: the roote is but fmall, and couered with a darkifh coate. The other is 
part> greater, and (as I laid) differeth not elfe. 

3. PfcuJonarciJJus Hifpanicus I u tens minimus. 
The lealt Spanilh yellow baftard Daffbdill. 

The leaues of this fmall kinde are ("mailer and (horter then the former, feldome ex- 

i ceding the length ot three inches, and very narrow withall, but of the fame grayifh 

^reene colour with the former : euery flower Itandcth vpon a fmall and fhort foote- 

. fcarce riling aboue the ground; fo that his nofe, for the moft part, doth lye or 

. an. h the ground, and is made alter the fame faihion, and of the fame colour with the 

ier, but much (mailer, as his roote is fo likewife. 

4. Pfeutfanarciffiis Gallicus minor fare pleno. 
The letter French double baftard Daffbdill. 

The rootes of this letter French kinde (if I may lawfully call it, or the greater kinde 
Wore fpecified, a baftard Daffbdill ; for I fomewhat doubt thereof, in that the flower 
.it either is not made after the faihion of any of the other baftard Daffodils, but doth 
more nearely refemble the forme of the double white Daffbdill, exprefled before a- 
:nong the true Daffodils) are like vnto the double Englifh kinde, as alfo to the former 
double great French kinde, and the leaues are of the fame whitifh greene colour alfo, 
Suit narrower and not longer : the ftalke rifeth a little higher then the Englifh, and not 
:u!ly fo high as the greater French, bearing one faire double flower thereon, of a 
pale yellow or Lemon colour, confifting of fix rowes of leaues, euery rowe growing 
miller then other vnto the middle, and fo let and placed, that euery leafe of the 
rlower doth Hand directly almoft in all, one vpon or before another vnto the middle, 
where the leaues are fmalleft, the outermoft being the greateft, which maketh the 
ttower feeine the more beautifull : this and the greater kinde hath no trunke, or fhcw 
>t any other thing in the middle, as all or moft of the other former double baftard 
Daffodils haue, but are flowers wholly compofed of leaues, ftanding double euen to 
the middle. 

The Place. 

The firft is vndoubtedly a naturall of the Pyrenaean Mountaines. 
The Spanifh kindes grew in Spaine, and 

The French double kinde about Orleancc in France, where it is faid to 
ow plentifully. 

The Time. 
The fidt rlowreth at the end of March. 


106 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Spanifh kindes are the moft early, flowring betimes in March. 
The French double doth flower prefently after. 

The Names. 

More cannot bee faid or added, concerning the names of any of thefe 
Daffodils, then hath been fet downe in their titles : onely the French kinde 
is moft vfually called Robinus his Daffodill. 

PfeudonarciJJus luncifolius albus. The white baftard Rufh Daffodill, or lunquilia. 

This baftard Rufh Daffodill hath two or three long and very greene leaues, ve 
like vnto the fmall yellow Rufh Daffodill, formerly defcribed, but not altogether 
round, among which rifeth vp a fhort ftalke, feldome halfe a foote high, bearing 
the toppe, out of a fmall skinnie huske, one fmall white flower, fometime declining 
a pale colour, hauing fix fmall and fhort leaues, rtanding about the middle of 
trunke, which is long, and much wider open at the mouth, then at the bottome : th< 
fmall outer leaues or wings are a little tending to greene, and the trunke (as I faid) is 
either white, or whitifh, hauing the brimmes a little vneuen : the feede is fmall, blacke, 
and round, like vnto other Rufh Daffodils, but fmaller. 

PfeudonarciJJus luncifolius luteus maior. 
The greater yellow lunquilia, or baftard Daffodill. 

The leaues of this greater kinde are longer, greater, and a little broader then the 
former ; the ftalke alfo is higher, and the flower larger, more open at the mouth and 
crumpled, then the white, but wholly of a yellow colour : the feede and the roots are 
bigger, according to the proportion of the plant. 

PfeudonarciJJus luncifolius luteus minor. The leffer yellow baftard lunquilia. 

This is fo like vnto the laft in all things, that I fhall not neede to trouble you withii 
repetitions of the fame things formerly fpoken ; the chiefeft difference is the fmallnefTt 
of the plant in all parts. 

Pfeudonarcijjus luncifolius luteus ferotinus. The late yellow baftard lunquilia. 

There is likewife a third kinde, as great as the greater yellow, and in all his parts ex-jj 
prefling and equalling it, but is accounted the fairer, and flowreth fomewhat later. 

The Place. 

The Pyrenaean Hils haue afforded vs all thefe varieties, and wee preferutj 
them carefully ; for they are all tender. 

The Time. 

All thefe flower in Aprill, except the laft, which is a moneth later. 

The Names. 

The French and Lowe-Countrey men call them T'rompettes, that is 
Trumpets, from the forme of the trunke ; wee fometimes call them alfo b 
that name, but more vfually baftard lunquilia's. 

PfeudonarciJJus marinus albus, Pancratium vu/go. 
The white Sea baftard Daffodill. 

The Sea baftard Daffodill (to conclude this Chapter, and the difcourfe of DafFo 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 





The whee Sea WfaH Daf- 

a I 


io8 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

dils) hath diuers broad whitifh greene leaues, but not very long, among which rifeth 
vp a ftiffe round ftalke, at the top whereof breaketh out of a great round skinny huske, 
flue or fix flowers, euery one made fomewhat of the fafhion of the great baftard Rufh 
Daffodill, but greater, and wholly white; the fix leaues, being larger and longer 
then in the Rum kinde, and extending beyond the trunke, are tipt with greene at the 
point of each leafe, and downe the middle likewife on the backfide. The trunke is 
longer, larger, and wider open at the mouth, cut in or indented at the brims or edges, 
and fmall at the bottome, with diuers white threeds in the middle, and is very fweet : 
vnder the flower is a round greene head, which groweth very great, hauing within it, 
when it is ripe, flat and blacke feede : the roote is great and white. 

Flare lutes, tf It is reported, that there are found other forts ; fome that beare yellow flowers, and 

fare rubra. others that beare red : but we haue feene none fuch, and therefore I can fay no more of 


The Place. 


This kinde groweth neare the Sea lide, both in Spaine, Italy, and Fra 
within the Straights, and for the moft part, vpon all the Leuant fhoare and 
Iflands alfo, but will feldome either flower, or abide with vs in thefe colder 
Countries, as I haue both feene by thofe that I receiued from a friend, ai 
heard by others. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in the end of Summer, that is, in Auguft and September. 

The Name. 

Diuers doe call it Pancratium, as the learned of Mompeher, and others, 
with the addition of fare Lilij, after they had left their old errour, in taking 
it to be Scylla, and vfmg it for Scylla, in the Trochifces that go into Androma- 
chus Treakle. The learned of Valentia in Spaine, as Clufms faith," doe call 
it Hemerocallis, thinking it to be a Lilly ; and Clufms doth thereupon call it, 
Hemerocallis Valentina: but in my opinion, all thefe are deceiued in this 
plant ; for it is neither a Lilly, to haue the name of Hemerocallis giuen vnto 
it, nor Scylla, nor Pancratium, as many doe yet call it : for certainly this is a 
kinde of Daffodill ; the forme both of roote, leafe, and flower, doth affure 
me that haue feene it, and not Pancratium, which (as Diofcorides teftifieth) 
is a kinde of Scylla, and in his time called Scylla, with a red roote, and a leafe 
like a Lilly, but longer, and was vfed both with the fame preparation and 
quantity, and for the fame difeafes that Scylla was vfed, but that his force 
was weaker : all which doth plainly fhew the errours that many learned men 
haue been conuerfant in, and that all may fee how necefTary the knowledge 
of Herbarifme is to the practice of Phyficke ; And left the roote of this Sea 
baftard Daffodill bee vfed in the ftead of an wholefome remedy, which (as 
Clufms maketh mention) was deadly to him that did but cut his meate with 
that knife, which had immediately before cut this roote, and done in malice 
by him, that knew the force thereof, to kill his fellow, it working the more 
forceably by the euill attracting quality of the iron. 

The Vertues of Daffodils in generall. 

Howfoeuer Diofcorides and others, doe giue vnto fome of them fpeci- 
all properties, both for inward and outward difeafes, yet know I not any in 
thefe dayes with vs, that apply any of them as a remedy for any griefe, 
whatfoeuer Gerrard or others haue written. 


The Garden o/ pleajant Mowers. 109 

I*-ui''iinw />ul/>></uni. The bulbous Violet. 

Ailing thus let (iowne the whole family, both of the true and baltard Daffo- 
dils, I lliould next let in hand with the Hyacinths; but becaufe Is//coium bul- 
ho/'uHi, The bulbous Violet is a plant that doth challenge a place next vnto the 
ils, as molt nearly partaking with them, and a little with the Hyacinthes, I mull 
necessity interpofe them, and Ihew their defcriptions and differences, whereof fome 
early, of the tirlt Spring, others later, and fome of the Autumne. 

Leuc'iium hulbofum preecox maius. The greater early bulbous Violet. 

This bulbous Violet hath three or foure very greene, broad, flat, and Ihort leaues, 
among which rifeth vp a naked greene I hi Ike, bearing out of a fmall skinny hofe (as the 
ier Daffodils doe) one white flower, hanging downe his head by a very fmall 
-Italke, made of fix leaues, of an equall length, euery one whereof is tipt at the 
with a I mall greenilh yellow fpot: after the flower is pall, the head or feed-veffell 
weth to be reasonable great, fomewhat long and round, wherein is contained hard 
round leede, which being dry, is cleare, and of a whitifh yellow colour: the roote is 
fomewhat like a Daffodill roote, and couered with a blackilh outfide or skinne. 

Lcucoium hulbofum pracox minus. The leffer early bulbous Violet. 

This leffer kinde rifeth vp with two narrow grayifh greene leaues, between which 
commeth forth the llalke, fiue or fix inches high, bearing one fmall pendulous flower, 
conlilting of three white leaues, which are fmall and pointed, ftanding on the out- 
tide, and hauing three other Ihorter leaues, which feeme like a cup in the middle, being 
cadi of them round at the ends, and cut in the middle, making the forme of an heart, 
with a greene tippe or fpot at the broad end or edge : the feede is whitilh, inclofed in 
long and round heads, like the former, but leffer : the roote is like a fmall Daffodill, 
with a blackilh gray coate, and quickly diuideth into many of-fets. 

There is another of this kinde, that came among other bulbous rootes from Con- 
(bntinople, and differeth in nothing from it, but that it is a little greater, both in root, 
leafe, and flower. 

The Place. 

The two firlt are found in many places of Germany, and Hungary. The 
third, as I laid, was brought from Conrtantinople. 

The Time. 

The two leffer forts doe moft commonly flower in February, if the wea- 
ther be any thing milde, or at the furthell in the beginning of March, but 
the firlt is feldome in flower, before the other be well neare part, or altoge- 

The Names. 

Lobel and Dodonzus call the leffer kinde Lcucoiuni tripliyllum, and Lcu- 
conarcijfiliriw triphyllum, ot the three leaues in the flower. Some doe call 
it Vula butbofa alba. The firli or greater kinde is called by Lobel, Leucwar- 
cijfiliriw pauci r jrihus fhr&tu ; and by Dodonaeus, Lt'UCfjium bulbo/uni licxa- 
p/iyllttni. We doe moll vfually call them, Lcucoium bulbofutn pracw maius, Gf 
minus i The greater, or the leffer early bulbous Violet. In Dutch, Somer 
Sottekens, and not Druifkens, which are Grape-flowers, as fome haue 


1 1 o The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

i. Leucoium bulbofum Vernum minimum. 
The fmall bulbous Violet of the Spring. 

This fmall Leucoium fendeth forth his fmall and long greene leaues, like haires in 
Autumne, and before Winter, which abide greene vntill Aprill, and then wither away 
quite, and about May there arifeth vp a naked (lender ftalke, at the toppe whereof 
breake forth two fmall white flowers, made of fix leaues a peece, hanging downe their 
heads, the three inner leaues being a little larger then the three outward, a little reddifh 
neare the ftalke, and very fweete : the root is fmall and round, and couered with a darke 

2. Leucoium bulbofum Autumnale. The fmall Autumne bulbous Violet. 

As the former fmall Leucoium fprang vp with his leaues without flowers in Au- 
tumne, fo this contrariwife, rifeth vp with his (lender brownifh ftalke of flowers in 
Autumne, before any greene leaues appeare, whereon (land two or three very fmall 
fnow white pendulous flowers, confiding of fix leaues a peece, and a little reddifh at 
the bottome of the flower next vnto the ftalke, fo like vnto the former, that one woulc 
take them to be both one : after which, there grow fmall browne heads, containing 
fmall, blacke, round feed ; after the flower is paft, and the feede is ripening, and fome- 
times after the heads are ripe, the leaues begin to fpring vp, which when they are ful 
growne, are long, greene, and as fmall, or fmaller then the leaues of the Autumne Hy 
acinth, which abide all the Winter, and Spring following, and wither away in the be 
ginning of Summer : the roote is fmall, long, and white. 

3. Leucoium maius bulbofum ferotinum. 
The great late flowring bulbous Violet. 

The late bulbous Violet hath three or foure broad flat greene leaues, very like 
the firft, but longer, among which rifeth vp a flattifh ftalke, being thicker in the mid 
die then at both edges, on the toppe whereof ftand three or foure flowers, hangin 
downe their heads, confiding of fix leaues a peece, all of an equall length and bigne(T< 
wholly white, except that each leafe hath a greene tippe at the end of them : the fe 
hereof is blacke and round ; the roote is reasonable great and white. 

The Place. 

The two former fmall ones were firft found in Spaine, and Portugall, 
fent to me by Guillaume Boel ; but the firft was fo tender, that fcarce 
of a fcore fprang with me, or would abide. The greateft haue beene fot 
wilde in Germany and Auftria. 

The Time. 

The fmall ones haue their times exprefled in their titles and defcrip' 
ons, the lart flowreth not vntill May. 

The Names. 

Thefe names that are fet downe in their titles, doe pafle with all Herb 
rifts in thefe daies. 

The Vertues. 

Wee haue not knowne thefe plants vfed Phyfically, either inwardly r 
outwardly, to any purpofes in thefe dayes. 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. \ i i 


Hyacinthus. The Hyacinth or lacinth. 

THc lacinths are next to be entreated of, whereof there are many more kindes 
found out in thefe later times, then formerly were knowne, which for order 
and method fake, I will digelt vnder feuerall forts, as neare as I can, that a- 
uoiding confulion, by enterlacing one among another, I may the better put euery fort 
vnder his owne kinde. 

Hyacinthus Imlicus tnaior tukerofa raiiicc. 
The greater Indian knobbed lacinth. 

haue thought fitted to begin with this lacinth, both becaufe it is the greatell and 
highdl, and alfo becaufe the flowers hereof are in fome likenefle neare vnto a Daffb- 

!dill, although his roote be tuberous, and not bulbous as all the rell are. This Indian 
lacinth hath a thicke knobbed roote (yet formed into feuerall heads, fomewhat like 
vnto bulbous rootes) with many thicke fibres at the bottome of them ; from the di- 
uers heads of this roote arife diuers ftrong and very tall rtalkes, befet with diuers faire, 
and broad leaues, ioyned at the bottome clofe vnto the ftalke, where they are 
greatett, and grow fmaller to the very end, and thofe that grow higher to the toppe, 
being fmaller and fmaller, which being broken, there appeare many threeds like wooll 
in them : the toppes of the ftalkes are garnifhed with many faire large white flowers, 
each whereof is compofed of fix leaues, lying fpread open, as the flowers of the white 
Daffodill, with fome fhort threeds in the middle, and of a very fweete fent, or rather 
llrong and headie. 

Hyacinthus Indicus minor tuberofa radice. 
The fmaller Indian knobbed lacinth. 

The roote of this lacinth is knobbed, like the roote of Arum or Wake Robin, from 
whence doe fpritig many leaues, lying vpon the ground, and compaffing one another 
at the bottome, being long and narrow, and hollow guttered to the end, which is fmall 
and pointed, no lefle woolly, or full of threeds then the former : from the middle of 
thefe leaues rifeth vp the flalke, being very long and flender, three or foure foot long, 
to that without it be propped vp, it will bend downe, and lye vpon the ground, where- 
on are fet at certaine distances many (hort leaues, being broad at the bottome, where 
they doe alinolt compafle the ftalke, and are fmaller toward the end where it is ftiarpe 
pointed : at the top of the llalke (land many flowers, with a fmall peece of a green leafe 
at the bottome of euery foot-ftalke, which feeme to bee like fo many white Orientall 
lacinths, being compofed of fix leaues, which are much thicker then the former, with 
iiv dimes or threeds in the middle, tipt with pale yellow pendents. 

The Place. 

They both grow naturally in the Welt Indies, from whence being firft 
brought into Spaine, haue from thence been difperfed vnto diuers louers of 

The Time. 

They flower not in thefe cold Countries vntill the middle of Auguft, or 
not at all, if they bee not carefully preferued from the iniury of our cold 
Winters; and then if the precedent Summer be hot, it may be flower a mo- 
neth fooner. 

The Names. 

Clufius callcth the Idler (for I thinke hee neuer faw the tirit) Hyacinthus 


112 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Indicus tuberofa radice, that is in Englifh, The Indian lacinth with a tuberous 
roote: Some would call thefe Hyacinthus Eriop horns Indicus, that is, The In- 
dian woolly lacinth, becaufe they haue much wooll in them when they are 
broken ; yet fome doe doubt that they are not two plants feuerall, as of 
greater and lefTer, but that the greatneffe is caufed by the fertility of the 
foyle wherein it grew. 

i. Hyacinthus Botroides maior Mofchatus, Jiue Mufcari Jiore flauo. 
The great yellow Muske Grape-flower, or yellow Mufcari. 

This Muske lacinth or Grape-flower, hath fiue or fix leaues fpread vpon the ground 
in two or three heads, which at the firft budding or (hooting forth out of the ground, 
are of a reddifh purple colour, and after become long, thicke, hollow, or guttered on 
the vpper fide, of a whitifh greene colour, and round and darke coloured vnderneath : 
in the middle of thefe heads of leaues, rife vp one or two hollow weake brownifh 
ftalkes, fometimes lying on the ground with the weight of the flowers, (but efpecially 
of the feede) yet for the moft part ftanding vpright, when they are laden towards the 
toppe, with many bottle-like flowers, which at their firft appearing, and vntill the 
flowers begin to blow open, are of a browne red colour, and when they are blowne, 
of a faire yellow colour, flowring firft below, and fo vpwards by degrees, euery one of 
thefe flowers is made like vnto a little pitcher or bottle, being bigge in the belly, and 
fmall at the mouth, which is round, and a little turned vp, very fweete in fmell, like 
vnto Muske, whereof it tooke the name Mufcari; after the flowers are paft, there come 
three fquare thicke heads, puffed vp as if it were bladders, made of a fpongie fub- 
ftance, wherein are here and there placed blacke round feed : the roote is long, round, 
and very thicke, and white on the outfide, with a little woollinefle on them, being bro- 
ken, and full of a flimie iuice, whereunto are annexed thicke, fat, and long fibres, 
which perifh not as moft of the other lacinths; and therefore defireth not to bee often 
remoued, as the other forts may. 

2. Hyacinthus Botroides maior Mofchatus, feu Mufcari flore cineritio. 
The Afhcoloured Muske Grape-flower, or Mufcari. 

This Mufcari differeth not in rootes, or forme of leaues or flowers from the former, 
the chiefe differences are thefe : the leaues hereof do not appeare fo red at the firft bud- 
ding out of the ground, nor are fo darke when they are fully growne ; the ftalke alfo 
moft vfually hath more ftore of flowers thereon, the colour whereof at the firft bud- 
ding is a little duskie, and when they are full blowne, are of a bleake, yet bright afh- 
colour, with a little mew of purple in them, and by long ftanding change a little more 
gray ; being as fweete, or as fome thinke, more fweete then the former : the roote (as I 
(aid) is like the former, yet yeeldeth more encreafe, and will better endure our cold 
clymate, although it doth more feldome giue ripe feede. 

3. Hyacinthus Botroides maior Mofchatus, fine Mufcari flore rubro. 
The red Muske Grape-flower. 

This kinde (if there be any fuch, for I am in fome doubt thereof) doth chiefly differ 
in the colour of the flower from the firft, in that this fhould beare flowers when they 
are blowne, of a red colour tending to yellowneffe. 

4. Hyacinthus Botroides maior Mofc/iatus,Jiue Mufcari Jtore alho. 
The white Muske Grape-flower. 

This alfo is faid to haue (if there bee fuch an one) his leaues like vnto the fecond 
kinde, but of a little whiter greene, and the flowers pale, tending to a white : the roots 
of thefe two laft are faid vfually not to grow to be fo great as of the former two. 

The Place. 

The rootes of the two firft forts, haue been often fent from Conftantino- 


Tltc Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

I Hyacinth*! Inditus maicr lubtrofa radict. The greater Indian knobbed lactnth. 2 Hyatiatkui Indicui minor tubero/a nidue. 
The leirer Indian knobbed lacinth. 3 M*''can fort fla*o. The yellow Mufcari. 4 Hvfcari for, cituntio. The aftjcoloured 
Mufcari. 5 H\acintkia liolroidts caruUut amanta. The kie coloured Grape-flower. 6 Hfacmtkia Botroidti Jlort albo. The 
while Grape-flower. + Hyacinths BotrvMu ramofut. The branched Grape-floww. 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

pie, among many other forts of rootes, and it may be come thither from be- 
yond the Bofphorus in Alia; we haue them in our Gardens. 

The other two forts are fprung (it is probable, if they be in rerum natura) 
from the feede of the two former ; for we could neuer get fuch from Con- 
ftantinople, as if the Turkes had neuer knowledge of any fuch. 

The Time. 

They flower in March or Aprill, as the yeare is temperate, but the firft is 
fooneft vp out of the ground. 

The Names. 

The two former haue beene fent from Turkic by the name of Mufchoro- 
mi and Dipcadi. Matthiolus calleth it Bulhus vomttorius, faying that no root 
doth more prouoke vomit then it. Cafpar Bauhinus doth moll properly 
call it Hyacinthus Mofchatus. It is molt generally called Mufcari, by all Her- 
barifts and Florifts, yet becaufe it doth fo neerely refemble the Grape- 
flower, I haue named it Hyacinthus Botroides maior Mofchatus, to put a diffe- 
rence from the lefler Grape-flowers that follow; in Englim, The great 
Muske Grape-flower, or Mufcari. 

Hyacinthus Botroides minor ceeruleus obfcurus. 
The darke blew Grape-flower. 

This Grape-flower hath many fmall, fat, and weake leaues lying vpon the ground, 
which are fomewhat brownifh at their firft comming vp, and of a fad greene after- 
wards, hollow on the vpperlide, and round vnderneath, among which rife vp round, 
fmooth, weake ftalkes, bearing at the toppe many fmall heauie bottle-like flowers, in 
fhape like the former Mufcari, but very thicke thruft together, fmaller, and of a very 
darke or blackifh blew colour, of a very ftrong fmell, like vnto Starch when it is new 
made, and hot : the root is round, and blackilh without, being comparTed with a num- 
ber of fmall rootes, or of-fets round about it, fo that it will quickly choke a ground, if 
it be fufFered long in it. For which caufe, moft men doe caft it into fome by-corner, if 
they meane to preferue it, or caft it out of the Garden quite. 

Alter maior. There is another of this kinde that is greater, both in leafe and flower, and differeth 
not in colour or any thing elfe. 

Hyacinthus Botroides carukus anieenus. The skie coloured Grape-flower. 

This lacinth fpringeth vp with fewer leaues then the firft, and not reddilh, but green 
at his firft appearing ; the leaues, when they are full growne, are long and hollow, like 
the former, but greener, (horter, and broader, Handing vpright, and not lying along 
vpon the ground as they doe : the flowers grow at the toppe of the ftalke, more fpar- 
fedly fet thereon, and not fo thicke together, but like a thinne bunch of grapes, and 
bottle-like as the former, of a perfect blew or skie colour, euery flower hauing fome 
white fpots about the brimmes of them : this hath a very fweete fmell, nothing like the 
former : this roote is whiter, and doth not fo much encreafe as the former, yet plenti- 
full enough. 

Hyacinthus Botroides ramofus. The branched Grape-flower. 

Of this kinde, there is another found to grow with many branches of flowers, brea- 
king out from the fides of the greater ftalkes or branches : the leaues as all the reft of 
the plant is greater then the former. 

Hyacinthus Botroides flore albo. The white Grape-flower. 

The white Grape-flower hath his green leaues a little whiter, then the blew or 


The Garden of ' pleiijant I' lowers. \ \ ^ 

skie coloured Grape-flower, his flowers are very pure white, alike fparfedly fet on the 
llalkes, but a little lower and fmaller then it, in all other things there is no difference. 

Hyacinthu* Botrouies Jtore iilt>o rukcntc. The blufh Grape-flower. 

The roote of this Grape-flower growcth greater, then either the skie coloured, or 
white Grape-flower, and leldome hath any finall rootes or of-fets, as the other haue: 
his leaues alfo are larger, and fomewhat broader; the flowers are of a pale, or bleake 
blulh colour out of a white, and are a little larger, and grow a little higher and fuller 
of flowers then the white. 

The Place. 

They naturally grow in many places both of Germany and Hungary ; in 
Spaine likewife, and on Mount Baldus in Italy, and Narbone in France, a- 
bout the borders of the fields : we haue them in our Gardens for delight. 

The Time. 

Thefe flower from the beginning of March, or fooner fometimes, vn- 
till the beginning of May. 

The Names. 

They are moft commonly called BotroUcs^ but more truely Bofryot/cs, 
of HOT/JUS the Greeke word, which (ignifieth a bunch or clufter of grapes : 
Lobelius calleth the white one, DipcaJi Jlore alko, transferring the name Dip- 
caJt\ whereby the Mufcari is called to this lacinth, as if they were both one. 
Their feuerall names, whereby they are knowne and called, are fet downe 
in their titles. The Dutchmen call them Driuekens, as I faid before. Some 
Englifli Gentlewomen call the white Grape-flower Pearles of Spaine. 

i . Hyacmtfuu Comofus albus. The white haired lacinth. 

This lacinth doth more neerly refemble the Grape-flowers, then the faire haired 
lacinths that follow, whereof it beareth the name, in that it hath no haire or threeds 
at the toppe of the llalke or fides, as they : and therefore I haue placed it next vnto 
them, and the other to follow it, as being of another kinde. The root hereof is blackifti, 
A little long and round, from whence rife vp three or foure leaues, being fmooth and 
whitilh, long, narrow, and hollow, like a trough or gutter on the vpperfide: among 
which the ftalke rifeth vp a foote high or more, bearing at the toppe diuers fmall flow- 
ers, ibmewhat like the former, but not fo thicke fet together, being a little longer, and 
larger, and wider at the mouth, and as it were diuided into fix edges, of a darke whitilh 
colour, with fome blacker fpots about the brimmes on the infide : the heads or feede- 
veflels are three fquare, and fomewhat larger, then the heads of any of the former 
lefler Grape-flowers, wherein is contained round blacke feede. 

2. Hyacinthus Comofus Byzantinus. The Turkic faire haired lacinth. 

This other lacinth which came from Conltantinople, is Ibmewhat like the former, 
but that it is bigger, both in roote, and leafe, and flower, and bearing greater (tore of 
flowers on the head of the (talke : the lower flowers, although they haue (hort (lalkes 
at their firft flowring, yet afterwards the ftalkes grow longer, and thofe that are lower, 
Hand out further then thofe that are highell, whofe toot-ftalkes are (hort, and al- 
molt clofe to the llemme, and of a more perfect purple then any below, which are of a 
duskie greenifh purple colour : the whole (talke of flowers feem like a Pyramis, broad 
belowe, and fmall aboue, or as other compare it, to a water fprinkle ; yet neither of 
both thefe lacinths haue any threeds at the tops of the (hikes, as the other following 
haue. 3. Hyacinthus 

1 1 6 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

3. Hyacinthus Comofus maior purpureus. 
The great purple faire haired lacinth. 

This faire haired lacinth hath his leaues fofter, longer, broader, and leffe hollow 
then the former, lying for the moft part vpon the ground : the ftalke rifeth vp in the 
midft of the leaues, being ftronger, higher, and bearing a greater and longer head of 
flowers alfo then they : the flowers of this ftand not vpon fuch long foote-ftalkes, but 
are morter below, and clofe almoft to the ftalke aboue, hauing many bright purplifh 
blew threeds, growing higheft aboue the flowers, as it were in a bufh together, euery 
one of thefe threeds hauing a little head at the end of them, fomewhat like vnto one of 
the flowers, but much fmaller : the reft of the flowers below this bum, are of a fadder 
or deader purple, and not fo bright a colour, and the loweft worft of all, rather encli- 
ning to a greene, like vnto the laft Turkic kinde: the whole ftalke with the flowers vp- 
on it, doth fomewhat referable a long Purfe tafTell, and thereupon diuers Gentlewo- 
men haue fo named it : the heads and feede are like vnto the former, but greater : the 
roote is great and white, with fome redneffe on the outfide. 

4. Hyacinthus Comofus ramofus purpureus. 
The faire haired branched lacinth. 

The leaues of this lacinth are broader, fhorter, and greener then of the laft, not 
lying fo weakly on the ground, but ftanding fomewhat more vpright : the ftalke rifeth 
vp as high as the former, but branched out on euery fide into many tufts of threeds, 
with knappes, as it were heads of flowers, at the ends of them, like vnto the head of 
threeds at the toppe of the former lacinth, but of a little darker, and not fo faire a 
blewifh purple colour : this lacinth doth fomewhat refemble the next Curld haire la- 
cinth, but that the branches are not fo fairely compofed altogether of curled threeds, 
nor of fo excellent a faire purple or Doue colour, but more duskie by much : the roote 
is greater and fhorter then of the next, and encreafeth fafter. 

5. Hyacinthus Pennatus,Jiue Comofus ramofus elegantior. 
The faire Curld-haire lacinth. 

This admirable lacinth rifeth vp with three or foure leaues, fomewhat like vnto the 
leaues of the Muske Grape-flower, but lefler; betweene which rifeth vp the ftalke a- 
bout a foote high, or fomewhat more, bearing at the toppe a bufh or tuft of flowers, 
which at the firft appearing, is like vnto a Cone or Pineapple, and afterwards opening 
it felfe, fpreadeth into many branches, yet ftill retaining the forme of a Pyramis, be- 
ing broad fpread below, and narrow vp aboue : each of thefe branches is againe diui- 
ded into many tufts of threeds or firings, twifted or curled at the ends, and of an ex- 
cellent purple or Doue colour, both ftalkes and haires. This abideth a great while in 
his beauty, but afterwards all thefe flowers (if you will fo call them) do fall away with- 
out any feede at all, fpending it felfe as it mould feeme in the aboundance of the flow- 
ers : the roote is not fo great as the laft, but white on the outfide. 

The Place. 

The two firft haue been fent diuers times from Conftantinople, the third 
is found wilde in many places of Europe, and as well in Germany, as in 
Italy. The two laft are onely with vs in Gardens, and their naturall pla- 
ces are not knowne vnto vs, 

The Time. 

The three former kindes doe flower in Aprill, the two laft in May. 

The Names. 

The firft and fecond haue no other names then are exprefled in their ti-' 


The Garden of pleaftmt Flowers. 

i Hvaciulhiu Coma/us albui. The white- haired Jacinth. 2 Hyacinthui Como/us Byzantinut. The Turkie taire haired lacinth. 
< //i.i.i/Aj Comofus mawr furfureut. The purple faire haired lacinth, or Purfe taftels. 4 Hyadiitlim Como/us ramnfut, fine 
Calamiftrntut. The faire haired branched lacinth. 5 HyafixtliHt Pmnatns, Jit Camofnt flegaittior. The faire curld haire 

1 1 8 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

ties. The third is called of fome onely Hyacinthus maior, and of others Hya- 
cinthus comofus maior : We call it in Englifh, The purple faire haired lacinth, 
becaufe of his tuft of purple threeds, like haires at the toppe, and (as I faid) 
of diuers Gentlewomen, purple taffels. The fourth is called by fome as it 
is in the title, Hyacinthus Comofus ramofus, and of others Hyacinthus Calami- 
/iratus. And the laft or fifth is diuerfly called by diuers, Fabius Columna in 
his Phytobafanos the fecond part, calleth it Hyacinthus Sannejius, becaufe hee 
firft faw it in that Cardinals Garden at Rome. Robin of Paris fent to vs the 
former of the two laft, by the name of Hyacinthus Pennatus, and Hyacinthus 
Calamiftratus^ when as others fent the laft by the name Pennatus, and the o- 
ther by the name of Calami ftratus ; but I thinke the name Cincinnatus is more 
fit and proper for it, in that the curled threeds which feeme like haires, are 
better exprefled by the word Gincinnus t then Calami Jtrum, this fignifying 
but the bodkin or inftrument wherewith they vfe to frifle or curie the haire, 
and that the bufh of haire it felfe being curled. Some alfo haue giuen to both 
the felaft the names of Hyacinthus Comofus Parnafsi, the one fairer then the 
other. Of all thefe names you may vfe which you pleafe ; but for the laft 
kinde, the name Cincinnatus, as I faid, is the more proper, but Pemiatus is 
the more common, and Calami ftratus for the former of the two laft. 

i. Hyacinthus Orientalis Brumalis, fiue prcecox fare albo. 
The white Winter Orientall lacinth. 

This early lacinth rifeth vp with his greene leaues (which are in all refpefts like to 
the ordinary Orientall Jacinths, but fomewhat narrower) before Winter, and fome- 
times it is in flower alfo before Winter, and is in forme and colour a plaine white Ori- 
entall lacinth, but fomewhat leffer, differing onely in no other thing, then the time of 
his flowring, which is alwayes certaine to be long before the other forts. 

2. Hyacinthus Orientalis Brumalis, ftue praecox fare purpureo. 
The purple Winter Orientall lacinth. 

The difference of colour in this flower caufeth it to bee diftinguifhed, for elfe it is of 
the kindred of the Orientall Jacinths, and is, as the former, more early then the reft 
that follow : Vnderftand then, that this is the fame with the former, but hauing fine 
blewifh purple flowers. 

3. Hyacinthus Orientalis maior prtecox, dicJus Zumbul Indi. 
The greateft Orientall lacinth, or Zumbul Indi. 

The roote of this Orientall lacinth, is vfually greater then any other of his kinde, 
and moft commonly white on the outfide, from whence rife vp one or two great 
round ftalkes, f potted from within the ground, with the lower part of the leaues alfo 
vpward to the middle of the ftalkes, or rather higher, like vnto the ftalkes of Dragons, 
but darker ; being fet among a number of broad, long, and fomewhat hollow greene 
leaues, almoft as large as the leaues of the white Lilly : at the toppe of the ftalkes ftand 
more ftore of flowers, then in any other of this kinde, euery flower being as great as 
the greateft fort of Orientall Jacinths, ending in fix leaues, which turne at the points, 
of a faire blewifh purple colour, and all ftanding many times on one fide of the 
ftalkes, and many times on both fides. 

4. Hyacinthus Orientalis vulgaris diuerforum color urn. 
The ordinary Orientall lacinth. 

The common Orientall lacinth (I call it common, becaufe it is now fo plenti- 
full in all Gardens, that it is almoft not efteemed) hath many greene leaues, long, 
fomewhat broad and hollow, among which rifeth vp a long greene round ftalke, 
befet from the middle thereof almoft, with diuers flowers, rtanding on both fides 


The Garden of pleafant F/owers, i KJ 

of the llalkes, one abouc another vnto the toppe, each whereof next vnto the foote- 
llalke is long, hollow, round, and dole, ending in fix finall leaues laid open, 
and a little turning at the points, of a very fweete fmell : the colours of thefe 
Mowers are diuers, for fome are pure white, without any fhew of other colour in 
them : another is almoft white, but hauing a (hew of blewnefle, efpecially at the brims 
and bottomes of the flowers. Others againe arc of a very faint blulh, tending towards 
a white : Some are of as deepe a purple as a Violet; others of a purple tending to red- 
nefle, and fome of a paler purple. Some againe arc of a faire blew, others more wat- 
chet, and fome u> pale a blew, as if it were more white then blew : alter the flowers 
are pall, there rife vp great three fquare heads, bearing round blaclce feede, great and 
1 hining : the roote is great, and white on the on tilde, and oftentimes purplilh alfo, flat 
at the bottome, and fmall at the head. 

There is a kinde of thefe lacinths, whofe flowers are of a deepe purplifh Violet co- AVW //;>*//, 
lour, hauinu whitilh lines downe the backe of euery leafe of the flower, which turnc''"^"".^" 

. * albtcaHtif in 

theinlelues a little backwards at the points. 

There is another, whofe flowers (land all opening one way, and not on all fides, but Flonbu antn, 
are herein like the great Zumbul Indi, before let out. 

1'here is againe another kinde which flowreth later then all the reft, and the ftovf-Serttinuj eie- 
er* are t mailer, llandinir more vprieht, which are either white or blew, or mixt with 1 .'*'-^"^ 

Jmttfonm , 

white and purple. ^ 

5. Hyacinthus Orientalis foliofo cattle. The bufhy ftalked Orientall lacinth. 

This llrange lacinth hath his rootes, leaues, and flowers, like vnto the former Ori- 
entall lacinths: the onely difference in this is, that his ftalke is not bare or naked, but 
hath very narrow long leaues, growing difperfedly, and without order, with the flow- 
ers thereon, which are blew, and hauing for the moll part one leafe, and fometimes 
two at the foote, or fetting on of euery flower, yet fometimes it happeneth, fome flow- 
ers to be without any leafe at the bottome, as nature, that is very variable in this plant, 
lilteth to play: the heads and feede are blacke and round, like the other alfo. 

6. Hyacinthus Orientalis Jiore duplici. The bleake Orientall lacinth once double. 

This double lacinth hath diuers long leaues, like vnto the other Orientall lacinths, 
almoll (landing vpright, among which rifeth vp a ftalke, brownifh at the firft, but 
growing greene afterwards, bearing many flowers at the toppe, made like the flowers 
of the former lacinths, and ending in fix leaues, greene at the firft, and of a blewilh 
white when they are open, yet retaining fome Ihew of greenefle in them, the brims 
of the leaues being white ; from the middle of each flower ftandeth forth another 
I mall flower, confiding of three leaues, of the fame colour with the other flower, but 
with a greene line on the backe of each of thefe inner leaues : in the middle of this lit- 
tle flower, there ftand fome threeds tipt with blacke: the fmell of this flower is not fo 
fweete as of the forme ; the heads, feede, and rootes are like the former. 

7. Hyacinthus Orientalis far? pleno caru/eo, iv/ purpuro violaceo. 
The faire double blew, or purple Orientall lacinth. 

The leaues of thefe lacinths are fmaller, then the leaues of moll of the other for- 
mer forts; the llalkes are fhorter, and fmaller, bearing but three or foure flowers on 
the heads of them for the moll part, which are not compofed like the lall, but are more 
faire, full, and double of leaues, where they (hew out their full beauties, and of a faire 
blew colour in fome, and purple in others, fmelling pretty fweete; but thefe doe fel- 
dome beare out their flowers faire ; and befides, haue diuers other flowers that will be 
either lingle, or very little double vpon the fame ftalke. 

8. Hyacinthus Orientalis camiidifsimus Jiore plena. 
The pure white double Orientall lacinth. 

This double white lacinth hath his leaues like vnto the lingle white Orientall la- 

cinth ; 

I2O The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

cinth ; his ftalke is likewife long, (lender, and greene, bearing at the toppe two or 
three flowers at the mod, very double and full of leaues, of a pure white colour, with- 
out any other mixture therein, hanging downe their heads a little, and are reafonable 
fweete. I haue this but by relation, not by fight, and therefore I can giue no further 
afTurance as yet. 

The Place. 

All thefe Orientall Jacinths, except the laft, haue beene brought out of 
Turkic, and from Conftantinople : but where their true originall place is, 
is not as yet vnderftood. 

The Time. 

The two firft (as is faid) flower the earlieft, fometimes before Chriftmas, 
but more vfually after, and abide a great while in flower, in great beauty, 
efpecially if the weather be milde, when as few or no other flowers at that 
time are able to match them. The other greateft kinde flowreth alfo earlier 
then the reft that follow, for the moft part. The ordinary kindes flower 
fome in March, and fome in Aprill, and fome fooner alfo ; and fo doe the 
double ones likewife. The bufhy ftalked lacinth flowreth much about the 
fame time. 

The Names. 

The former two forts are called Hyacinthus Orietitalis Brumalis, and Hya- 
cinthus Orientalis prcecox JJore albo, or ceeruleo. The third is called of many 
Zumbul Indicum, or Zumbul Indi, and corruptly Simboline ; of others, and 
that more properly, Hyacinthus Orientalis maior preecox. The Turkes doe 
call all Jacinths Zumbul, and by adding the name of Indi, or Arabi, do (hew 
from what place they are receiued. In Englim, The greateft: Orientall la- 
cinth ; yet fome doe call it after the Turkifh name Zumbul Indi, or Simboline, 
as is faid before. The reft haue their names fet downe in their titles, which 
are moft fit for them. 

Hyacinthus Hifpanicus minor Orientalis facie. 
The little Summer Orientall lacinth. 

This little lacinth hath foure or fiue long narrow greene leaues, lying vpon the 
ground, among which rifeth vp a (lender fmooth ftalke, about a fpanne high or more, 

Flare caruleo. bearing at the toppe many (lender bleake blew flowers, with fome white ftripes and 
edges to be feene in inoft of them, fafhioned very like vnto the flowers of the Orien- 
tall lacinth, but much ("mailer : the flower hath no fent at all ; the feede is like the feede 
of the Englifh lacinth, or Haref-bels : the roote is fmall and white. 

Flare albo. There is another of this kinde, differing in nothing but in the colour of the flower, 

which is pure white. 

Flare rubente. There is alfo another, whofe flowers are of a fine delayed red colour, with fome 
deeper coloured veines, running along the three outer leaues of the flower, differing 
in no other thing from the former. 

The Place. 

Thefe plants haue been gathered on the Pyrensean Mountaines, which 
are next vnto Spaine, from whence, as is often faid, many rare plants haue 
likewife been gathered. 

The Time. 

They flower very late, euen after all or moft of the Jacinths, in May for 
the moft part. 


The Garden of pieafant Flowers. 


i H\acintkut Oritntalis lirumalis. The Winter Oriental! I.icmth. 2 Znmhul Indi. The greateft Oriental! lacinth. 3 Hya- 
cintlitu OricHlalis vulg arit. The ordinary Oticniall lacinth. 4 Hytuinthui Oritxlalis foliefo fault. The bufhy talked Oriental! 
lacinth. 5 Hyatinthus Orientalii Jiore duflici. The Oriental! lacinth once double. 6 Hyacintluis Oriental flort fleno cirrtt- 
Uo. The faire double blew Oriental) lacinth. 

122 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Names. 

They are'called eyther Hyacinthus Hijpanicus minor Orientalis facie, as it is 
in the title, or Hyacinthus Orientalis facie, that is to fay, The lefTer Spanifh 
lacinth, like vnto the Orientall: yet fome haue called them, Hyacinthus 
Orientalis ferotinus minor, The lefler late Orientall lacinth, that thereby 
they may be knowne from the reft. 

Hyacinthus Hifpanicus obfoletus. The Spanifh dunne coloured lacinth. 

This Spanifh lacinth fpringeth very late out of the ground, bearing foure or fiue 
fhort, hollow, and foft whitifh greene leaues, with a white line in the middle of euery 
one of them, among which rife vp one or more ftalkes, bearing diuers flowers at the 
toppes of them, all looking one way, or ftanding on the one fide, hanging downe their 
heads, confifting of fix leaues, three whereof being the outermoft, lay open their 
leaues, and turne back the ends a little again : the other three which are innermoft, do 
as it were clofe together in the middle of the flower, without laying themfelues open 
at all, being a little whitifh at the edges : the whole flower is of a purplifh yellow co- 
lour, with fome white and green as it were mixed among it, of no fent at all : it beareth 
blacke and flat feede in three fquare, great, and bunched out heads : the roote is reafo- 
nable great, and white on the outfide, with many ftrong white fibres at it, which pe- 
rifh not yearely, as the fibres of many other lacinths doe, and as it fpringeth late, fo it 
holdeth his greene leaues almoft vntill Winter. 

Mauritanicus. There hath been another hereof brought from about Fez and Marocco in Barbary, 
which in all refpefts was greater, but elfe differed little. 

There was another alfo brought from the Cape of good Hope, whofe leaues were 
ftronger and greener then the former, the ftalke alfo thicker, bearing diuers flowers, 
confufedly ftanding vpon longer foote-ftalkes, yet made after the fame fafhion, but 
that the three inner leaues were whitifh, and dented about the edges, otherwife the 
flowers were yellow and greenifh on the infide. 

The Place. 

Thefe plants grow in Spaine, Barbary, and Ethiopia, according as their 
names and defcriptions doe declare. 

The Time. 

The firft flowreth not vntill lune ; for, as I faid, it is very late before it 
fpringeth vp out of the ground, and holdeth his leaues as is faid, vntill Sep- 
tember, in the meane time the feede thereof ripeneth. 

The Names. 

They haue their names according to the place of their growing ; for one 
is called Hyacinthus Hifpanicus ob/bletioris colons. The other is called alfo 
Hyacinthus Mauritanicus. And the laft, Hyacinthus Mthiopicus obfoletus. In 
Englifh, The Spanifh, Barbary, or Ethiopian lacinth, of a dunne or duskie 

Hyacinthus Anglicus Belgicus, ve/ Hifpanicus. 
Englifh Haref-bels, or Spanifh lacinth. 

Our Englifh lacinth or Haref-bels is fo common euery where, that it fcarce nee- 
deth any defcription. It beareth diuers long and narrow greene leaues, not ftanding 
vpright, nor yet fully lying vpon the ground, among which fpringeth vp the ftalke, 
bearing at the toppe many long and hollow flowers, hanging downe their heads all 


The Garden of p/eajant Flowers. 123 

forwards for the moll part, parted at the brimmes into fix parts, turning vp their 
points a little againe, of a fweetilh, but heady I'rnt, Ibmewhat like vnto the Grape- 
flower: the heads for fcedc are long and fquare, wherein is much blacke feede: the 
colour of the flowers are in fomc of a deeper blew, tending to a purple; in others of a 
paler blew, or of a bleake blew, tending to an afh colour: Some are pure white, and 
fome are party coloured, blew and white; and fomc are of a fine delayed purplifh red 
or blulh colour, which fome call a peach colour. The rootcs of all forts agree, and are 
alike, being white and very ilimie; fome whereof will be great and round, others long 
and (lender, and thofe that lye neare the toppe of the earth bare, will be greene. 

Hyacinthus Hijpanicus maior flore campanula in/tar. 
The greater Spanifh bell-flowred lacinth. 

This Spanifh bell-flowred lacinth, is very like the former Englifh or Spanifh la- 
cinth, but greater in all parts, as well of leaues as flowers, many growing together at 
the toppe of the llalke, with many fhort greene leaues among them, hanging downe 
their heads, with larger, greater, and wider open mouths, like vnto bcls, of a darke 
blew colour, and no good fent. 

The Place. 

The firft groweth in many places of England, the Lowe-Countries, as 
we call them, and Spaine, but the laft chiefly in Spaine. 

The Time. 
They flower in Aprill for the moft part, and fometimes in May. 

The Names. 

Becaufe the firfl is more frequent in England, then in Spaine, or the Lowe- 
Countries, it is called with vs Hyacinthus Anglic us * The Englifh lacinth; 
but it is alfo called as well Betgicus, as Hifpanicus : yet Dodonasus calleth it 
Hyacinthus non fcriptus, becaufe it was not written of by any Authour be- 
fore himfelfe. It is generally knowne in England by the name of Hare- 
bels. The other Spanifh lacinth beareth his name in his title. 

Hyacinthus Eriophorus. The Woolly lacinth. 

This Woolly lacinth hath many broad, long, and faire greene leaues, very like vn- 
to fome of the lacinths, but Differ, or (landing more vpright, which being broken, doe 
yeeld many threeds, as if a little fine cotton wooll were drawne out : among thefe 
leaues rifeth vp a long greene round llalke, a foote and a halfe high or more, whereon 
is fet a great long bufh of flowers, which blowing open by degrees, firft below, and 
fo vpwards, are very long in flowring: the toppe of the llalke, with the flowers, and 
their little footflalkes, are all blew, euery flower Handing outright with his ftalke, and 
fpreading like a ftarre, diuided into fix leaues, hauing many fmall blew threeds, flan- 
din^ about the middle head, which neuer gaue ripe feede, as farre as I can heare of: 
the root is white, fomewhat like the root of a Mufcari, but as full of wooll or threeds, 
or rather more, then the leaues, or any other part ot it. 

The Place. 

This hath been fent diuers times out of Turkic into England, where it 
continued a long time as well in my Garden as in others, but fome hard 
frofty Winters caufed it to perifh with me, and diuers others, yet I haue had 
it againe from a friend, and doth abide frefh and greene euery yeare in my 



124 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Time. 

This flowred in the Garden of M' . Richard Barnefley at Lambeth, onely 
once in the moneth of May, in the yeare 1606, after hee had there prefer- 
ued it a long time : but neither he, nor any elfe in England that I know, but 
thofe that faw it at that time, euer faw it beare flower, either before or fince. 

The Names. 

It is called by diuers Bulbus Eriophorus, or Laniferus, that is, Woolly Bul- 
bous ; but becaufe it is a Jacinth, both in roote, leafe, and flower, and not a 
Narciffus, or DafTodill, it is called Hyacinthus Eriophorus, or Laniferus, The 
Woolly lacinth. It is very likely, that Theophraftus in his feuenth Book & 
thirteenth Chapter, did meane this plant, where hee declareth, that gar- 
ments were made of the woolly fubftance of a bulbous roote, that was ta- 
ken from between the core or heart of the roote (which, as he faith, was 
vfed to be eaten) and the outermoft fhels or peelings; yet Clufius feemeth 
to faften this woolly bulbous of Theophraftus, vpon the next lacinth of 

Hyacinthus Stellatus Bteticus maior, vu/go Peruanus 
The great Spanifh Starry lacinth, or of Peru. 

This lacinth (the greateft of thofe, whofe flowers are fpread like a ftarre, except the 
two firft Indians) hath fiue or fix, or more, very broad, and long greene leaues, fpread 
vpon the ground, round about the roote, which being broken are woolly, or full of 
threeds, like the former : in the middle of thefe leaues rifeth vp a round fhort ftalke, in 
comparifon of the greatnefie of the plant (for the ftalke of the Orientall lacinth is 
fometimes twice fo high, whofe roote is not fo great) bearing at the toppe a great 
head or bufh of flowers, fafhioned in the beginning, before they bee blowne or fepa- 
rated, very like to a Cone or Pineapple, and begin to flower belowe, and fo vpwards 
by degrees, euery flower ftanding vpon a long blackifh blew foote-ftalke, which when 
they are blowne open, are of a perfect blew colour, tending to a Violet, and made of 
fix fmall leaues, laid open like a ftarre ; the threeds likewife are blewifh, tipt with yel- 
low pendents, ftanding about the middle head, which is of a deeper blew, not hauing 
any good fent to be perceiued in it, but commendable only for the beauty of the flow- 
ers : after the flowers are paft, there come three fquare heads, containing round blacke 
feede : the roote is great, and fomewhat yellowifh on the outfide, with a knobbe or 
bunch at the lower end of the roote, (which is called the feate of the roote) like vnto 
the Mufcari, Scylla, and many other bulbous rootes, at which hang diuers white, 
thicke, and long fibres, whereby it is faftened in the ground, which perifh not euery 
yeare, but abide continually, and therefore doth not defiie much remouing. 

Hyacinthus Stellatus Bceticus^Jiue Peruanus flore albo. 
The great white Spanifh ftarry lacinth. 

This other Spanifh lacinth is in moft parts like vnto the former, but that his leaues 
are not fo large, nor fo deep a greene : the ftalks of flowers likewife hath not fo thicke 
a head, or bufh on it, but fewer and thinner fet : the flowers themfelues alfo are whitifh, 
yet hauing a fmall dafh of blufh in them : the threeds are whitifh, tipt with yellow pen- 
dents : the feede and rootes are like vnto the former, and herein confifteth the diffe- 
rence betweene this and the other forts. 

Hyacinthus Stellatus Bceticus^Jiue Peruanus fiore carneo. 
The great blufh coloured Spanifh Starry lacinth. 

This likewife differeth little from the two former, but onely in the colour of the 

flowers ; 

The Garden of pleafant F/owers. 


I Hy.tcinthta Oritnlalis facie. The little Summer Orientall lacinth. i Hyatinthm Mauritanicut. The Barbary lacinth. 
3 Hyatintkus obfolttut Hi/funims. The Spanifh duskie Incinth. 4 HfOtinlliui Hi/faniciis flore nimpaiiiilii. The greater 
Spanifh bcl-flowred lacinth. 5 Hyafi*tkiii A*glicin. The EnRlilh lacinth or HarebeU. 6 Hyucinthm Krin/'liorm. The 
Woolly lacinth. 7 Hyaii*lhus Sl/llurit Datum maim, fiut Ptriuuttts. The peat Spamfli Suur\ Uciiub, or of Peru. 

126 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

flowers ; for this being found growing among both the other, hath his head of flow- 
ers as great and large as the firft, but the buds of his flowers, before they are open, are 
of a deepe blufh colour, which being open, are more delayed, and of a pleafant pale 
purple, or blufh colour, (landing vpon purplifh ftalkes : the heads in the middle are 
whitifh, and fo are the threeds compafiing it, tipt with yellow. 

The Place. 

Thefe doe naturally grow in Spaine, in the Medowes a little off from the 
Sea, as well in the Ifland Gades, vfually called Cales, as likewife in other 
parts along the Sea fide, as one goeth from thence to Porto Santa Maria, 
which when they be in flower, growing fo thicke together, feeme to couer 
the ground, like vnto a tapiftry of diuers colours, as I haue beene credibly 
enformed by Guillaume Boel, a Freeze-lander borne, often before and 
hereafter remembred, who being in fearch of rare plants in Spaine, in the 
yeare of our Lord 1607, after that moft violent frofty Winter, which peri- 
fhed both the rootes of this, and many other fine plants with vs, fent mee 
ouer fome of thefe rootes for my Garden, and affirmed this for a truth, 
which is here formerly fet downe, and that himfelfe gathered thofe he fent 
mee, and many others in the places named, with his owne hands ; but hee 
faith, that both that with the white, and with the blufh flowers, are farre 
more rare then the other. 

The Time. 

They flower in May, the feede is ripe in luly. 

The Names. 

This hath beene formerly named Eriop/iorus Peruanus, and Hyacinthus 
Stellatus Peruanus, The Starry lacinth of Peru, being thought to haue grown 
in Peru, a Prouince of the Wefl Indies ; but he that gaue that name firft vn- 
to it, eyther knew not his naturall place, or willingly impofed that name, to 
conceale it, or to make it the better efteemed. It is moft generally recei- 
ued by the name Hyacinthus Peruanus, from the firft impofer thereof, that 
is, the lacinth of Peru : but I had rather giue the name agreeing moft fitly 
vnto it, and call it as it is indeede Hyacinthus Stellatus Battcus, The Spanifh 
Starry lacinth ; and becaufe it is the greateft that I know hath come from 
thence, I call it, The great Starry lacinth of Spaine, or Spanifh lacinth. 

Hyacinthus Stellatus vulgaris, fiue Bifolius Fuchftj. 
The common blew Starry lacinth. 

This Starry lacinth (being longeft knowne, and therefore moft common) rifeth out 
of the ground, vfually but with two browne leaues, yet fometimes with three, inclo- 
ling within them the ftalke of flowers, the buds appearing of a darke whitifh colour, 
as foone as the leaues open themfelues, which leaues being growne, are long, and hol- 
low, of a whitifh greene on the vpper fide, and browne on the vnder fide, and 
halfe round, the browne ftalke riling vp higher, beareth fine or fixe fmall rtarre-like 
flowers thereon, confifting of fix leaues, of a faire deepe blew, tending to a purple. 
The feede is yellowifh, and round, contained in round pointed heads, which by rea- 
fon of their heauineffe, and the weaknefTe of the ftalke, lye vpon the ground, and often 
perifh with wet and frofts, &c. The roote is fomewhat long, and couered with a yel- 
lowifh coate. 

Hyacinthus ftellatus flore albo. The white Starry lacinth. 

The white Starry lacinth hath his leaues like the former, but greene and frefh, not 
browne, and a little narrower alfo : the buddes for flowers at the firft appeare a little 
blufh, which when they are blowne, are white, but yet retaine in them a fmall fhew of 
that blufh colour. We 

The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 127 

We haue another, whole flowers are pure white, and ("mailer then the other, the Fkrt 
leaues whereof are of a pale frelh greenc, and fomewhat narrower. 

Hyacinthus Sk//a!us ftwc ruhcutc. The blufh coloured Starry lacinth. 

The difference in this from the former, is onely in the flowers, which are of a faire 
blufh colour, much more eminent then in the others, in all things elfc alike. 

Hyacinthus Stellatus Marfius, fine precc ox ceeru/eus. 
The early blew Starry lacinth. 

This lacinth hath his leaues a little broader, of a frefher greene, and not browneat 
all, as the fidt blew lacinth of Fuchfms laft remembred : the buds of the flowers, while 
they are enclofed within the leaues, and after, when the llalke is growne vp, doe re- 
maine more blew then the buds of the former: the flowers, when they are blowne o- 
pen, are like the former, but fomewhat larger, and of a more liuely blew colour : the 
roote nllu is a little whiter on the outlide. This doth more feldome beare feede then 
the former. 

Hyacinthus Stellatus pracox Jlore albo. The white early Starry lacinth. 

There is allb one other of this kinde, that beareth pure white flowers, the green leafe 
thereof being a little narrower then the former, and no other difference. 

Hyacinthus Stcl/atus pracox Hore fuaue rubentc. 
The early blu(h coloured Starry lacinth. 

This blulh coloured lacinth is very rare, but very pleafant, his flowers being as large 
as the fidl of this laft kinde, and fomewhat larger then the blufh of the other kinde : 
the leaues and rootes differ not from the lart recited lacinth. 

The Place. 

All thefe lacinths haue beene found in the Woods and Mountaines of 
Germany, Bohemia, and Auftria, as Fuchfius and Gefner doe report, and in 
Naples, as Imperatus and others doe teftifie. Wee cherifh them all with 
great care in our Gardens, but efpecially the white and the blulh of both 
kindes, for that they are more tender, and often perilh for want of due re- 

The Time. 

The common kindes, which are firft exprefled, flower about the middle 
of February, if the weather bee milde, and the other kindes fometimes a 
fortnight after, that is, in March, but ordinarily much about the fame time 
with the former. 

The Names. 

The firit is called in Latine Hyacinthus Stcllatus vulgar h, and Hyacinthus 
Stfllatus bifolius, and Hyacinthus Stellaris Fuch/ij, and of fome Hyacinthus 
Stfllatus Gcrmanicus ; wee might very well call the other kinde, Hyacinthus 
Stcllatus Tu/garis alter, but diuers call it Prtecox, and fome Martins, as it is in 
the title. In Englilh they may bee feuerally called : the firrt, The common ; 
and the other, The early Starry lacinth (notwithstanding the firfl flowreth 
before the other) for diftindtion fake. 

The Hyacinthus feemeth to be called I''acinium of Virgil in his Eclogues ; 
for hee alwayes reckoneth it among the flowers that were vfed to decke 
Garlands, and neuer among fruits, as fome would haue it. But in that hee 
calleth it Vacinium nigrum, in feuerall places, that doth very fitly anfwer the 


128 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

common receiued cuflome of thofe times, that called all deepe blew co- 
lours, fuch as are purples, and the like, blacke; for the Violet it felfe is like- 
wife called blacke in the fame place, where he calleth the Vacinium blacke ; 
fo that it feemeth thereby, that he reckoned them to be both of one colour, 
and we know the colour of the Violet is not blacke, as we doe diflinguifh of 
blacke in thefe dayes. But the colour of this Starry lacinth, being both of 
fo deepe a purple fometimes, fo neare vnto a Violet colour, and alfo more 
frequent, then any other lacinth with them, in thofe places where Virgil 
liued, perfwadeth me to thinke, that Virgil vnderflood this Starry lacinth 
by Vacinium : Let others iudge otherwife, if they can fhew greater probabi- 

i. Hyacinthus Stellatus Byzantinus nigra radice. 
The Starry lacinth of Turkic with the blacke roote. 

This Starry lacinth of Conflantinople hath three or foure fref h greene, thinne, and 
long leaues, of the bigneffe of the Englifh lacinth, but not fo long, betweene which ri- 
feth vp a (lender lowe flalke, bearing fiue or fix fmall flowers, difperfedly fet thereon, 
fpreading open like a flarre, of a pale or bleake blew colour : the leaues of the flowers 
are fomewhat long, and fland as it were fomewhat loofly, one off from another, and 
not fo compaclly together, as the flowers of other kindes: it feldome beareth ripe 
feede with vs, becaufe the heads are fo heauie, that lying vpon the ground, they rotte 
with the wet, or are bitten with the frofls, or both, fo that they feldome come to good : 
the roote is fmall in fome, and reafonable bigge in others, round, and long, white 
within, but couered with deepe reddifh or purplifh peelings, next vnto it, and darker 
and blacker purple on the outfide, with fome long and thicke white fibres, like fingers 
hanging at the bottome of them, as is to be feene in many other lacinths : the roote it 
felfe for the moil part doth runne downewards, fomewhat deep into the ground. 

2. Hyacinthus Stellatus Byzantinus maior. 
The greater Starry lacinth of Conflantinople. 

This lacinth may rightly be referred to the former lacinth of Conflantinople, and 
called the greater, it is fo like thereunto, that any one that knoweth that, will foone 
fay, that this is another of that fort, but greater as it is in all his parts, bearing larger 
leaues by much, and more flore, lying vpon the ground round about the roote : it 
beareth many lowe flalkes of flowers, as bleake, and Handing as loofly as the former : 
onely the roote of this, is not black on the outfide, as the other, but three times bigger. 

3. Hyacinthus Stellatus Byzantinus alter, fine fare boraginis. 
The other Starry lacinth of Conflantinople. 

This other lacinth hath for the mofl part onely foure leaues, broader and greener 
then the firfl, but not fo large or long as the fecond : the llalke hath fiue or fix flowers 
vpon it, bigger and rounder fet, like other flarry lacinths, of a more perfect or deeper 
blew then either of the former, hauing a whitifh greene head or vmbone in the mid- 
dle, befet with fix blew chiues or threeds, tipt with blacke, fo clofly compaffing the 
vmbone, that the threeds feeme fo many prickes flucke into a clubbe or head ; fome 
therefore haue likened it to the flower of Borage, and fo haue called it : after the flow- 
ers are pall, come vp round white heads, wherein is contained round and white feede : 
the roote is of a darke whitifh colour on the outfide, and fometimes a little reddifh 

The Place. 

The firfl and the lafl haue beene brought from Conllantinople ; the 
firll among many other rootes, and the lafl by the Lord Zouch, as Lobel 
witneffeth. The fecond hath been fent vs out of the Lowe-Countries, but 
from whence they had it, we do not certainly know. They growe with vs in 
our Gardens fufficiently. The 

"The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 129 

The Time. 

Thefe flower in Aprill, but the firft is the earlieft of the reft, and is in 
flower prefently after the early Starry lacinth, before defcribed. 

The Names. 

The former haue their names in their titles, and are not knowne vnto vs 
by any other names that I know ; but as I faid before, the laft is called by 
fome, Hyacinthus Boraginis flore. The firft was fent out of Turkic, by the 
name v>\ Sufnmgiul, by which name likewife diuers other things haue beene 
lent, fo barren and barbarous is the Turkish tongue. 

Hyacinthus Stfllatus ftLftrvus mtiior. The greater Summer Starry lacinth. 

This late lacinth hath diuers narrow greene leaues, lying vpon the ground, fome- 
what like the leaues of the Englifh lacinth, but ftiffer and ftronger; among which ri- 
feth vp a round ftiffe ftalke, bearing many flowers at the toppe thereof, and at euery 
foote-ftalke of the flowers a fmall Ihort leafe, of a purplifli colour : the flowers are 
ftarre-like, of a fine delayed purplifh colour, tending to a pale blew or am colour, ftri- 
ped on the backe of euery leafe, and hauing a pointed vmbone in the middle, with 
fome whitilh purple threeds about it, tipt with blew: the feede is blacke, round, and 
(hinin^, like vnto the feede of the Englim lacinth, but not fo bigge : the roote is round 
and white, hauing fome long thicke rootes vnder it, befides the fibres, as is vfuall in 
many other lacinths. 

Hyacinthus Stellatus ALfthws minor. The lefler Summer Starry lacinth. 

This lefler lacinth hath diuers very long, narrow, and mining greene leaues, fpread 
vpon the ground round about the roote, among which rifeth vp a very (hort round 
ftalke, not aboue two inches high, carrying fix or feuen fmall flowers thereon, on each 
fide of the ftalke, like both in forme and colour vnto the greater before defcribed, but 
letter by farre : the feede is blacke, contained in three fquare heads : the roote is fmall 
and white, couered with a browne coate, and hauing fome fuch thicke rootes among 
the fibres, as are among the other. 

The Place. 

Both thefe lacinths grow naturally in Portugall, and from thence haue 
been brought, by fuch as feeke out for rare plants, to make a gaine and pro- 
fit by them. 

The Time. 

They both flower in May, and not before: and their feed is ripe in luly. 

The Names. 

Some doe call thefe Hyacinthus Lu/itanicus, The Portugall lacinth. Clu- 
fius, who firft fet out the defcriptions of them, called them as is exprefled in 
their titles; and therefore we haue after the Latine name giuen their EnglHh, 
according as is let downe. Or if you pleafe, you may call them, The grea- 
ter and the lefler Portugall lacinth. 

Hyacinthus Ste/laris Jtwc cinereo. The afh coloured Starry lacinth. 

This afh coloured lacinth, hath his leaues very like vnto the leaues of the Englilh 
lacinth, and fpreading vpon the ground in the fame manner, among which rife vp one 
or two ftalkes, fet at the toppe with a number of fmall ftarre-like flowers, burning big- 

R ger 

1 30 The Garden of p leaf ant F/owers. 

ger below then aboue, of a very pale or white blew, tending to an afh colour, and very 
fweete in fmell : the feede is blacke and round, like vnto the feede of the Englifh la- 
cinth, and fo is the roote, being great, round, and white ; fo like, I fay, that it is hard to 
know the one from the other. 

The Place. 

The certaine originall place of growing thereof, is not knowne to vs. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in Aprill. 

The Names. 

Some doe call this Hyacinthus Someri, Somers lacinth, becaufe as Lobel 
faith, he brought it firft into the Lowe-Countries, eyther from Conftanti- 
nople, or out of Italy. 

Hyacinthus Stellatus Lilifolio & radice caruleo. 
The blew Lilly leafed Starre lacinth. 

This lacinth hath fix or feuen broad greene leaues, fomewhat like vnto Lilly leaues, 
but (horter (whereof it tooke his name as well as from the roote) fpread vpon the 
ground, and lying clofe and round : before the ftalke rifeth out from the middle of 
thefe leaues, there doth appeare a deepe hollow place, like a hole, to bee feene a good 
while, which at length is rilled vp with the ftalke, rifmg thence vnto a foote or more 
high, bearing many ftarre-like flowers at the toppe, of a perfect blew colour, neare 
vnto a Violet, and fometimes of paler or bleake blew colour, hauing as it were a fmall 
cuppe in the middle, diuided into fix peeces, without any threeds therein : the feede is 
blacke and round, but not fhining: the roote is fomewhat long, bigge belowe, and 
fmall aboue, like vnto the fmall roote of a Lilly, and compofed of yellow fcales, as a 
Lilly, but the fcales are greater, and fewer in number. 

Hyacinthus Stellatus Lilifolius albus. The white Lilly leafed Starre lacinth. 

The likenefle of this lacinth with the former, caufeth me to be briefe, and not to 
repeate the fame things againe, that haue already been exprefled : You may therefore 
vnderftand, that except in the colour of the flower, which in this is white, there is no 
difference betweene them. 

meo. I heare of one that mould beare blufh coloured flowers, but I haue not yet feene 
any fuch. 

The Place. 

Thefe lacinths haue been gathered on the Pyrenaean Hils, in that part of 
France that is called Aquitaine, and in fome other places. 

The Time. 
Thefe flower in Aprill, and fometimes later. 

The Names. 

Becaufe the roote is fo like vnto a Lilly, as the leafe is alfo, it hath 
moft properly beene called Hyacinthus Stellatus Lilifolio G? radice, or for 
breuity Lilifolius, that is, The Starry Lilly leafed lacinth. It is called 
Sarahug by the Inhabitants where it groweth, as Clufius maketh the re- 
port from Venerius, who further faith, that by experience they haue 
found the cattell to fwell and dye, that haue eaten of the leaues thereof. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

lms fttllatui prirtox camletis. The early blew ftarry lacinth. i HjraciittkHS /tellalus pracox albtis. The early white 
ftarry lacinth. 3 Hyacinthni /tellalut Bytanlinut nigra radut. The Turkic ftarry lacinth with a blacke roote. 4 Hycuinthni 
Byzttr.tiuus alUr fiut Jlorc lioraginis. The other ftarry lacinlh of Conftantinoplc. 5 Hyac'iHlhin a/tirns mainr. The greater 
Summer ftarry lacinth. 6 HyatintlmsftollatMiJIurt ciiurto. The afh coloured ftarry lacinth. 7 Hyaeintkui fttllatui l.i!i/oliiis. 
The Lilly leafed ftarre lacinth. 8 Hyacinthut Autumn, ilis. The Autumne lacinth. 9 Scilla alba fine Hyacinthut marinas. 
The Sea Onion or Squill. 

132 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Hyacinthus Autumnalis maior. The greater Autumne lacinth. 

The greater Autumne lacinth hath fiue or fix very long and narrow greene leaues, 
lying vpon the ground ; the ftalkes are fet at the toppe with many ftarre-like flowers, 
of a pale blewifh purple colour, with fome pale coloured threeds, tipt with blew, 
(landing about the head in the middle, which in time growing ripe, containeth therein 
fmall blacke feede, and roundifh : the roote is great and white on the outfide. 

Hyacinthus Autumnalis minor. The leffer Autumne lacinth. 

This lefler lacinth hath fuch like long and fmall leaues, but narrower then the for- 
mer : the ftalke is not full fo high, but beareth as many flowers on it as the other, 
which are of a pale or bleake purple colour, very like vnto it alfo : the roote and feed 
are like the former, but fmaller. Thefe both for the moft part, beare their flowers and 
feede before the greene leaues rife vp much aboue the ground. 

Flore Mo. There is a kinde hereof found that beareth white flowers, not differing in any other 

thing from the fmaller purple kinde laft mentioned. 

The Place. 

The firft and laft are onely kept in Gardens, and not knowne to vs where 
their naturall place of growing wilde may be. 

The fecond groweth wilde in many places of England. I gathered diuers 
rootes for my Garden, from the foote of a high banke by the Thames fide, 
at the hither end of Chelfey, before you come at the Kings Barge-houfe. 

The Time. 

The greateft flowreth in the end of luly, and in Auguft. 
The other in Auguft and September, you mall feldome fee this plant 
with flowers and greene leaues at one time together. 

The Names. 

They haue their names giuen them, as they are exprefTed in their titles, 
by all former Writers, except Dalefchampius, or hee that fet forth that 
great worke printed at Lyons; for hee contendeth with many words, that 
thefe plants can bee no Jacinths, becaufe their flowers appeare before their 
leaues in Autumne, contrary to the true lacinth, as he faith : and therefore he 
would faine haue it referred to Theophrajlus bulbus in libra primo cap. 1 2. and 
calleth it his Tiphyum mentioned in that place, as alfo Bulbus ajtivus Dale- 
champij. Howfoeuer thefe things may carry fome probability in them, yet 
the likeneffe both of rootes, and flowers efpecially, hath caufed very lear- 
ned Writers to entitle them as is fet downe, and therefore I may not but let 
them pafTe in the like manner. 

The Vertues. 

Both the rootes and the leaues of the Jacinths are fomewhat cold and 
drying, but the feede much more. It ftayeth the loofnetfe of the belly. It 
is likewife faid to hinder young perfons from growing ripe too foone, the 
roote being drunke in wine. It helpeth them alfo whofe vrine is ftopt, and 
is auaileable for the yellow laundife; but as you heare fome are deadly to 
cattell, I therefore wifh all to bee well aduifed which of thefe they will vfe 
in any inward phyficke. 

Scilla alba. The Sea Onion or Squill. 

As I ended the difcourfe of both the true and the baftard Daffodils, with the Sea 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 133 

kindes of both forts ; fo I thinke it not amifle, to finilh this of the lacinths with the de- 
fcription of a Sea lacinth, which (as you fee) I take to be the Scilla, or Sea Onion, all 
his parts fo nearely refembling a lacinth, that I know not where to ranke him better 
then in this place, or rather not any where but here. You (hall haue the defcription 
thereof, and then let the iudicious pa(fe their fentence, as they thinke mecteft. 

The Squill or Sea Onion (as many doe call it) hath diuers thicke leaucs, broad, long, 
greene, and hollowifh in the middle, and with an eminent or fwelling ribbe all along 
the backe of the leafe, (I relate it as I haue feene it, hauing (hot forth his leaues in the 
(hip by the way, as the Mariners that brought diuers rootes from out of the Straights, 
did fell them to mee and others for our vie) lying vpon the ground, fomewhat like 
vnto the leaues of a Lilly : thefe fpring vp after the flowers are part, and the feed ripe, 
they abiding all the Winter, and the next Spring, vntill the heate of the Summer hath 
fpent and confumed them, and then about the end of Auguft, or beginning of Septem- 
ber, the (talke with flowers arifeth out of the ground a toote and a halfe high, bearing 
many Itarre-like flowers on the toppe, in a long fpike one aboue another, flowring by 
degrees, the loweft tirft, and fo vpwards, whereby it is long in flowring, very like, as 
well in torme as bignefle, to the flowers of the great Starre of Bethlehem (thefe flow- 
ers I haue likewife feene (hooting out of fome of the rootes, that haue been brought in 
the like manner :) after the flowers are part, there come vp in their places thicke and 
three fquare heads, wherin is contained fuch like flat, black, and round feed, as the Spa- 
nidi duskie lacinth before defcribed did beare, but greater : the root is great & white, 
couered with many peelings or couerings, as is plainly enough feen to any that know 
them, and that fometimes wee haue had rootes, that haue beene as bigge as a pretty 
childes head, and fometimes two growing together, each whereof was no lefle then 
is faid of the other. 

Scilla rubra Jiuc Pancratium verum. The red Sea Onion. 

The roote of this Squill, is greater oftentimes then of the former, the outer coates 
or peelings being reddi(h, bearing greater, longer, ftiffer, and more hollow leaues, in 
a manner vpright : this bringeth fuch a like rtalke and flowers, as the former doth, as 
Fabianus Ilges, Apothecary to the Duke of Briga, did fignifie by the figure thereof 
drawne and fent to Clufius. 

The Place. 

They grow alwayes neare the Sea, and neuer farre off from it, but often 
on the very baich of the Sea, where it wafheth ouer them all along the 
coarts of Spaine, Portugal, and Italy, and within the Straights in many 
places : it will not abide in any Garden farre from the Sea, no not in Italy, 
as it is related. 

The Time. 

The time wherein they flower, is exprefled to be in Auguft and Septem- 
ber : the (cede to be ripe in October and Nouember, and the greene leaues 
to fpring vp in Nouember and December. 

The Names. 

Thefe are certainly the true kindes of Scilla that (hould bee vfed in medi- 
cines, although (as Clulius reporteth) the Spaniards forbade him to tafte of 
the red Squill, as of a moft ftrong and prefent poifon. Pliny hath made 
more forts then can be found out yet to this day with vs : that Scilla that is 
called EftmcxutiOt becaufe it might be eaten, is thought to be the great Orni- 
thogalum, or Starre of Bethlehem. Pancratium is, I know, and as I faid be- 
fore, referred to that kinde of baltard Sea DafFodill, which is fet forth be- 
fore in the end of the hiftory of the bartard Daffodils ; and diuers alfo 
would make the Narcijfus tertius Matthioli, which I call the true Sea Daffo- 
dill, to be a Pancratium ; but feeing Diofcorides (and no other is againft him) 


of pleafant Flowers. 

maketh Pancratium to be a kinde of Squill with reddifh rootes, I dare not 
vphold their opinion againft fuch manifeft truth. 

The Vertues. 

The Squill or Sea Onion is wholly vfed phyfically with vs, becaufe wee 
can receiue no pleafure from the fight of the flowers. Pliny writeth, that 
Pithagoras wrote a volume or booke of the properties thereof, for the fin- 
gular effects it wrought ; which booke is loft, yet the diuers vertues it hath is 
recorded by others, to be effectual for the fpleene, lungs, ftomach, liuer, 
head and heart ; and for dropfies, old coughs, laundife, and the wormes ; 
that it cleareth the fight, helpeth the tooth-ache, cleanfeth the head of 
fcurfe, and running fores ; and is an efpeciall Antidote againft poifon : and 
therefore is vfed as a principall ingredient into the Theriaca Andromachi, 
which we vfually call Venice Treakle. The Apothecaries prepare hereof, 
both Wine, Vinegar, and Oxymel or Syrupe, which is fingular to extenu- 
ate and expectorate tough flegme, which is the cause of much disquiet in the 
body, and an hinderer of concodlion, or digertion in the ftomach, befides 
diuers other wayes, wherein the fcales of the rootes, being dryed, are vfed. 
And Galen hath fufficiently explained the qualities and properties thereof, 
in his eight Booke of Simples. 

Ornithogalum. Starre of Bethlehem. 

AFter the Family of the Jacinths, muft needes follow the kindes of Starre-flow- 
ers, or Starres of Bethlehem, as they are called, for that they doe fo nearely re- 
femble them, that diuers haue named fome of them lacinths, and referred them 
to that kindred : all of them, both in roote, leafe, and flower, come nearer vnto the 
lacinths, then vnto any other plant. They fhall therefore bee next defcribed, euery 
one in their order, the greateft firft, and the reft following. 

Ornithogalum Arabicum. The great Starre-flower of Arabia. 

This Arabian Starre-flower hath many broad, and long greene leaues, very like vn- 
to the leaues of the Orientall lacinth, but lying for the moft part vpon the ground, 
among which rifeth vp a round greene ftalke, almoft two foote high, bearing at the 
toppe diuers large flowers, ftanding vpon long foote-ftalkes, and at the bottome of 
euery one of them a fmall mort pointed greene leafe : thefe flowers are made of fix 
pure white leaues a peece, laid open as large as an ordinary Daffodill, but of the forme 
of a Starre lacinth, or Starre of Bethlehem, which clofe as they doe euery night, and 
open themfelues in the day time, efpecially in the Sunne, the fmell whereof is pretty 
fweete, but weake : in the middle of the flower is a blackim head, compofed with fix 
white threeds, tipt with yellow pendents : the feede hath not beene obferued with vs : 
the roote is great and white, with a flat bottome, very impatient of our cold Winters, 
fo that it feldome profpereth or abideth with vs ; for although fometimes it doe abide 
a Winter in the ground, yet it often lyeth without fpringing blade, or any thing elfe a 
whole yeare, and then perifheth : or if it doe fpring, yet many doe not beare, and moft 
after their firft bearing doe decay and perifh. But if any be defirous, to know how to 
preferue the roote of this plant, or of many other bulbous rootes that are tender, fuch 
as the great double white Daffodill of Conftantinople, and other fine Daffodils, that 
come from hot Countries ; let them keepe this rule : Let either the roote be planted in 
a large pot, or tubbe of earth, and houfed all the Winter, that fo it may bee defended 
from the frorts ; Or elfe (which is the eafier way) keepe the roote out of the ground 
euery yeare, from September, after the leaues and ftalkes are paft, vntill February, in 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Ibme dry, but not hot or windy place, and then plant it in the ground vnder a South 
wall, or 1'uch like defended place, which will fpring, and no doubt prol'per well 
there, in regard the greatell and deepell trolls are pall after February, Ib that feldome 
any great trolls come after, to pierce fo deepe as the rootc is to be fet, or thereby to 
doe any great harme to it in fuch a place. 

The Place. 

This hath been often lent out of Turkic, and likewife out of Italy ; I had 
likewife two rootes lent mee out of Spainc by Guillaume Boel before rc- 
membred, which (as hee faid) hee gathered there, but they profpcred not 
with me, for want of the knowledge of the former rule. It may be likely that 
Arabia is the place, from whence they of Conftantinople receiue it. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in May, if it be of the firft yeares bringing ; or in lune, if it 
haue been ordered alter the manner before fet downe. 

The Names. 

It hath been fent out of Italy by the name of Lilium Alexamirinum, The 
Lilly of Alexandria, but it hath no affinity with any Lilly. Others call it 
Hyticinthus Arabicus ; and the Italians, lac intho del pater no/fro: but it is no la- 
cinth neither, although the flowers be like fome of them. Some alfo would 
reterre it to a Narctffus or Daffodill, and it doth as little agree with it, as 
with a Lilly, although his flowers in largenefle and whitenefle refemble a 
Daffodill. Clufius hath mofl fitly referred it to the flocke or kindred of 
Ormth'jgala, or Starres of Bethlehem, as wee call them in Englifh, and 
from the Turkifh name, Zumbul Arabi, entituled it Ornit/ioga/um Arabicum, 
although Zumbul, as I haue before declared, is with them, a lacinth, wee 
may call it in Englifh, The Arabian Starre-flower, or Starre of Bethlehem, 
or the great Starre-flower of Arabia. 

I . Ornithogalum maximum album. 
The greatell white Starre-flower, or Starre of Bethlehem. 

This great Starre-flower hath many faire, broad, long, and very frefh green leaues, 
riling vp very early, and are greater, longer, and greener then the leaues of any Ori- 
entall lacinth, which doe abide greene, from the beginning or middle of lanuary, or 
before fometimes, vntill the end of May, at which time they begin to fade, and the 
(lalke with the head of flowers beginneth to rife, fo that it will haue either few or no 
leaues at all, when the flowers are blowne : the ftalke is ftrong, round, and firme, ri/mg 
two foote high or more, bearing at the toppe a great bulh of flowers, Teeming at the firfl 
to be a great greene eare of corne, for it is made fpike-falhion, which when the flowers 
are blowne, doth rife to be very high, (lender or fmall at the head aboue, and broad 
fpread and bufhing below, fo that it is long in flowring; for they flower below firft, 
and fo vpwards by degrees: thefe flowers are fnow white, without any line on the 
backllde, and is therein like vnto the former, as alfo in whitenefle, but nothing fo 
large, with a white vmbone or head in the middle, befet with many white threeds, 
tipt with yellow : the feede is blacke and round, contained in three fquare heads : the 
roote is great, thicke, and fhort, and fomewhat yellowiih on the outlide, with a flat 
bottome, both like the former, and next that followeth. 

2. Ornit/iogalum maiu s fpicatum album. 
The great white fpiked Starre-flower. 

This fpiked Starre-flower in his growing, is fomewhat like vnto the laft defcribed, 


136 'The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

but fpringeth not vp fo early, nor hath his leaues fo greene, or large, but hath broad, 
long, whitifh greene hollow leaues, pointed at the end, among which rifeth vp the 
ftalke, which is ftrong and high, as the former, hauing a great bum of flowers at the 
toppe, ftanding fpike-fafhion, fomewhat like the former, flowring in the fame maner 
by degrees, firft below, and fo vpwards ; but it is not fo thicke fet with flowers, nor fo 
farre fpread at the bottome as it, the flowers alfo are not fo white, and each of the 
leaues of them haue a greene line downe the backe, leauing the edges on both fides 
white : after the flowers are part, the heads for feede grow three fquare, like the other, 
bearing fuch like blacke feede therein : the roote hereof is vfually bigger then the laft, 
and whiter on the outfide. 

3. Qrnithogalum Pannonicum. The Hungarian Starre-flower. 

This Hungarian Starre-flower fhooteth out diuers narrow, long, whitifh greene 
leaues, fpread vpon the ground before Winter, which are very like vnto the leaues of 
Gilloflowers, and fo abide aboue the ground, hauing a ftalke riling in the middle of them 
the next Spring, about halfe a foote high or thereabouts, bearing many white flowers 
at the toppe, with greene lines downe the backe of them, very like vnto the ordi- 
nary Starres of Bethlehem : the roote is greater, thicker, and longer then the ordinary 
Starres, and for the moft part, two ioyned together, fomewhat grayifh on the outfide. 

4. Qrnithogalum vu/gare. The Starre of Bethlehem. 

The ordinary Starre of Bethlehem is fo common, and well knowne in all coun- 
tries and places, that it is almoft needlefle to defcribe it, hauing many greene leaues 
with white lines therein, and a few white flowers fet about the toppe of the ftalke, with 
greenifh lines downe the backe : the roote is whitifh, and encreafeth aboundantly. 

5. Afphodelus bulbofus Galcni,Jiue Ornithogalum mains flore fubuircfcente. 
The bulbous Afphodill, or greene Starre-flower. 

Diuers haue referred this plant vnto the Afphodils, becaufe (as I thinke) the flowers 
hereof are ftraked on the backe, and the leaues long and narrow, like vnto the Afpho- 
dils ; but the roote of this being bulbous, I rather (as fome others doe) ioyne it with 
the Omit/ioga/a, for they alfo haue ftrakes on the backe of the flowers. It hath many 
whitifh greene leaues, long and narrow, fpread vpon the ground, which fpring vp in 
the beginning of the yeare, and abide vntill May, and then they withering, the ftalke 
fpringeth vp almoft as high as the firft, hauing many pale yellowifh greene flowers, but 
fmaller, and growing more fparfedly about the ftalke vpon fhort foot-ftalkes, but in a 
reasonable long head fpike-fafhion : the feede is like vnto the fecond kinde, but fmal- 
ler : the roote is fomewhat yellowim, like the firft great white kinde. 

The Place. 

The firft is onely nurfed in Gardens, his originall being not well 
knowne, yet fome attribute it vnto Pannonia or Hungary. The fecond hath 
been found neare vnto Barcinone, and Toledo in Spaine. The third was 
found in Hungary by Clufius. Our ordinary euery where in the fields of 
Italy and France, and (as it is faid) in England alfo. And the laft groweth 
likewife by the corne fields in the vpper Hungary. 

The Time. 
They flower in Aprill and May, and fometimes in lune. 

The Names. 

The firft is called by Clufius Ornithogalum maximum album, becaufe it is 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


i Ornithogalum Arabicitm. The great furre-flower of .\rabia. 2 Ornitkogalt-m maximum album. The greateft white ftarre-flower. 
3 OrnithogalMm mains fpicatum alhnm. The Rrsat white fpiked ftane-flower. 4 Ornitltogalum Pannonieum album. The Hun- 
garian ftane-flower. 5 Afphodeliis hulbo/us Galeni, fiut Ornilliogalum mains ftibmrtfctnie flort. The bulbed Afphodill, or greene 
ftarrc-flower. 6 Ornithogalum Hifpanicum minus. The little ftarre-flower of Spaine. 7 Ornithogalum luttum. The yellow 
ftarre-flower of Bethlehem. S Orxithogalum Nrafwlita*um. The ftarre-flower of Naples. 

138 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

greater then the next, which hee tooke formerly for the greateft : but it 
might more fitly, in my iudgement, bee called Afphodelus bulbofus albus (if 
there be any Afphodelus bulbofus at all) becaufe this do fo nearly refemble 
that, both in the early fpringing, and the decay of the greene leaues, when 
the ftalkes of flowers doe rife vp. Diuers alfo doe call it Ornithogalum Pan- 
nonicum maximum album. 

The fecond hath his name in his title, as moft authors doe fet it downe, 
yet in the great Herball referred to Dalechampius, it is called Ornithogalum 
magnum Myconi. 

The third hath his name from the place of his birth, and the other from 
his popularity, yet Dodonaeus calleth it Eulbus Leucanthemos. 

The laft is called by diuers Afphodelo-hyacinthinus, and Hyacintho-afpho- 
delus Galeni. Dodonasus calleth it Afphodelus famina, and Afphodelus bul- 
bofus. But Lobel, and Gerrard from him, and Dodonsus, doe make this to 
haue white flowers, whereas all that I haue feene, both in mine owne, and in 
others Gardens, bore greenifh flowers, as Clufius fetteth it truely downe. 
Lobel feemeth in the defcription of this, to confound the Ornithogalum of 
Mompelier with it, and calleth it Afphodelus hyacinthinus forte Galeni, and 
faith that fome would call it Pancratium Monfpelienfe, and Afphodelus Galeni. 
But as I haue (hewed, the Ornithogalum fpicatum and this, doe plainly differ 
the one from the other, and are not both to be called by one name, nor t 
be reckoned one, but two diftincl: plants. 

Ornithogalum /Ethiopicum. The Starre-flower of Ethiopia. 

The leaues of this plant are a foote long, and at the leaft an inch broad, which being 
broken, are no lefle woolly then the woolly lacinth : the ftalke is a cubit high, ftrong 
and greene ; from the middle whereof vnto the toppe, ftand large fnow white flow- 
ers, vpon long, greene, thicke foot-ftalkes, and yellowifh at the bottome of the flower ; 
in the middle whereof ftand fix white threeds, tipt with yellow chiues, compafling 
the head, which is three fquare, and long containing the feede : the roote is thicke 
and round, fomewhat like the Afphodelus Galeni. 

The Place. 

This plant was gathered by fome Hollanders, on the Weft fide of the 
Cape of good Hope. 

The Time. 
It flowred about the end of Auguft with thofe that had it. 

The Names. 

Becaufe it came from that part of the continent beyond the line, which is 
reckoned a part of Ethiopia, it is thereupon fo called as it is fet downe. 

Ornithogalum Neapolitanum. The Starre-flower of Naples. 

This beautifull plant rifeth out of the ground very early, with foure or fiue hollow 
pointed leaues, {landing round together, of a whitifh greene colour, with a white line 
downe the middle of euery leafe on the infide, fomewhat narrow, but long, (Fabius 
Columna faith, three foot long in Italy, but it is not fo with vs) in the middle of thefe 
leaues rifeth vp the ftalke, a foote and a halfe high, bearing diuers flowers at the toppe, 
euery one ftanding in a little cuppe or huske, which is diuided into three or foure 
parts, hanging downe very long about the heads for feede : after the flower is paft, 
thefe flowers doe all hang downe their heads, and open one way, although their little 
foot-ftalkes come forth on all fides of the greater ftalke, being large, and compofed of 
fix long leaues, of a pure white on the infide, and of a blewifh or whitifh greene colour 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

on the outlide, leauing the edges of euery leafe white on both fides : in the middle of 
thefe flowers Hand other fmall flowers, each of them alfo made of fix fmall white 
leaues a peece, which meeting together, feeme to make the (hew of a cuppe, within 
which are contained lix white threeds, tipt with yellow, and a long white pointell in 
the middle of them, being without any lent at all : after the flowers are part, come vp 
great round heads, which are too heauie for the llalke to beare; and therefore lye 
downe vpon the leaues or ground, hauing certaine lines or llripes on the outlide, 
wherein is contained round, blacke, rough feede : the roote is great and white, and 
fomewhat flat at the bottome, as diuers of thefe kindes are, and doe multiply as plen- 
tifully into fmall bulbes as the common or any other. 

The Place. 

This Starre-flower groweth in the Medowes in diuers places of Naples, 
as Fabius Columna, and Ferrantes Imperatus doe teflifie, from whence 
they haue been lent. And Matthiolus, who fetteth out the figure thereof 
among his DafFodills, had (it Ihould feeme) feene it grow with him. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in May, although it begin to fpring out of the ground often- 
times in Nouember, but moll vfually in January: the feede is ripe in luly. 

The Names. 

Matthiolus reckoneth this (as is faid) among the Daffodils, for no other 
refpect, as I conceiue, then that he accounted the middle flower to bee the 
cuppe or trunke of a DafFodill, which it doth fomewhat refemble, and fet- 
teth it forth in the fourth place, whereupon many doe call it Narcijfus quar- 
tu.< Matthioli, The fourth DafFodill of Matthiolus. Fabius Columna calleth 
it Hyacinthus aruorum Ornithogali Jiore. Clufms (to whom Imperatus fent it, 
in Head of the Arabian which hee delired) calleth it of the place from 
whence he receiued it, Ornithogalum Neafo/ifanum, and we thereafter call it 
in Englilh, The Starre-flower of Naples. 

Ornithogalum Hifpanicum minus. The little Starre-flower of Spaine. 

Clufms hath fet forth this plant among his Ornithogala or Starre-flowers, and al- 
though it doth in my minde come nearer to a Hyacinthus, then to Ornithogalum, yet 
pardon it, and let it pafle as he doth. From a little round whitifh roote, fpringeth vp in 
the beginning of the yeare, fiue or lix fmall long green leaues, without any white line 
in the middle of them, among which rife vp one or two fmall flalkes, an hand length 
high or better, bearing feuen or eight, or more flowers, growing as it were in a tuft or 
vmbell, with fmall long leaues at the foote of euery llalke, the lower flowers being 
equall in length with the vppermofl, of a pale whitilh blew or alh colour, with a ftrake 
or line downe the backe of euery leafe of them, with fome white threeds Handing a- 
bout a blewifh head in the middle : thefe flowers pafle away quickly, and giue no feed, 
fo that it is not knowne what feede it beareth. 

The Place. 
This groweth in Spaine, and from thence hath been brought to vs. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in May. 

The Names. 

It hath no other name then is fet down in the title, being but lately found 
out. i- Or///- 

14.0 'The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

i . Qrnithogalum album vnifolium. The white ftarre-flower with one blade. 

This little ftarre-flower I bring into this place, as the fitteft in my opinion where to 
place it, vntill my minde change to alter it. It hath a very fmall round white roote, 
from whence fpringeth vp one very long and round greene leafe, like vnto a rum, but 
that for about two or three inches aboue the ground, it is a little flat, and from thence 
fpringeth forth a fmall ftalke not aboue three or foure inches high, bearing at the top 
thereof three or foure fmall white flowers, confifting of fix leaues a peece, within 
which are fix white chiues, tipt with yellow pendents, ftanding about a fmall three 
fquare head, that hath a white pointell fticking as it were in the middle thereof: the 
flower is pretty and fweete, but not heady. 

Ornithogalum luteum. The yellow Starre of Bethlehem. 

This yellow Starre-flower rifeth vp at the firft, with one long, round, greenifh leafe, 
which openeth it felfe fomewhat aboue the ground, and giueth out another fmall 
leafe, lefler and fhorter then the firft, and afterward the ftalke rifeth from thence alfo, 
being foure or fiue inches high, bearing at the toppe three or foure fmall green leaues, 
and among them foure or fiue fmall yellow ftarre-like flowers, with a greenifh line or 
ftreake downe the backe of euery leafe, and fome fmall reddifh yellow threeds in the 
middle : it feldome giueth feede : the roote is round, whitifh, and fomewhat cleare, 
very apt to perifh, if it bee any little while kept dry out of the ground, as I haue twice 
tryed to my lofle. 

The Place. 

The firft grew in Portugall, and Clufius firft of all others defciphers it. 
The other is found in many places both of Germany and Hungary, in the 
moifter grounds. 

The Time. 
The firft flowreth in May: the other in Aprill, and fometimes in March. 

The Names. 

Carolus Clufius calleth the firft Bulbus vnifolitts, or Bolbine, but referreth 
it not to the ftocke or kindred of any plant ; but (as you fee) I haue ranked it 
with the fmall forts of Ornithogalum, and giue it the name accordingly. 

The other is referred for likenefle of forme, and not for colour, vnto the 
Ornithogala, or Starres of Bethlehem. It is called by Tragus and Fuchfius 
Bulbus Jilueftris, becaufe of the obuioufnefTe. Cordus taketh it to be Sifyrin- 
chium. Lacuna calleth it Bulbus efculentus. Lobel and others in thefe dayes 
generally, Ornithogalum luteum, and wee thereafter in Englilh, The yellow 
Starre-flower, or Starre of Bethlehem. 

The Vertues. 

The firft kinde being but lately found out, is not knowne to be vied. The 
rootes of the common or vulgar, are (as Matthiolus faith) much eaten by 
poore people in Italy, either rawe or roafted, being fweeter in tafte then 
any Cheftnut, and feruing as well for a neceflary food as for delight. It is 
doubtfull whether any of the reft may be fo vfed ; for I know not any in our 
Land hath made any experience. 

There are many other forts of Starre-flowers, which are fitter for a generall then 
this Hiftory ; and therefore I referre them thereunto. 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 


Moly. Wilde Garlickc. 

VNto the former Starre-flowers, mull needes bee ioyned another tribe or kind- 
red, which carry their itraked flowers Starre-falhion, not fpikewife, but in a 
tuft or vmbell thicke thrult or let together. And although diuers of them 
fmell not as the former, but moll of their firll Grandfathers houfe, yet all doe not fo ; 
for fome of them are of an excellent fcnt. Of the whole Family, there are a great many 
which 1 mult leaue, I will onely felect out a few for this our Garden, whofe flowers 
for their beauty of llatelinefie, forme, or colour, are fit to bee entertained, and take 
place therein, euery one according to his worth, and are accepted of with the louers 
of thefe delights. 

I. Moly Homcricum, vel potius Theophrajii. 
The greatell Moly of Homer. 

Homers Moly (for fo it is moll vfually called with vs) rifeth vp moll commonly 
with two, and fometimes with three great, thicke, long, and hollow guttered leaues, 
of a wliitilh greene colour, very neare the colour of the Tulipa leafe, hauing fome- 
times at the end of fome of the leaues, and fometimes apart by it felfe, a whitifn round 
fmall button, like vnto a fmall bulbe, the like whereof alfo, but greater, doth grow be- 
tweene the bottome of the leaues and the llalke neare the ground, which being plan- 
ted when it is ripe, will grow into a roote of the fame kinde : among thefe leaues rifeth 
vp a round, llrong, and tall llalke, a yard high or better, bare or naked vnto the toppe, 
where it beareth a great tuft or vmbell of pale purplilh flowers, all of them almoll 
Handing vpon equall foot-llalkes, or not one much higher then another, confifting of 
fiue leaues a peece, llriped downe the backe with a fmall pale line, hauing a round 
head or vmbone with fome threeds about it in the midll : Thefe flowers doe abide a 
great while blowne before they vade, which fmell not very llrong, like any Onion or 
Garlicke, but of a faint fmell : and after they are part come the feede, which is blacke, 
wrapped in white clofe huskes : the roote groweth very great, fometimes bigger then 
any mans clofed fill, fmelling llrong like Garlicke, whitilh on the outlide, and greene 
at the toppe, if it be but a while bare from the earth about it. 

2. Moly Iiuiicumjiue Caucafon. The Indian Moly. 

The Indian Moly hath fuch like thicke large leaues, as the Homers Moly hath, but 
fhorter and broader, in the middle whereof rifeth vp a Ihort weake llalke, almoll flat, 
not hauing any flowers vpon it, but a head or duller of greenilh fcaly bulbes, inclo- 
fed at the firll in a large thinne skinne, which being open, euery bulbe Iheweth it felfe, 
Handing clofe one vnto another vpon his foot-llalke, of the bignefle of an Acorne, 
which being planted, will grow to bee a plant of his owne kinde : the roote is white 
and great, couered with a darke coate or skinne, which encreafeth but little vnder 
ground ; but belides that head, it beareth fmall bulbes aboue the ground, at the bot- 
tome of the leaues next vnto the llalke, like vnto the former. 

The Place. 

Both thefe doe grow in diuers places of Spaine, Italy, and Greece; for 
the lall hath been fent out of Turkic among other rootes. Ferrantes Impe- 
ratus a learned Apothecary of Naples, lent it to diuers of his friends in 
thefe parts, and hath defcribed it in his naturall hiftory among other 
plants, printed in the Italian tongue. It grew alfo with lohn Tradefcante at 
Canterbury, who fent me the head of bulbes to fee, and afterwards a roote, 
to plant it in my Garden. 


142 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Time. 

The firft flowreth in the end of May, and abideth vnto the midft of luly, 
and fometimes longer. The other beareth his head of bulbes in lune and 

The Names. 

We haue receiued them by their names exprefled in their titles, yet the 
laft hath alfo been fent by the name of Ornithogalum Ita/icum, but as all may 
eafily fee, it is not of that kindred. 

I . Moly montanum Pannonicum bulblferum primum. 
The firft bulbed Moly of Hungary. 

This firft Hungarian Moly hath three or foure broad and long greene leaues, folded 
together at the firft, which after open themfelues, and are carried vp with the ftalke, 
ftanding thereon one aboue another, which is a foote high ; at the toppe whereof doe 
grow a few fad reddifh bulbes, and betweene them long footftalkes, bearing flowers 
of a pale purplifh colour ; after which followeth blacke feede, inclofed in roundifh 
heads: the roote is not great, but white on the outfide, very like vnto the roote of 
Serpents Moly, hereafter defcribed, encreafing much vnder ground, 8c fmelling ftrong. 

2. Moly montanum Pannonicum bulblferum fecundum. 
The fecond bulbed Moly of Hungary. 

The fecond Moly hath narrower greene leaues then the former : the ftalke is about 
the fame height, and beareth at the toppe a great clufter of fmall greene bulbes, which 
after turne of a darker colour ; from among which come forth long foot-ftalks, where- 
on ftand purplifh flowers : the roote is couered with a blackifh purple coate or skinne. 

3. Moly Serpentinum. Serpents Moly. 

This Moly muft alfo be ioyned vnto the bulbous Molyes, as of kindred with them, 
yet of greater beauty and delight, becaufe the bulbes on the heads of the fmall ftalkes 
are redder, and more pleafant to behold : the ftalke is lower, and his graffie winding 
leaues, which turne themfelues (whereof it tooke the name) are fmaller, and of a whi- 
ter greene colour : it beareth among the bulbes purplifh flowers alfo, but more beau- 
tifull, the fent whereof is nothing fo ftrong : the roote is fmall, round, and whitifh, en- 
creafing into a number of fmall rootes, no bigger then peafe round about the greater 

4. Moly caule & folijs triangularibus. The three cornered Moly. 

This three fquare Moly hath foure or fiue long, and fomewhat broad pale greene 
leaues, flat on the vpper fide, and with a ridge downe the backe of the leafe, which ma- 
keth it feeme three fquare : the ftalke which rifeth vp a foote and a halfe high or bet- 
ter, is three fquare or three cornered alfo, bearing at the toppe out of a skinnie huske 
diuers white flowers, fomewhat large and long, almoft bell-famion, with ftripes of 
greene downe the middle of euery leafe, and a few chiues tipt with yellow in the 
middle about the head, wherein when it is ripe, is inclofed fmall blacke feede : the 
roote is white on the outfide, and very like the yellow Moly ; both roote, leafe, and 
flower hath a fmacke, but not very ftrong of Garlicke. 

5. Moly Narcifsims folijs. Daffodill leafed Moly. 

This Moly hath many long, narrow, and flat greene leaues, very like vnto the leaues 
of a Daffodill, from whence it tooke his name (or rather of the early greater Leucoium 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


\ Holy Momentum vel txitiut Tkfophrafti. The greateft Moly of Homer. 2 Moly Indicum Jiue Caucafon. The Indian Moly. 
3 Moly Pattnonicum bulbifcrum. The bulbed Moly of Hungary. 4 Moly Strpntinum. Serpents Moly. 5 Moly purpureum 
X tapolitiuutm. The purplilh Moly of Naples. 6 Molj cattle folijt lria*gularibs. The three cornered Moly. 7 Moly lali- 
folium /lore lutfo. The yellow Moly. K Mnly Diofcondeum Hiff>anicvm. The Spanifh Moly of Diofcorides. 9 Moly Zibtttinum 
vrl .Wofchatiitum. The fweete fmcllin;; Moly of Mompelier. 10 Moly ftrotinum Cnniferuni . The late Pine apple Moly. 

144 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

bulbofum^ or bulbed Violet before defcribed, ioyned next vnto the Daffodils, becaufe 
it is fo like them) among which rifeth vp two or three ftalkes fometimes, each of a foot 
and a halfe high, bearing at the toppe, inclofed in a skinny hofe, as all the Molyes 
haue, a number of fmall purplifh flowers, which doe not long abide, but quickly fade : 
the feede is blacke as others are ; the roote is fometimes knobbed, and more often 
bulbed, hauing in the knobs fome markes of the old ftalkes to be feene in them, and 
fmelleth fomewhat like Garlicke, whereby it may be knowne. 

6. Moly montanum latifolium luteo fare. The yellow Moly. 

The yellow Moly hath but one long and broad leafe when it doth not beare flower, 
but when it will beare flower, it hath two long and broad leaues, yet one alwaies longer 
and broader then the other, which are both of the fame colour, and neare the bignefle 
of a reafonable Tulipa leafe : betweene thefe leaues groweth a (lender ftalke, bearing 
at the toppe a tuft or vmbell of yellow flowers out of a skinnie hofe, which parteth 
three wayes, made of fix leaues a peece, laid open like a Starre, with a greenifh backe 
or outfide, and with fome yellow threeds in the middle : the feede is blacke, like vnto 
others : the roote is whitifh, two for the moft part ioyned together, which encreafeth 
quickly, and fmelleth very ftrong of Garlicke, as both flowers and leaues doe alfo. 

7. Moly Pyrenceum purpureum. The purple mountaine Moly. 

This purple Moly hath two or three leaues, fomewhat like the former yellow 
Moly, but not fo broad, nor fo white : the ftalke hath not fo many flowers thereon, but 
more fparingly, and of an vnpleafant purple colour : the roote is whitifh, fmelling 
fomewhat ftrongly of Garlicke, but quickly perifheth with the extremity of our cold 
Winters, which it will not abide vnlefTe it be defended. 

8. Moly montanum latifolium purpureum Hifpanicum. 
The purple Spanifh Moly. 

(This Moly hath two broad and very long greene leaues, like vnto the yellow Moly, 
in this, that they doe compafTe one another at the bottome of them, between which 
rifeth vp a ftrong round ftalke, two foote high or more, bearing at the toppe, out of a 
thinne huske, a number of faire large flowers vpon long foot-ftalkes, confifting of fix 
leaues a peece, fpread open like a Starre, of a fine delayed purple or blufh colour, with 
diuers threeds of the fame colour, tipt with yellow, ftanding about the middle head : 
betweene the ftalke and the bottome of the leaues it hath fome fmall bulbes growing, 
which being planted, will foone fpring and encreafe : the roote alfo being fmall and 
round, with many fibres thereat, hath many fmall bulbes mooting from them ; but 
neither roote, leafe, nor flower, hath any ill fent of Garlicke at all. 

9. Moly purpureum Neapolitanum. The purple Moly of Naples. 

The Neapolitane Moly hath three or foure fmall long greene leaues fet vpon the 
ftalke after it is rifen vp, which beareth a round head of very fine purple flowers, made 
of fix leaues a peece, but fo clofing together at the edge, that they feeme like vnto 
fmall cuppes, neuer laying themfelues open, as the other doe ; this hath fome fent ot 
his originall, but the roote more then any part elfe, which is white and round, quickly 
encreafing as moft of the Molyes doe. 

10. Moly pyxidatum argenteum Hifpamcum. 
The Spanifh filuer cupped Moly. 

This Spanifh Moly hath two or three very long rufh like leaues, which rife vp with 
the ftalke, or rather vanifh away when the ftalke is rifen vp to bee three foote high or 
more, bearing a great head of flowers, ftanding clofe at the firft, but afterwards fprea- 
ding much one from another, euery flower vpon a long foote-ftalke, being of a white 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. \ -^ 

iilucr colour, with ftripes or lines on euery fide, and falhioned finall and hollow, like 
a cuppe or boxe : the feede I could neuer obferue, becaufe it flowreth fo late, that the 
Winter hindereth it from bearing feede with vs : the roote is fmall and round, white, 
and in a manner tranf parent, at lealt fo fhining, as if it were fo, and encreafeth nothing 
fo much, as many of the other forts : this hath no ill lent at all, but rather a pretty 
fmell, not to bee mifliked. 

1 1 . Moly ferotinum Coniferum. The late Pineapple Moly. 

This late Moly that was fent me with the laft defcribed, and others alfo from Spain, 
rifeth vp with one long greene leafe, hollow and round vnto the end, towards this end 
on the one fide, breaketh out a head of flowers, enclofed in a thinne skinne, which after 
it hath fo rtood a good while, (the leafe in the meane time rifing higher, and growing 
harder, becommeth the ftalke) breaketh, and flieweth a great bufh or head of buds for 
flowers, thicke thruft together, fafhioned very like vnto the forme of a Pineapple (from 
whence I gaue it the name) of the bignefs of a Walnut : after this head hath flood in this 
manner a moneth or thereabouts, the flowers fhew themfelues to bee of a fine delayed 
or whitifh purple colour, with diuers ftripes in euery of them, of the fame cup-fafhion 
with the former, but not opening fo plainly, fo that they cannot bee difcerned to bee 
open, without good heede and obferuation. It flowreth fo late in Autume, that the 
early frofts doe quickly fpoile the beauty of it, and foone caufe it to rotte : the roote is 
fmall and round, and mining like the laft, very tender alfo, as not able to abide our 
(harpe Winters, which hath caufed it vtterly to perifh with me. 

12. Moly Diojcorideum. Diofcorides his Moly. 

The roote of this fmall Moly is tranfparent within, but coucred with a thicke yel- 
lowifh skinne, of the bignefle of an Hafell Nut, or fomewhat bigger, which fendeth 
forth three or foure narrow graflle leaues, long and hollow, and a little bending down- 
wards, of a whitifh greene colour, among which rifeth vp a flender weake ftalke, a foot 
and a halfe high, bearing at the toppe, out of a thinne skinne, a tuft of milke white 
flowers, very like vnto thofe of Ramfons, which ftand a pretty while in their beauty, 
and then pafTe away for the moft part without giuing any feede : this hath little or no 
fent of Garlicke. 

We haue anothor of this fort that is lefier, and the flowers rounder pointed. 

1 3. Moly Diofcorideum Hifpamcum. The Spanifh Moly of Diofcorides. 

This Moly came vnto me among other Molyes from Spaine, and is in all things 
like vnto the laft defcribed, but fairer, larger, and of much more beauty, as hauing his 
white flowers twice as great as the former ; but (as it feemeth) very impatient of our 
Winters, which it could not at any hand endure, but quickly perifhed, as fome others 
that came with it alfo. 

1 4. Moly Mofchatinum vel Zibettinum Monfpelicnft. 
The fweete fmelling Moly of Mompelier. 

This fweete Moly, which I haue kept for the laft, to clofe vp your fenfes, is 
the fmalleft, and the fineft of all the reft, hauing foure or fiue fmall greene leaues, 
almoft as fine as haires, or like the leaues of the Feather-graffe : the ftalke is a- 
bout a foote high, bearing fiue or fix or more fmall white flowers, laid open 
like Starres, made of fix leaues a peece, of an excellent fweete fent, refem- 
bling Muske or Ciuet ; for diuers haue diuerfly cenfured of it. It flowreth late 
in the yeare, fo that if the precedent Summer bee either ouer moift, or the Au- 
tumne ouer early cold, this will not haue that fweete fent, that it will haue in a 
hot drie time, and belides muft be carefully refpected : for it will hardly abide the 
extremity of our f harpe Winters. 

T The 

146 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Place. 

The places of thefe Molyes, are for the moft part exprefled in their ti- 
tles, or in their defcriptions. 

The Time. 

The time is fet downe, for the moft part to bee in lune and luly, the reft 

The Names. 

To make further relation of names then are exprefled in their titles, were 
needlefle ; let thefe therefore fuffice. 

The Vertues. 

All thefe forts of Molyes are fmall kindes of wilde Garlicke, and are to 
be vfed for the fame purpofes that the great Garden Garlicke is, although 
much weaker in their effecTs. For any other efpeciall property is in any of 
thefe, more than to furnifh a Garden of variety, I haue not heard at all. 

And thus much may fuffice of thefe kindes for our Garden, referuing manie others 
that might be fpoken of, to a generall worke, or to my Garden of Simples, which as 
God fhall enable me, and time giue leaue, may mew it felfe to the world, to abide the 
iudicious and criticke cenfures of all. 

CHAP. XI 1 1 1. 

Afphodelus. The Afphodill. 

THere remaine fome other flowers, like vnto the laft defcribed, to be fpecified, 
which although they haue no bulbous rootes, yet I thinke them fitteft to bee 
here mentioned, that fo I may ioyne thofe of neereft fimilitude together, vn- 
till I haue finifhed the reft that are to follow. 

i . Afphodelus maior albus ramofus. The great white branched Afphodill. 

The great white Afphodill hath many long, and narrow, hollow three fquare 
leaues, fharpe pointed, lying vpon the ground round about the roote : the ftalke is 
fmooth, round, and naked without leaues, which rifeth from the midft of them, di- 
uided at the toppe into diuers branches, if the plant bee of any long continuance, or 
elfe but into two or three fmall branches, from the fides of the maine great one, 
whereon doe ftand many large flowers Starre-fafhion, made of fix leaues a peece, 
whitifh on the infide, and ftraked with a purplifh line downe the backfide of euery 
leafe, hauing in the middle of the flowers fome fmall yellow threeds : the feede is 
blacke, and three fquare, greater then the feede of Bucke wheate, contained in 
roundifh heads, which open into three parts : the roote is compofed of many tube- 
rous long clogges, thickeft in the middle, and fmaller at both ends, fattened together 
at the head, of a darke grayifh colour on the outfide, and yellow within. 

2. Afphodelus albus non ramofus. The white vnbranched Afphodill. 

The vnbranched Afphodill is like vnto the former, both in leaues and flowers, but 
that the flowers of this are whiter, and without any line or ftrake on the backe fide, 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 14.7 

and the ftalkes are without branches : the rootcs likewife are fmallcr, and fewer, but 
made after the fame fafhion. 

3. Afphoddus maiorjlore cameo. The blufh coloured Afphodill. 

This Afphodill is like to the lull in forme of leaues and branches, and diffcreth in 
this, that his leaues are marked with fome fpots, and the flowers are of a blulh or flelh 
colour, in all other things alike. 

4. A/phodelus minimus albus. The leaft white Afphodill. 

This leaft Afphodill hath foure or fiue very narrow long leaues, yet feeming three 
fquare like the greateft, bearing a fmall ftalke, of about a footc high among them, 
without any branches, and at the toppe a few white flowers, ftraked both within and 
without, with a purplifh line in the middle of euery leafe. The rootes are fuch like tu- 
berous clogges as are in the former, but much lefler. 

5. Afphodelus albus minor Jiue Fijhtlofus. The little hollow white Afphodill. 

This little white Afphodill hath a number of leaues growing thicke together, 
thicker and greener then thofe of the fmall yellow Afphodill, or Kings Speare next 
following, among which rileth vp diuers round ftalkes, bearing flowers from the mid- 
dle to the toppe, Starre-fa(hion, with fmall greene leaues among them, which are 
white on the infide, and ftriped on the backe with purple lines, like vnto the firft de- 
fcribed : the feede, and heads containing them, are three fquare, like the feede of the 
little yellow Afphodill : the rootes of this kinde are not glandulous, as the former, but 
Itringie, long and white : the whole plant is very impatient of our cold Winters, and 
quickly perifheth, if it be not carefully preferued, both from the cold, and much wet 
in the Winter, by houfing it ; and then it will abide many yeares : for it is not an annu- 
all plant, as many haue thought. 

6. Afphodelus luteus mi 'nor , Jiue Hajhila regia. 
The fmall yellow Afphodill, or Kings fpeare. 

This fmall yellow Afphodill, which is vfually called the Kings fpeare, hath many 
long narrow edged leaues, which make them feeme three fquare, of a bluifh or whi- 
tilh greene colour : the ftalke rifeth vp three foote high oftentimes, befet with fmall 
long leaues vp vnto the very flowers, which grow thicke together fpike-fafhion one 
aboue another, for a great length, and wholly yellow, laid open like a Starre, fome- 
what greater then the laft white Afphodill, and fmaller then the firft, which when 
they are part yeeld round heads, containing blacke cornered feede, almoft three 
fquare : the rootes are many long yellow firings, which fpreading in the ground, doe 
much encreafe. 

The Place. 

All thefe Afphodils doe grow naturally in Spaine and France, and from 
thence were firft brought vnto vs, to furnifh our Gardens. 

The Time. 

All the glandulous rooted Afphodils doe flower fome in May, and fome 
in lune ; but the two laft doe flower, the yellow or laft of them in luly, and 
the former white one in Auguft and September, and vntill the cold and 
winter hinder it. 

The Names. 

Their feuerall names are giuen them in their titles, as much as is fit for 


14.8 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

this difcourfe. For to fhew you that the Greekes doe call the ftalke of the 
great Afphodill Az/^e/n/crj, and the Latines Albucum, or what elfe belongeth 
to them, is fitter for another worke, vnto which I leaue them. 

The baftard Afphodils fhould follow next in place, if this worke were fit for them ; 
but becaufe I haue tyed my felfe to expreffe onely thofe flowers and plants, that for 
their beauty, or fent, or both, doe furnifh a Garden of Pleafure, and they haue none, I 
leaue them to a generall Hiftory of plants, or that Garden of Simples before fpoken of, 
and will defcribe the Lilly Afphodils, and the Phalangia or Spider-worts, which are 
remaining of thofe, that ioyne in name or fafhion, and are to be here inferted, before I 
pafTe to the reft of the bulbous rootes. 

i . Liliafphodelus phaniceus. The gold red Day Lilly. 

Becaufe the rootes of this and the next, doe fo nearely agree with the two laft reci- 
ted Afphodils, I haue fet them in this place, although fome doe place them next after 
the Lillies, becaufe their flowers doe come neareft in forme vnto Lillies ; but whether 
you will call them Afphodils with Lilly flowers, as I thinke it fitted, or Lillies with 
Afphodill rootes, or Lillies without bulbous rootes, as others doe, I will not contend. 

The red Day Lilly hath diuers broad and long frefh greene leaues, folded at the 
firft as it were double, which after open, and remaine a little hollow in the middle ; 
among which rifeth vp a naked ftalke three foot high, bearing at the toppe many flow- 
ers, one not much diftant from another, and flowring one after another, not hauing 
lightly aboue one flower blown open in a day, & that but for a day, not lafting longer, 
but clofing at night, and not opening againe ; whereupon it had his Englifh name, The 
Lilly for a day : thefe flowers are almoft as large as the flowers of the white Lilly, and 
made after the fame fafhion, but of a faire gold red, or Orange tawny colour. I could 
neuer obferue any feede to follow thefe flowers ; for they feeme the next day after they 
haue flowred, (except the time be faire and dry) to bee fo rotten, as if they had lyen in 
wet to rotte them, whereby I thinke no feede can follow : the rootes are many thicke 
and long yellow knobbed ftrings, like vnto the fmall yellow Afphodill rootes, but 
fomewhat greater, running vnder ground in like fort, and fhooting young heads round 

2. Liliafphodelus luteus. The yellow Day Lilly. 

I (hall not neede to make a repetition of the defcription of this Day Lilly, hauing 
giuen you one fo amply before, becaufe this doth agree thereunto fo nearely, as that 
it might feeme the fame ; thefe differences onely it hath, the leaues are not fully fo 
large, nor the flower fo great or fpread open, and the colour thereof is of a faire yel- 
low wholly,and very fweet, which abideth blowne many daies before it fade, and hath 
giuen blacke round feede, growing in round heads, like the heads of the fmall yellow 
Afphodill, but not fo great. 

Clufius hath fet downe, that it was reported, that there fhould be another Liliafpho- 
dill with a white flower, but we can heare of none fuch as yet ; but I rather thinke, that 
they that gaue that report might be miftaken, in thinking the Sauoye Spider-wort to 
be a white Liliafphodill, which indeede is fo like, that one not well experienced, or 
not well regarding it, may foone take one for another. 

The Place. 
Their originall is many moift places in Germany. 

The Time. 
They flower in May and lune. 

The Names. 
They are called by fome Liliago, and Lilium non bulbofum^ and Liliafpho- 

The Garden of p/ea/ant Flowers. 

I Afphodflus major albus ramofus. The great white branched Afphodill. 2 Afphodtlus minor albus feu fiflulofui. The little hollow 
white Afphodill. 3 Afphodeltii minor luttus, five Ha/tula rtgia. The fmall yellow Afphodill, or Kings fpeare. 4 Liliafthodflui 
luttui. The yellow Day Lilly. 5 Liliafphodelui phanictus. The gold red Day Lilly. 

150 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

delus. In Englifh we call them both Day Lillies, but the name doth not fo 
well agree with the laft, as with the firft, for the caufes aboue fpecified. 

The Vertues. 

The rootes of Afphodill hath formerly beene had in great account, but 
now is vtterly neglected ; yet by reafon of their fharpnefle they open and 
cleanfe, and therefore fome haue of late vfed them for the yellow laundife. 
The Day Lillies haue no phyficall vfe that I know, or haue heard. 


Phalangium. Spider-wort. 

Hefe plants doe fo nearely refemble thofe that are laft fet forth, that I thinke 
none that knowes them, will doubt, but that they muft follow next vnto them, 
being fo like vnto them, and therefore of the faireft of this kinde firft. 

i. Phalangium Allobrogicum. The Sauoye Spider-wort. 

The Sauoye Spider-wort fpringeth vp with foure or fiue greene leaues, long and 
narrow, yet broader at the bottome, narrower pointed at the end, and a little hollow 
in the middle ; among which rifeth vp a round ftiffe ftalke, a foote and a halfe high, 
bearing at the toppe one aboue another, feuen or eight, or more flowers, euery one as 
large almoft as the yellow Day Lilly laft defcribed, but much greater then in any o- 
ther of the Spider-worts, of a pure white colour, with fome threeds in the middle, 
tipt with yellow, and a fmall forked pointell : after the flowers are paft, the heads or 
feede veflels grow almoft three fquare, yet fomewhat round, wherein is contained 
blackifh feede : the rootes are many white, round, thicke, brittle firings, ioyned toge- 
ther at the head, but are nothing fo long, as the rootes of the other Phalangia or Spi- 

2. Phalangium maius Italicum album. The great Italian Spider-wort. 

This great Spider-wort hath diuers long and narrow leaues fpread vpon the ground, 
and not rifing vp as the former, and not fo broad alfo as the former, but fomewhat 
larger then thofe that follow : the ftalke is bigger, but feldome rifeth vp fo high as the 
next, whereof this is a larger kinde, hauing a long vnbranched ftalke of white flowers, 
laid open like ftarres as it hath, but fomewhat greater : the rootes are long and white, 
like the next, but fomewhat larger. 

3. Phalangium non ramofum vulgare. Vnbranched Spider-wort. 

The leaues of this Spider-wort doe feeme to bee little bigger or longer then the 
leaues of grafle, but of a more grayifh green colour, riling immediately from the head 
or tuft of rootes ; among which rife vp one or two ftalkes, fometimes two or three 
foote long, befet toward the toppe with many white Starre-like flowers, which after 
they are paft turne into fmall round heads, containing blacke feede, like vnto the feed 
of the little yellow Afphodill, but lefler : the rootes are long white ftrings, running 
vnder ground. 

3. Phalangium ramofum. Branched Spider-wort. 

The branched Spider-wort hath his leaues fomewhat broader then the former, and 
of a more yellowifh greene colour : the ftalke hereof is diuerfly branched at the top, 
bearing many white flowers, like vnto the former, but fmaller : the feedes and rootes 
are like the former in all things. 


T/ie Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


I Phalangium Atlobrogicum, The Sauoye Spider-wort. 2 Phalangittm non ramofttm. Vnbranched Spider-wort. 3 Phalan- 
gitim ramofum. Branched Spider-wort. 4 Phalangium Epktmtrum Virginianum. lohn Tradcfcante's Spider-wort. 

152 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Place. 

The firft groweth on the Hils neare vnto Sauoye, from whence diuers, 
allured with the beauty of the flower, haue brought it into thefe parts. 

The fecond came vp in my Garden, from the feede receiued out of Italy. 
The others grow in Spaine, France, Sec. 


The Time. 

The vnbranched Spider-wort moft commonly flowreth before all the 
other, and the branched a moneth after it : the other two about one time, 
that is, towards the end of May, and not much after the vnbranched kinde. 

The Names. 

The firft (as I faid before) hath beene taken to be a white Lilliafphodill, 
and called Liliafphodelus JJore albo ; but Clufius hath more properly entitu- 
led it a Phalangium, and from the place of his originall, gaue him his other 
denomination, and fo is called of moft, as is fet downe in the title. 

The other haue no other names then are exprefled in their titles, but only 
that Cordus calleth them Liliago ; and Dodonasus, lib. 4. hijt. plant, would 
make the branched kinde to bee Moly alterum P/imj, but without any good 

The Vertues. 

The names Phalangium and Phalangites were impofed on thefe plants, 
becaufe they were found effectual, to cure the poyfon of that kinde of Spi- 
der, called Phalangium, as alfo of Scorpions and other Serpents. Wee doe 
not know, that any Phyfitian hath vfed them to any fuch, or any other pur- 
pofe in our dayes. 

5. Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum loannis "Trade fcant. 
The foon fading Spider-wort of Virginia, or Tradefcant his Spider-wort. 

This Spider-wort is of late knowledge, and for it the Chriftian world is indebted 
vnto that painfull induftrious fearcher, and louer of all natures varieties, lohn Trade- 
fcant (fometimes belonging to the right Honourable Lord Robert Earle of Salisbury, 
Lord Treafurer of England in his time, and then vnto the right Honourable the Lord 
Wotton at Canterbury in Kent, and laftly vnto the late Duke of Buckingham) who 
firft receiued it of a friend, that brought it out of Virginia, thinking it to bee the Silke 
Grafle that groweth there, and hath imparted hereof, as of many other things, both to 
me and others ; the defcription whereof is as followeth : 

From a ftringie roote, creeping farre vnder ground, and rifing vp againe in many 
places, fpringeth vp diuers heads of long folded leaues, of a grayim ouer-worne 
greene colour, two or three for the moft part together, and not aboue, compafling one 
another at the bottome, and abiding greene in many places all the Winter ; other- 
where perifhing, and rifing anew in the Spring, which leaues rife vp with the great 
round ftalke, being fet thereon at the ioynts, vfually but one at a ioynt, broad at the 
bottome where they cornpafTe the ftalke, and fmaller and fmaller to the end : at the 
vpper ioynt, which is the toppe of the ftalke, there ftand two or three fuch like leaues, 
but fmaller, from among which breaketh out a dozen, fixteene, or twenty, or more 
round green heads, hanging downe their heads by little foot-ftalkes, which when the 
flower beginneth to blow open, groweth longer, and ftandeth vpright, hauing three 
fmall pale greene leaues for a huske, and three other leaues within them for the flower, 
which lay themfelues open flat, of a deepe blew purple colour, hauing an vmbone or 
fmall head in the middle, clofely fet about with fix reddifh, hairy, or feathered threeds, 
tipt with yellow pendents : this flower openeth it felfe in the day, & fhutteth vfually at 


The Garden of pleafant Floii\ i c -, 

night, and neuer opencth againe, hut perilheth, and then hangcth downe his head a- 
gaine; the greene huske of three leaues, doling it lelfe againc into the forme of a head, 
but greater, as it was before, the middle vmbone growing to bee the feede veflell, 
wherein is contained I'tnall, hlackiih, long feede : Seldome fhall any man fee aboue 
one, or two at the molt of thefe flowers blowne open at one time vpon the ftalke, 
whereby it ftandeth in flowring a long time, before all the heads haue giuen out their 

The Place. 

This plant groweth in fomc parts of Virginia, and was dcliuered to lohn 

The Time. 

It flowreth from the end of May vntill luly, if it haue had greene leaues 
all the Winter, or otherwife, vntill the Winter checke his luxurioufnefle. 

The Names. 

Vnto this plant I confefle I firft impofed the name, by confidering ducly 
all the parts thereof, which vntill fome can finde a more proper, I defire 
may ftill continue, and to call it Ephemerum Virginianum Tradefcanti^ lohn 
Tradefcante's Spider-wort of Virginia, or Phalangium Ephemerum Virginia- 
num, The foone fading or Day Spider-wort of Virginia. 

The Vertues. 

There hath not beene any tryall made of the properties fince wee had it, 
nor doe we know whether the Indians haue any vfe thereof. 


Colc/ricam. Medowe Saffron. 

TO returne to the reft of the bulbous and tuberous rooted plants, that remaine 
to bee entreated of, the Colchica or Medowe Saffrons are firft to bee handled, 
whereof thefe later dayes haue found out more varieties, then formerly were 
knowne ; fome flowring in the Spring, but the moft in Autumne, and fome bearing 
double, but the greateft part lingle flowers : whereof euery one in their order, and 
firft of our owne Country kindes. 

i . Cole fnc urn Anglic urn album. The white Englifh Medowe Saffron. 

It is common to all the Medowe Saffrons, except that of the Spring, and one other, 
to beare their flowers alone in Autumne or later, without any green leaues with them, 
and afterwards in February, their greene leaues : So that I fliall not neede to make ma- 
nie defcriptions, but to (hew you the differences that coniift in the leaues, and colours 
of the flowers ; and briefly to paffe (after I haue giuen you a tull defcription of the 
firft) from one vnto another, touching onely thofe things that are note worthy. The 
white Englim Medowe Saffron then doth beare in Autumne three or foure flowers at 
the moft, ftanding feuerally vpon weake foote-ftalkes, a fingers length or more aboue 
the ground, made of fix white leaues, fomewhat long and narrow, and not fo large as 
moft of the other kindes, with fome threeds or chiues in the middle, like vnto the 
Saffron flowers of the Spring, wherein there is no colour of Saffron, or vertue to that 
effedt : after the flowers are paft and gone, the leaues doe not prefently follow, but 
the roote rcmaineth in the ground without (hew of leafe aboue ground, moft part of 
the Winter, and then in February there fpring vp three or foure large and long greene 

U leaues, 

c A The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

leaues, when they are fully growne vp, (landing on the toppe of a round, weake, green, 
and fhort foote-ftalke, fomewhat like the leaues of white Lillies, but not fo large, and 
in the middeft of thefe leaues, after they haue been vp f ome time, appeare two or three 
loofe skinny heads, (landing in the middle of the leaues vpon (hort, thicke, greene 
ftalkes, and being ripe, conteine in them round fmall brownifh feede, that lye as it 
were loofe therein, and when the head is dry, may bee heard to rattle being fhaken : 
the roote is white within, but couered with a thicke blackifh skinne or coate, hauing 
one fide thereof at the bottome longer then the other, with an hollowneffe alfo on 
the one (ide of that long eminence, where the flowers rife from the bottome, and 
(hooting downe from thence a number of white fibres, whereby it is faftened in the 
ground : the greene leaues afterwards rifing from the top or head of the roote. 

2. Colchicum Anglicum purpurcum. The purple Englifh Medowe Saffron. 

There is no difference at all in this Medowe Saffron from the former, but only in the 
colour of the flowers, which as they were wholly white in the former, fo in this they 
are of a delayed purple colour, with a fmall fhew of veines therein. 

3. Colchicum Pannonicum album. The white Hungary Medowe Saffron. 

The greatefl difference in this Colchicum from the former Englifh white one, is, that 
it is larger both in roote, leafe, and flower, and befides, hath more ftore of flowers to- 
gether, and continuing longer in beauty, without fading fo foone as the former, and 
are alfo fomewhat of a fairer white colour. 

4. Colchicum Pannonicum purpureum. The purple Hungary Medowe Saffron. 

This purple Medowe Saffron is fomewhat like vnto the white of this kinde, but that 
it beareth not fo plentifully as the white, nor doth the roote grow fo great ; but the 
flowers are in a manner as large as they, and of the like pale delayed purple colour, or 
fomewhat deeper, as is in the purple Englifh, with fome veines or markes vpon the 
flowers, making fome fhew of a checker on the out (ide, but not fo confpicuous, as in 
the true checkerd kindes. Wee haue a kinde hereof is party coloured with white 
ftreakes and edges, which abide conftant, and hath been raifed from the feede of the 

5. Colchicum Byzantinum. Medowe Saffron of Conftantinople. 

This Medowe Saffron of Conftantinople hath his leaues fo broad and large, that 
hardly could any that neuer faw it before, iudge it to be a Colchicum ; for they are much 
larger then any Lilly leaues, and of a darke greene colour : the flowers are correfpon- 
dent to the leaues, larger and more in number then in any of the former purple kindes, 
of the fame colour with the laft purple kinde, but of a little deeper purple on the in- 
lide, with diuers markes running through the flowers, like vnto it, or vnto checkers, 
but yet fomewhat more apparently: the roote is in the middle greater and rounder 
then the others, with a longer eminence, whereby it may eafily bee knowne from all 
other forts. 

6. Colchicum Lujitanicum Fritillaricum. 
The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Portugal!. 

The flowers of this Medowe Saffron are larger and longer then the flowers of either 
the Englifh or Hungarian, and almoft as large as the lad before mentioned, and of the 
fame colour, but a little deeper, the fpots and markes whereof are fomewhat more 
eane to be feene euen a farre off, like vnto the flower of a Fritillaria, from whence it 
tooke his lignificatiue name : the leaues of this Medowe Saffron doe rife vp fooner 
then in any other of the Autumne kindes ; for they are alwayes vp before Winter, and 
are foure or fiue in number, fhort rather then long, broad belowe, and pointed at the 
end, canaled or hollow, and (landing round aboue the ground, one encompaffing an- 
other at the bottome, like the great Spanifh Starre lacinth, called the lacinth of Peru, 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


i CoUhicum PanHomcum. The Hungarian Mellow Saffron, i Cal^hicum Bysantimum. .Medowe baltron of Conftantinoplc. 
3 CoUhiaim Lufitaiufum Fritiltaricum. The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Portugal!. 4 Calcliicum Xtapolilanum Frilillaricum, 
The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Naples. 5 Colfkicum Frilillaricum Chienft. The Checkerd Medowe Saffron of Chio or Sio. 
6 CoUhicum Hermodactylum. I'hyficall Medowe Saffron. 

156 fAe Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

but fhorter, and of a pale or grayifh greene colour, differing from the colour of all 
the other Medowe Saffrons: the roote is like the roote of the Englifh or Hungarian 
without any difference, but that it groweth fomewhat greater. It is one of the firft Me- 
dowe Saffrons that flower in the Autumne. 

7. Colchicum Neapolitan urn Fritillaricum. 
The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Naples. 

This checkerd Medowe Saffron of Naples, is very like vnto the lad recited chec- 
kerd Saffron of Portugall, but that the flower is fomewhat larger, yet fometimes very 
little, or not at all : the greater! marke to diftinguifh them is, that the flowers of this 
are of a deeper colour, and fo are the fpots on the flowers likewife, which are fo con- 
fpicuous, that they are difcerned a great way off, more like vnto the flowers of a deepe 
Fritillaria, then the former, and make a goodlier and a more glorious fhew : the leaues 
of this doe rife vp early after the flowers, and are fomewhat longer, of a darker greene 
colour, yet bending to a grayifh colour as the other, not lying fo neatly or round, but 
ftand vp one by another, being as it were folded together : neither of both thefe laft 
named checkerd Medowe Saffrons haue giuen any feede in this Countrey, that euer I 
could learne or heare of, but are encreafed by the roote, which in this is like the for- 
mer, but a little bigger. 

8. Colchicum Fritillaricum ChienJ'e. 
The checkerd Medowe Saffron of Chio or Sio. 

This moft beautifull Saffron flower rifeth vp with his flowers in the Autumne, as 
the others before fpecified doe, although not of fo large a fize, yet farre more pleafant 
and delightfull in the thicke, deepe blew, or purple coloured beautifull fpots therein, 
which make it excell all others whatfoeuer : the leaues rife vp in the Spring, being 
fmaller then the former, for the moft part three in number, and of a paler or frefher 
greene colour, lying clofe vpon the ground, broad at the bottome, a little pointed at 
the end, and twining or folding themfelues in and out at the edges, as if they were in- 
dented. I haue not feene any feede it hath borne : the roote is like vnto the others of 
this kinde, but fmall and long, and not fo great : it flowreth later for the mort part then 
any of the other, euen not vntill Nouember, and is very hard to be preferued with vs, 
in that for the moft part the roote waxeth leffe and leffe euery yeare, our cold Country 
being fo contrary vnto his naturall, that it will fcarce fhew his flower ; yet when it 
flowreth any thing early, that it may haue any comfort of a warme Sunne, it is the 
glorie of all thefe kindes. 

9. Colchicum iierjicolor. The party coloured Medowe Saffron. 

The flowers of this Medowe Saffron moft vfually doe not appeare, vntill molt of 
the other Autumne forts are part, except the laft, which are very lowe, fcarce rifing 
with their ftalkes three fingers breadth aboue the ground, -but oftentimes halfe hid 
within the ground : the leaues whereof are fmaller, fhorter, and rounder, then in any of 
the other before fpecified, fome being altogether white, and others wholly of a very 
pale purple, or flefh colour ; and fome againe parted, the one halfe of a leafe white, 
and the other halfe of the fame purple, and fometimes ftriped purple and white, in di- 
uers leaues of one and the fame flower : and againe, fome will be the moft part of the 
leafe white, and the bottome purple, thus varying as nature lift, that many times from 
one roote may bee feene to arife all thefe varieties before mentioned : thefe flowers doe 
ftand long before they fade and paffe away ; for I haue obferued in my Garden fome 
that haue kept their flower faire vntill the beginning of January, vntill the extremitie 
of the Winter frofts and fnowes haue made them hide their heads : the leaues there- 
fore accordingly doe rife vp after all other, and are of a brownifh or darke greene co- 
lour at their firft fpringing vp, which after grow to be of a deepe greene colour : the 
roote is like the former Englifh or Hungarian kindes, but thicker and greater for the 
moft part, and fhorter alfo. 

10. Colchicum 

77ft' Garden of pleafant Flowers. 157 

10. Colchicum variegatum alter um. Another party coloured Medowe Saffron. 

There is another, whole party coloured flowers rile a little higher, diuerfly llripcd 
and marked, with a deeper purple colour, and a pale or whitilh hlulh throughout all 
the leaues of the flower. 

i i . Colchicum montanum Hifpanicum minus. The little Spanilh Medowe Saffron. 

The flowers of this little Medowe Saffron are narrower and f mailer then any of the 
former, and of a deeper reddilh purple colour then either the Englifh or Hungarian 
kindes: the greene leaues alfo are final ler then any other, lying on the ground, of a 
deepe or fad greene colour, riling vp within a while after the flowers are pall, and doc 
abide greene all the Winter long: the roote is fmall and long, according to the rert ot 
the plant, and like in forme to the others. 

12. Colchicum montanum minus vcrjicolore Jiore. 
The fmall party coloured Medowe Saffron. 

This little kinde differeth not from the Spanifh kinde laft fet forth, but in the varie- 
tie of the flower, which is as fmall as the former ; the three inner leaues being almoft 
all white, and the three outer leaues fome of them pale or blulh, and fome party co- 
loured, with a little greene on the backe of fome of them. 

13. Colchicum Htrmodattilum. Phyficall Medowe Saffron. 

This Phyficall Medowe Saffron fpringeth vp with his leaues in Autumne, before 
his flowers appeare beyond the nature of all the former kindes, yet the flower doth, 
after they are vp, (hew it felfe in the middle of the greene leaues, conlilting of fix white 
leaues, with diuers chiues in the middle, and pafleth away without giuing any feede 
that euer I could obferue : the greene leaues abide all the Winter and Spring follow- 
ing, decaying about May, and appeare not vntill September, when (as I faid) the flow- 
ers (hew themfelues prefently after the leaues are fprung vp. 

14. Colchicum atropurpurcum. The darke purple Medowe Saffron. 

The greatefl difference in this kinde conlilteth in the flower, which at the firlt ap- 
pearing is as pale a purple, as the flower of the former Hungarian kinde : but after it 
hath llood in flower two or three dayes, it beginneth to change, and will after a while 
become to bee of a very deepe reddilh purple colour, as alfo the little foote-flalke 
whereon it doth Hand : the flower is of the bignefie of the Hungarian purple, and fo is 
the greene leafe : the feede and roote is like the Englifh purple kinde. 

fi 5. Colchicum atropurpureum variegatum. 
The party coloured darke purple Medowe Saffron. 
We haue of late gained another fort of this kinde, differing chiefly in the flower, 
which is diuerfly ftriped thorough euery leafe of the flower, with a paler purple co- 
lour, whereby the flower is of great beauty : this might feeme to bee a degeneration 
from the former, yet it hath abiden conftant with me diuers yeares, and giueth feede 
as plentifully as the former. 

1 6. Colchicum Jiore pleno. Double flowred Medowe Saffron. 

The double Medowe Saffron is in roote and leafe very like unto the Englilli kinde : 
the flowers are of a fine pale or delayed purple colour, conlilling of many leaues fet 
thicke together, which are fomewhat fmaller, as in the Englilh flower, being narrow 
and long, and as it were round at the points, which make a very double flower, hauing 


158 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

fome chiues with their yellow tips, difperfed as it were among the leaues in the mid- 
dle : it flowreth in September, a little after the firft (hew of the earlier Medowe Saf- 
frons are part. 

1 7. Colchicum variegatum plena jtore. 
The party coloured double Medowe Saffron. 

We haue another of thefe double kinds (if it be not the very fame with the former, 
varying in the flower as nature pleafeth oftentimes ; for I haue this flower in my garden, 
as I here fet it forth, euery yeare) whofe flowers are diuerfified in the partition of the 
colours, as is to be feene in the fingle party coloured Medowe Saffron before defcri- 
bed, hauing fome leaues white, and others pale purple, and fome leaues halfe white 
and halfe purple, diuerfly fet or placed in the double flower, which doth confift of as 
many leaues as the former, yet fometime this party coloured flower doth not fliew it 
felfe double like the former, but hath two flowers, one riling out of another, making 
each of them to be almoft but fingle flowers, confifting of eight or ten leaues a peece : 
but this diuerlity is not conftant ; for the fame roote that this yeare appeareth in that 
manner, the next yeare will returne to his former kinde of double flowers againe. 

1 8. Colchicum Vernum. Medowe Saffron of the Spring. 

This Medowe Saffron rifeth vp very early in the yeare, that is, in the end of lanu- 
arie fometimes, or beginning, or at the furtheft the middle of February, prefently af- 
ter the deepe Frofts and Snowes are part, with his flowers inclofed within three greene 
leaues, which opening themfelues as foone almoft as they are out of the ground, fhew 
their buds for flowers within them very white oftentimes, before they open farre, and 
fometimes alfo purplifh at their firft appearing, which neuer fhew aboue two at the 
moft vpon one roote, and neuer rife aboue the leaues, nor the leaues much higher then 
they, while they laft : the flower confifteth of fix leaues, long and narrow, euery leafe 
being diuided, both at the bottome and toppe, each from other, and ioyned together 
onely in the middle, hauing alfo fix chiues, tipt with yellow in the middle, euery chiue 
being ioyned to a leafe, of a pale red or deepe blufh colour, when it hath ftood a while 
blowne, and is a fmaller flower then any Medowe Saffron, except the fmall Spanim 
kindes onely, but continueth in his beauty a good while, if the extremity of fharpe 
Frofts and Windes doe not fpoile it : the leaues wherein thefe flowers are enclofed, at 
their firft comming vp, are of a brownifh greene colour, which fo abide for a while, 
efpecially on the outfide, but on the infide they are hollow, and of a whitifh or grayifh 
greene colour, which after the flowers are part, grow to bee of the length 'of a mans 
longeft finger, and narrow withall : there rifeth vp likewife in the middle of them the 
head or feede veffell, which is fmaller and fhorter, and harder then any of the former, 
wherein is contained fmall round browne feede : the roote is fmall, fomewhat like vn- 
to the rootes of the former, but ihorter, and not hauing fo long an eminence on the 
one fide of the bottome. 

19. Colchicum vernum atropurpureum. Purple Medowe Saffron of the Spring. 

The flower of this Medowe Saffron, is in the rifing vp of his leaues and flowers to- 
gether, and in all things elfe, like vnto the former, onely the flowers of this fort are at 
their firft appearing of a deeper purple colour, and when they are blowne alfo are 
much deeper then the former, diuided in like manner, both at the bottome and toppe 
as the other, fo that they feeme, like as if fix loofe leaues were ioyned in the middle 
part, to make one flower, and hath his fmall chiues tipt with yellow, cleauing in like 
manner to euery leafe. 

The Place. 

All thefe Medowe Saffrons, or the moft part of them, haue their places 
expreffed in their titles; for fome grow in the fields and medowes of the 
champion grounds, others on the mountaines and hilly grounds. The 
Englifh kindes grow in the Weft parts, as about Bathe, Briftow, Warmi- 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


i CvUkifum moiitaHiim Hiffatiicum. The little Spanifh Medowe Saffron. i Colckicum montaxum mintu ; erf colon Jlore. The 
fmall party coloured Medowe Saffron. 3 Colchicum verficolor. The party coloured Medowe Saffron. 4 CoUhicum varitgatum 
alurtim. Another party coloured Medowe Saffron. 5 Col.-lncum atropurfttrtvm. The darke purple Medowe Saffron. 6 Col- 
lAuum itropurf-iirixm variei>atum. The variable darke purple Medowe Saffron. y CoUkicum :ernm, Medowe Saffron of the 
fpring. % Coldticum jtof plrno. Double Medowe Saffron. 

160 The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 

fter, and other places alfo. The double kindes are thought to come out of 

The Time. 

Their times likewife are declared in their feuerall defcriptions : thofe 
that are earlieft in Autumne, flower in Auguft and September, the later 
in October, and the lateft in the end of October, and in November. The 
other are faid to bee of the Spring, in regard they come after the deepe of 
Winter (which is moft vfually in December and lanuary) is part. 

The Names. 

The generall name to all thefe plants is Colchicum, whereunto fome haue 
added Ephemerum, becaufe it killeth within one dayes fpace ; and fome 
Strangulatorium. Some haue called them alfo Bulbus AgreJHs, and Filius ante 
Patrem, The Sonne before the Father, becaufe (as they thinke) it giueth 
feede before the flower : but that is without due confideration ; for the root 
of this (as of moft other bulbous plants) after the ftalke of leaues and feede 
are dry, and part, may be tranf planted, and then it beginneth to fpring and 
giue flowers before leaues, (and therein onely it is differing from other 
plants) but the leaues and feede follow fuccefliuely after the flowers, before 
it may be remoued againe ; fo that here is not feede before flowers, but con- 
trarily flowers vpon the firft planting or fpringing, and feede after, as in all 
other plants, though in a diuers manner. 

The Colchicum HermodaStilum may feeme very likely to bee the Colchicum 
Orientate of Matthiolus, or the Colchicum Alexandrinum of Lobelius : And 
fome thinke it to be the true HermoJaSKhts, and fo call it, but it is not fo. We 
doe generally call them all in Englifh Medowe Saffrons, or Colchicum, ac- 
cording to the Latine, giuing to euery one his other adiundt to know it by. 

The Vertues. 

None of thefe are vfed for any Phyficall refpect, being generally held 
to be deadly, or dangerous at the leaft. Only the true Hermodaclile (if it be 
of this tribe, and not this which is here exprefled) is of great vfe, for paines 
in the ioynts, and of the hippes, as the Sciatica, and the like, to be taken in- 
wardly. Cofheus in his Booke of the nature of plants, faith, that the rootes 
of our common kindes are very bitter in the Spring of the yeare, and fweet 
in Autumne, which Camerarius contradidleth, faying, that he found them 
bitter in Autumne, which were (as he faith) giuen by fome importers to di- 
uers, as an antidote againft the Plague. 

Crocus. Saffron. 

THere are diuers forts of Saffrons, whereof many doe flower in the Spring 
time, and fome in Autumne, among whom there is but one onely kinde, that 
is called tame or of the Garden, which yeeldeth thofe blades or chiues that are 
vfed in meates and medicines, and many wayes profitable for other ref peels, none of 
the reft, which are all wilde kindes, giuing any blade equall vnto thofe of the tame 
kinde, or for any other vfe, then in regard of their beautifull flowers of feuerall varie- 
ties, and as they haue been carefully fought out, and preferued by diuers, to furnifh a 
Garden of dainty curiofity. To entreate therefore of thefe, I muft, to obferue an or- 
derly declaration, diuide them into two primary families : the former fhall be of thofe 
that yeeld their pleafant flowers in the Spring of the yeare, and the other that fend out 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

their colours in the Autumne, among whom that R,-x pwarij (as I may fo call it) the 
tame or manured kinde, properly called of the Garden, is to be comprehended, for 
that it giueth his pleafant flowers at that time among others. 1 (hall againe dillribute 
thofc of the Spring time into three chiefe colours, that is, into white, purple, and yel- 
low, and vnder euery one of them, comprehend the feuerall varieties that doe belong 
vnto them ; which courfe I will alfo hold with thofe of the Autumne, that thus being 
rightly ranked, they may the more orderly be defcribed. 

I . Crocus Vernus albus pitrus minor. 
The fmaller pure white Saffron flower of the Spring. 

This fmall Saffron flower fpringeth vp in the beginning of the ycare, with three or 
foure fmall greene leaues, fomcwhat broader, but much (horter then the true Saffron 
leaues, with a white line downe the middle of euery leafe : betweene thefe leaues, out 
of a white skinne, rifeth vp one or two fmall flowers, made of fix leaues a peecc, as all 
the relt in generall are, of a pure white colour, without any mixture in it, which abide 
not in flower aboue a weeke, or rather lelTe, fo fodainly is the pleafure of this, and the 
purple loft : it flowreth not for the molt part, vntill a moneth after the yellow Crocus 
appeareth in flower, and the ordinary ftript Crocus is part : the feede is fmall, round, 
and reddifh, yet not fo red as the feede of the yellow, contained in three fquare heads, 
yet feldome beareth, but encreafeth by the roote plentifully enough, which is fmall, 
round, and flat at the bottome, fomewhat white on the outfide, but whiter within, 
(hooting out fmall fprouts on euery fide of the roote, which is the belt note to know 
this kinde and the lefler purple, which are both alike, from all other rootes of Saffron 

2. Crocus albus maior multijtorus. The great fnow white Crocus. 

This greater Saffron flower rifeth vp vfually with three or foure greene leaues, 
larger then the former, with a white line in euery one of them : the flowers are grea- 
ter, and more in number, riling together, but flowring one after another, of a pure 
fnow white colour, and abiding but little longer in flower then the former. 

3. Crocus albus maior alter diclus Ma/iacus. 
The great white Saffron flower or Crocus of Mefia. 

This great white Crocus of Mefia, rifeth vp out of the ground, almoft as early as the 
firft fort of the yellow, with foure or flue leaues, being very like vnto the leaues of the 
yellow Crocus, and as large, with white lines in them : the flowers alfo are as large as 
the flowers of the yellow, and many alfo rifing one after another like vnto it, but not 
ot fo pure a white colour, as the former or laft defcribed, but rather tending to a Milky 
or Creame colour : the roote is not couered with any reddilh, but rather pale skinnes 
or coates. 

4. Crocus albus Majiacus fundo vio/aceo. 
The great white Crocus of Melia with a blew bottome. 

There is another ot this kinde, like vnto the former in all things, fauing that the bot- 
tomes of the flowers of this kinde, with fome part of the ftalke next the flower, are of a 
pale Ihining purple colour, and rifing vp a pretty way into the flower ; whereas another 
alfo of this kind, hath a little (hew or marke of blew, and not purple, at the bottome of 
the flower onely, which maketh a difference. 

5. Crocus albus fundo purpureo. The white Crocus with a purple bottome. 

This Saffron flower is of the fame kinde with the tirlt, both in roote, leafe, and 
flower, in none of them differing from it, but in that the bottome of this flower, with 
that part of the (hort foote-ftalke next vnto it, is of a violet or purple colour, and 
fometimes hauing here and there fome purple fmall lines, or fpots on the white leaues: 
it flowreth alfo with the firft white, or fomewhat later. 

X 6. Crocus 

1 62 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

6. Crocus vernus albus ftriatus . The white flript Crocus. 

This ftript Saffron flower is likewife neare the fame firft kind, or firft white Crocus, 
hauing the like leaues and flowers, fomewhat larger, but as foone fading almoft as it : 
but herein this flower differeth, that it hath pale blewifh lines and fpots in all the 
leaues thereof, and more principally in the three outer leaues : the root is alfo white on 
the outlide, like the firft white, but greater, with young ones growing round about it. 

7. Crocus vernus albus polyanthos verjicolor. 
The greater party coloured white Crocus. 

The greater party coloured Saffron flower, hath his greene leaues like vnto the fe- 
cond great white Crocus before mentioned, hauing more flowers then any of the for- 
mer, except the firft great white, the leaues whereof haue greater ftripes then the laft 
recited Crocus, but of a purple Violet colour, making each leafe feeme oftentimes to 
haue as much purple as white in them : the roote hereof is fomewhat like the fecond 
white, but of a little more duskie colour on the outfide, and not budding out on the 
fides at all, or very little. 

8. Crocus vernus albus verjicolor. The lefTer party coloured white Crocus. 

The leaues and flowers of this other party coloured Crocus, are for bignefle in a 
manner equall with the laft, but hath not fo many flowers rifing together from the 
roote : the flower is finely marked with blew ftrakes on the white flower, but nothing 
fo much as in the former : the roote alfo is like the laft. 

9. Crocus Epifcopalis. The Bifhops Crocus. 

This party coloured or Bifhops Saffron flower, is very like both in leaues and rootes 
vnto the Neapolitane blew Crocus, but fomewhat greater : the flowers doe abide not 
fo long time blowne, and hath all the leaues either wholly white, with blew ftripes on 
both fides of them, or wholly of a fine delayed blew Violet colour, and the three in- 
nermoft more blew and finely rtriped, both on the infide and outfide of them, and 
fometimes it hath been feen to haue three leaues white, and three leaues of a pale blew. 

10. Crocus vernus Jlriatus vulgaris. The ordinary ftript Crocus. 

There is another fort of ftript Saffron flower, which is moft common and plenti- 
full in moft Gardens, which I muft needes bring vnder the ranke of thefe white kinds, 
although it differre very notably, both in roote, leafe, and flower, from all of them : 
the leaues of this rife vp fooner then the yellow or white Crocus, lying fpread vpon 
the ground for the moft part, but narrower then any of the former : among thefe leaues 
fpring vp diuers flowers, almoft as large as the former great white Crocus, of a very 
bleake or pale purple colour, tending to white on the infide, and in many almoft white, 
with fome finall whitifh chiues tipt with yellow in the middle : the three outer leaues 
are of a yellowifh white colour on the backe fide of them, ftript euery one of them 
with three broad ftripes, of a darke murrey or purple colour, and a little fprinkled with 
fome fmall purple lines, on both fides of thofe ftripes ; but on the infide, of the fame 
pale purple or white colour with the reft : the feede hereof is fomewhat darker colou- 
red then of the white, and is more liberall in bearing : the roote is differing from all 
the former, being rounder and bigger then any of them, except the kindes of Mifia, 
yet fomewhat flat withall, not hauing any fhootes from the fides, but fetting off into 
rootes plentifully, hauing a round circle compafling the bottome of the roote, which 
eafily falleth away, when it is taken vp out of the ground, and couered with a browne 
coate, fomewhat neare the colour of the yellow Crocus, but not altogether fo 
bright : it flowreth vfually the firft of all thefe forts, or with the firft of the early yel- 

1 1 . Crocus 

The Garden of pleaj'ant Flowers. 


I Crocus vtrnus albus minor. The (mall white Saffron flower of the fpring. a Crocus vtrnus Mirjiacus albus. The great white 
Crocus of Mifia. 3 Crocus vfrnus albus ftriatus. The white ftiipt Crocus. XJL' 4 Crocus vcrnus albus polyanthos ver/icolor. The 
party coloured white Crocus. 5 Crocus albus fundo purpurto. The white Crocus with a purple bottome. 6 Crocus vrrnus Nta- 
politanus. The great blew Crocus of Naples. 7 Crocutfotrnus purpurtus maximus. The great purple Crocus. 8 Crocus reruns 
purpurtus ftriatus. The purple ftript Crocus. 9 Crocus vernus purfurrus Capillarifolio. The purple Crocus with fmall leaue*. 
10 Crocus vernus flavus ftriatus. The yellow ftript Crocus. II Crocus virnus luteus virflcolor. The cloth of gold Crocus. 

the Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

ii. Crocus vernus ftriatus Turcitus, The Turkic ftript Crocus. 

There is another of this kinde, whofe flower is a little larger, and of a deeper purple 
colour, both on the infide and outfide ; the greene leafe alfo is bigger, and of a more 
whitifh colour. 

12. Crocus vernus Capillari folio albus. The white Crocus with fmall leaues. 

This white Crocus is in all things like vnto the purple of the fame kinde, but that 
the flower of this is wholly white : the full defcription therefore hereof, you mall haue 
in that purple with fmall leaues, of this kinde hereafter fet downe, whereunto I referre 

13. Crocus ve rnus purpureus minor. The f mailer purple Crocus. 

The fmaller purple Saffron flower of the Spring, hath his greene leaues fo like vnto 
the firft white flowred Saffron, that they can hardly be diftinguimed, onely they feem 
to bee a little narrower : the flower is alfo much about the fame bigneffe, or a little 
bigger, and feldome beareth aboue one flower from a roote, euen as the firft doth, of a 
deepe purple Violet colour, the bottome of the flower, with the vpper part of the 
ftalke next thereunto, being of a deeper or blacker purple ; in the middle of the flower 
are fome pale chiues tipt with yellow pendents, and a longer pointell, diuided or for- 
ked at the toppe : the roote of this is in all things fo like vnto the firft white, that it is 
impoflible for the moft cunning and conuerfant in them, to know the one from the o- 
ther. This beareth feede very fparingly, as the white doth, and is reddifh like vnto it, 
but recompenfeth that defecl with a plentifull encreafe by the roote : it likewife flow- 
reth at the very fame time with the white, and endureth as fmall a time. 

1 4. Crocus vernus purpureus maximus. The greateft purple Crocus. 

This great purple Crocus is of the fame kinde with the next defcribed, as well in 
roote as leafe, but greater ; for the greene leaues hereof are the greateft and broadeft of 
all other Crocus, with a large white line in the middle of euery one : it fpringeth vp 
much later then the former, and doth not mew his flower vntill the other bee paft a 
good while : the flowers alfo are the largeft of all thefe Crocus of the Spring time, and 
equalling, if not furpafling that purple kinde that flowreth in Autumne, hereafter fet 
forth, of a very faire and deepe Violet colour, almoft as deepe as the former : the feed 
veffels are large alfo and white, wherein is contained pale reddifh feede, like vnto the 
next blew kinde, but fomewhat greater : the roote is (as I faid before) like vnto the 
next, that is, flat and round, with a duskie coloured outfide, whofe head for fpringing 
in it is as hardly difcerned. 

Alter Apidbus We haue one of this kinde, the toppes onely of whofe purple flower are whitifh, 
albidis. f or t h e breadth of halfe the naile of a mans hand, which abideth conftant euery yeare 

in that manner, and therefore is a difference fit to be remembred. 

15. Crocus vernus Neapolitans Jiue cceruleus maior. 
The greater blew Crocus of Naples. 

This great blew Crocus rifeth vp with diuers greene leaues, broader then any of 
the former (except the laft) with a white line running downe the infide of euery leafe, 
as in the former, among which rifeth vp, out of diuers great long white skinnes, diuers 
large flowers, but not fully fo great as the former, confifting of fix leaues, of a paler 
blew or Violet colour then in the former, hauing in the middle of the flowers a few 
pale threeds, tipt with yellow, and a longer pointell of a gold yellow colour, forked 
or diuided at the toppe, fmelling fweeter then in the former, and abiding a great while 
longer, being in flower vfually euen with the ftript yellow Crocus, or before the for- 
mer purple, and yeelding more plenty of feede : the roote hereof is not very great, but 
a little darke on the outfide, being round and flat withall, that one can hardly know 
which is the vpperfide thereof. This 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 165 

This kindc differeth very little from the former, either in roote, leafe, or flower, Cfw 
for the bignelfe or colour, but that it feemcth to be a little bleaker or paler blew, be-''"""" ?'" 
caufc it flowreth a little earlier. 

1 6. Crocus vfrnus purpureus /hiatus. The ftript purple Crocus. 

The Icaues of this ftript purple Saffron flower, are as large and broad as the laft, or 
rather a little longer : the flowers alfo are as plentiful!, and as large, of a fine delayed 
purple colour on the outlide, with three broad ftrakcs or lines downe the backe of the 
three outer leaues, and of a little deeper purple on the infide, as the other three leaues 
are alfo of a deeper purple colour, and are ftriped with the fame deepe purple about 
the ground, or bottome of the leaues : this fometimcs yeeldeth three fquare heads, 
containing in them brownifh feede : the roote is like vnto the laft, and flowreth much 
about the time of the former. 

17. Crocus vernus purpureus verjicolor. The filuer ftript purple Crocus. 

This ftript Saffron flower, is in leaues and flowers fomewhat like vnto the laft ftript 
purple, but a little f mailer : the flowers are of a little deeper purple through the whole 
leaues, ftriped with white lines, both on the leaues, and towards the edges, which ma- 
keth a peculiar difference from all the reft: the roote of this is not fo flat, though like 
it, and couered with a darke afh coloured skinne : it flowreth about the fame time. 

1 8. Crocus purp ureas Jiammeus maior. The greater purple flame coloured Crocus. 

The greene leaues of this Crocus or Saffron flower, are of a reafonable breadth and 
length, and of a pleafant frefh greenelfe, with a faire broad white line downe the 
middle of them, but riling not out of the ground fo early as the next defcribed Cro- 
cus : the flowers are likewife of a meane bigneffe, of a pale purple on the outfide, 
fomewhat whitilh, efpecially the three outer leaues ; but on the infide of a deeper pur- 
ple, and ftriped with great ftripes like flames, hauing fome chiues in the middle, and a 
longer one alfo feathered a little at the toppe : the roote is white on the outfide, fome- 
what flat and round, but not fo flat as the Neapolitane Crocus before defcribed. 

19. Crocus purpureus jlammeus minor. The leffer purple flame coloured Crocus. 

This Crocus hath almoft as broad and long greene leaues as the former, and of the 
fame verdure, which rife vp earlier then it, and is in flower likewife fomewhat before 
it, being fmaller for fize by a little, but of as deepe a purple on the outfide, as on the 
infide, flamed with faire broad ftripes from the middle of the leaues, or fomewhat 
lower vnto the edges : each of thefe giue feed that is of a pale reddifh colour : the root 
is very like vnto the former, but a little leffer. 

20. Crocus vernus purpureus Capillari folio. The purple Crocus with fmall leaues. 

This fmall kinde of Saffron flower rifeth out of the ground, with two or three long 
and fmall green leaues, very like vnto the leaues of the fine Fether-GrafTe hereafter de- 
fcribed, ftanding vpright at the firft, but afterwards lying vpon the ground ; among 
which come the flowers, fometimes three, but molt vfually two vpon one ftalke, u 
the roote be not young, which then will beare but one on a ftalke, which is very fhort, 
fo that the flowers fcarce arife aboue the ground, yet laying themfelues open in the 
day time, if it be faire, and the Sunne doe fhine, otherwife they keepe dole, and doe 
not open at all : and after one flower is paft, which doth not laft aboue three or foure 
dayes at the moft, the others follow, which are of a bleake blewilh purple in the mid- 
dle of the flower, and of a deeper purple towards the ends or points of the leaues, but 
of a more fullen or darke purple on the outfide ot them, and yellowilh at the bottome, 
with fome yellow chiues in the middle : the feede is fmall and darker coloured then 
any of the former Crocus, contained alfo in fmaller heads, ftanding one by another 



The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

vpon the fame (hort foote-ftalke, which then rifeth vp a little higher, (hewing the ma- 
ner of the (landing of the flowers, which in their flowring time could not fo eafily bee 
difcerned : the roote is very fmall and round, hauing one fide at the bottome lower 
then the other, very like the roote of a Gdchicum or Medowe Saffron, and fomewhat 
neare refembling alfo the hoofe of an horfe foote, couered with a very thicke skinne, 
of a darke or blackifh browne colour : this flowreth the laft of all the former forts of 
Saffron flowers, euen when they are all part. 

21. Crocus vernus purpureus Jtriatus Capillarifolio. 
The ftript purple Crocus with fmall leaues. 

This fmall ftript purple Saffron flower hath fuch like leaues, as the laft defcribed 
hath, betweene which rifeth the flower vpon as fhort a foote-ftalke, confiding of fix 
leaues like the former, of a faire purple colour on the outfide of the three outer leaues, 
with three lines or ftrakes downe euery leafe, of a deeper purple colour, and on the in- 
fide of a paler purple, as the other three leaues are alfo, with fome chiues tipt with yel- 
low pendents, and a forked pointell in the middle: the roote of this is fomewhat 
bigger then the former, and rounder, but couered with as thicke and as browne a 
skinne : it flowreth about the fame time with the former. 

22. Crocus vernus luteus Jiue Mte/tacus. The yellow Crocus. 

The yellow Crocus or Saffron flower, rifeth vp with three or foure leaues out of 
the ground, being fomewhat neare the breadth of the great purple kindes, with a white 
line in them, as in moft of the reft : the flowers ftand in the middle of thefe leaues, and 
are very large, of a gold yellow colour, with fome chiues, and a forked point in the 
middle : the feede hereof is of a brighter colour then in any of the other : the roote is 
great and round, as great or greater then a Wall Nut fometimes, and couered with red- 
difh skinnes or coates, yeelding more ftore of flowers then moft of the former, and be- 
ginning to blowe with the firft forts, or prefently after, but outlaft many of them, and 
are of a pleafant good fent. 

Flore auree. Of this kinde we haue fome, whofe flowers are of a deeper gold yellow colour then 
others, fo that they appeare reddifh withall. 

Flore pallido. And we haue alfo another fort, whofe flowers are very pale, betweene a white and a 
yellow, not differing in any thing elfe. 

Flore virMantc And another fmaller, whofe flower hath a fhew of greennefle in the yellow, and 

luteo. more greene at the bottome. 

23. Crocus vernus flavus ftriatus. The yellow ftript Crocus. 

This kinde of yellow ftript Crocus or Saffron flower, rifeth vp with more ftore of 
narrower and greener leaues then the former, and after the leaues are fpread, there rife 
vp many yellow flowers from among them, which are not of fo faire and bright a yel- 
low colour, but more dead and fullen, hauing on the backfide of each of the three out- 
termoft leaues, three fmall ftripes, of an ouer-worne or dull purple colour, with fome 
chiues and a pointell in the middle : the roote of this kinde, is very like the roote of 
the former yellow, but fomewhat fmaller and fhorter, and couered with the like red- 
difh skinnes, but a little fadder : it flowreth not fo early as the former yellow, but abi- 
deth almoft as long as it. 

24. Crocus iiernus luteus ver/tco/or primus. The beft cloth of gold Crocus. 

The faireft cloth of gold Crocus or Saffron flower, rifeth vp very early, euen with 
the firft, or the firft of all other Crocus, with three or foure very narrow and (hort 
leaues, of a whiter colour then any of the former, which by and by after doe (hew 
forth the flowers, rifing from among them out of the fame white skinne, which in- 
cludeth the leaues, but are not fo plentifull as the former yellow, being but two or 
three at the moft, of a faire gold yellow colour, yet fomewhat paler then the firft, ha- 

The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

uing on the backe of euery of the three outer leaues, three faire and great (tripes, of a 
faire dccpe purple colour, with fome fmall lines at the fides or edges of thofe pur- 
ple (tripes; on the infide of thefe flowers, there is no figne or (hew of any line or 
fpot, hut wholly of a faire gold yellow, with chiues and a fethertopt pointell in the 
middle : the ("cede hereof is like the former, but not fo red : the roote of this kinde is 
i-alily knowne from the roote of any other Saffron flower, becaufe the outer peelings 
or Ihcls being hard, are as it were netted on the outlide, hauing certaine ribbes, rifing 
vp higher then the relt of the skinnes, diuided in the forme of a net-worke, of a darke 
browne colour, and is fmaller and rounder then the former yellow, and not cncreafmg 
fo plentifully by the roote. 

25. Crocus vernus lutcus ver/icolor alter. 
The fecond cloth of gold, or Duke Crocus. 

There is no difference either in roote, leafe, or colour of flower, or time of flowring 
in this fort from the lart before mentioned ; for the flower of this is of the fame big- 
nefle and colour, the only note of difference is in the marking of the three outer leaues, 
which haue not three (tripes like the former, but are wholly of the fame deepe purple 
colour on the backe of them, fauing that the edges of them are yellow, which is the 
forme of a Duke Tulipa, and from thence it tooke the name of a Duke Crocus. 

26. Crocus vernus ver/ico/or pallideluteus. The pale cloth of gold Crocus. 

We haue a third fort of this kinde of cloth of gold Crocus, which hath leaues and 
flowers like the former, but differeth in this, that the colour of the flower is of a paler 
yellow by much, but Itript in the fame manner as the firft, but with a fainter purple 
colour : the roote alfo is netted like them, to (hew that this is but a variation of the 
fame kinde. 

27. Crocus ixrnus verjicolor albidoluteus. The cloth of liluer Crocus. 

The chiefelt note of difference in this Saffron flower is, that being as large a flower 
as any of the former of this kinde, it is of fo pale a yellowifh white, that it is more 
white then yellow, which fome doe call a butter colour: the three outer leaues are 
Itriped on the backe of them, with a paler purple blew fhining colour, the bottome of 
the flower, and the vpper part of the ftalke, being of the fame purple blew colour : the 
roote of this is alfo netted as the other, to (hew it is a variety of the fame kinde. 

And thus much for thofe Saffron flowers that come in the Spring time; now to 
thofe that flower in Autumne onely : and firft of the true Saffron. 

i . Crocus verus fatfaus Autumnalis. The true Saffron. 

The true Saffron that is vfed in meates and medicines, fhooteth out his narrow long 
greene leaues firft, and after a while the flowers in the middle of them appeare about 
the end of Augurt, in September and October, according to the foile, and climate 
where they growe ; thefe flowers are as large as any of the other former or later forts, 
compofed of (ix leaues a peece, of a murrey or reddifh purple colour, hauing a (hew 
of blew in them: in the middle of thefe flowers there are fome fmall yellow chiues 
(tanding vpright, which are as vnprofitable, as the chiues in any other of the wilde 
Saffrons, before or hereafter fpecined ; but befides thefe, each flower hath two, three, 
or foure greater and longer chiues, hanging downe vpon or betweene the leaues, 
which are of a fierie red colour, and are the true blades of Saffron, which are vied phy- 
fically or otherwife, and no other : All thefe blades being pickt from the feuerall flow- 
ers, are laid and prefled together into cakes, and afterwards dryed very warily on a 
Kill to preferue them ; as they are to be feene in the (hops where they are fold. I neuer 
heard that euer it gaue feede with any : the roote groweth often to be as great, or grea- 
ter then a green Wall Nut, with the outer (hell on it, couered with a grayifh or afh-co- 
loured skin, which breaketh into long haire threeds, otherwife then in any other roote 
of Crocus. 2 . Crocus 

1 68 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

2. Crocus Byzantinus arge nteu s. The filuer coloured Autumne Crocus. 

This Saffron flower fpringeth vp in Oftober, and feldome before, with three or 
foure fhort greene leaues at the firft, but growing longer afterwards, and in the midft 
of them, prefently after they haue appeared, one flower for the moft part, and fel- 
dome two, confifting of fix leaues, the three outermoft whereof are fomewhat larger 
then the other three within, and are of a pale bleake blew colour, almoft white, which 
many call a filuer colour, the three innermoft being of a purer white, with fome yel- 
low chiues in the middle, and a longer pointell ragged or fethered at the toppe : this 
very feldome beareth feede, but when the yeare falleth out to bee very milde ; it is 
fmall, round, and of a darke colour : the roote is pretty bigge, and rounder then any 
other Crocus, without any flat bottome, and couered with a darke ruffet skinne. 

3. Crocus Pyrenceus purpureus. The purple mountaine Crocus. 

This purple Saffron flower of the Autumne, rifeth vp but with one flower vfually, 
yet fometimes with two one after another, without any leaues at all, in September, or 
fometimes in Auguft, ftanding vpon a longer foote-ftalke then any kinde of Saffron 
flower, either of the Spring or Autumne, and is as large as the flower of the greateft 
purple Saffron flower of the Spring, of a very deepe Violet purple colour, which de- 
cayeth after it hath ftood blowne three or foure dayes, and becommeth more pale, 
hauing in the middle fome yellow chiues, and a long fether topt pointell, branched, 
and rifing fometimes aboue the edges of the flowers : about a moneth after the flowers 
are part, and fometimes not vntill the firft of the Spring, there rifeth vp three or foure 
long and broad greene leaues, with a white line in euery one of them, like vnto the 
firft purple Vernall kindes, which abide vntill the end of May or lune : the roote is 
fmall and white on the outfide, fo like vnto the roote of the leffer Vernall purple or 
white Crocus, that it cannot be diftinguifhed, vntill about the end of Auguft, when it 
doth begin to fhoot, and then by the early fhooting vp a long white fprout for flower, 
it may be knowne. I neuer could obferue it to giue any feede, the Winter (as I thinke) 
comming on it fo quickly after the flowring, being the caufe to hinder it. 

4. Crocus montanus Autumnalis. The Autumne mountaine Crocus. 

The mountaine Saffron flower fpringeth vp later then any of the former, and doth 
not appeare vntill the middle or end of Oclober, when all the flowers of the former 
are paft, appearing firft with three or foure fhort greene leaues, like vnto the Byzantine 
Crocus, and afterwards the flowers betweene them, which are of a pale or bleake blew 
tending to a purple, the foote-ftalkes of them being fo fhort, that they fcarce appeare 
aboue ground at the firft, but after two or three dayes they grow a little higher : the 
roote is very great and flat bottomed, couered with a grayifh duskie coate or skinne, 
and encreafeth very little or feldome. 

The Place. 

The feuerall places of thefe Saffron flowers, are in part fet downe in their 
titles; the others haue beene found out, fome in one Countrey, and fome 
in another, as the fmall purple and white, and ftript white in Spaine : the 
yellow in Mefia about Belgrade, the great purple in Italy ; and now by fuch 
friends helpes as haue fent them, they profper as well in our Gardens, as in 
their naturall places. Yet I muft giue you this to vnderftand, that fome of 
thefe formerly exprefled, haue been raifed vp vnto vs by the fowing of their 

The Time. 

Their feuerall times are likewife exprefled in their defcriptions ; for fome 
fhew forth their pleafant flowers in the Spring, wherein for the three firft 


The Garden of p leaf ant 


i CnvNi -ctmus l*tt*s mlgaris. The common yellow fpring Crocus. 2 Croftu vtrus fall VMS Aiitnmnalis. The Uue Saflron. 
3 Crams Rytantinus argnleus. The filuer coloured Autumne Crocun. 4 Croftii Pyrtnatii pnrt>urtiis. The purple mountainc 
Crocus. '5 Crofut mmitatim Aittiimnalii. The Autumne mountaine Crocus. 6 Sifyrimhium mains. The greater Spanifh Nut. 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

moneths, our Gardens are furnifhed with the varietie of one fort or ano- 
ther : the rell in Autumne, that fo they might procure the more delight, in 
yeelding their beauty both early and late, when fcarce any other flowers 
are found to adorne them. 

The Names. 

I fhall not neede to trouble you with an idle tale of the name of Crocus, 
which were to little purpofe, nor to reiterate the former names impofed 
vpon them ; let it fuffice that the fitteft names are giuen them, that may di- 
ftinguifh them one from another ; onely this I mult giue you to vnderftand, 
that the gold yellow Crocus or Saffron flower, is the true Crocus Maejiacus, as 
I (hewed before ; and that neither the yellow ftript, or cloth of gold (which 
wee fo call after the Dutch name Gaud Lakeri) is the true Mcejiacus, as fome 
fuppofe ; and that the great white Saffron flower, by reafon of his likeneffe 
vnto the gold yellow, is called Crocus albus Meejiaci facie, or facie lutei, that 
is, The white Saffron flower that is like the Mcejiacus or yellow. 

The Vertues. 

The true Saffron (for the others are of no vfe) which wee call Englifh 
Saffron, is of very great vfe both for inward and outward difeafes, and is 
very cordiall, vfed to expell any hurtfull or venomous vapours from the 
heart, both in the fmall Pockes, Meafels, Plague, laundife, and many other 
difeafes, as alfo to ftrengthen and comfort any cold or weake members. 

Sifynnchium. The Spanifh Nut. 

I Can doe no otherwife then make a peculiar Chapter of this plant, becaufe it is 
neither a Crocus, although in the roote it come fomewhat neare vnto that kinde that 
is netted ; but in no other part agreeing with any the delineaments of a Saffron 
flower, and therefore could not be thruft into the Chapter amongft them : neither can 
I place it in the forefront of the Chapter of the Iris bulbofa, or bulbous Flowerdeluces, 
becaufe it doth not belong to that Family : and although the flower thereof doth moft 
refemble a Flowerdeluce, yet in that no other parts thereof doe fitly agree thereunto, 
I haue rather chofen to feate it by it felfe betweene them both, as partaking of both 
natures, and fo may ferue in ftead of a bridge, to paffe from the one to the other, that 
is, from the Crocus or Saffron flower, to the Iris bulbofa or bulbous rooted Flowerde- 
luce, which fhall follow in the next Chapter by themfelues. 

The Spanifh Nut hath two long and narrow, foft and fmooth greene leaues, lying 
for the moft part vpon the ground, and fometimes ftanding vp, yet bending downe- 
wards ; betweene thefe leaues rifeth vp a fmall ftalke, halfe a foote high, hauing diuers 
fmooth foft greene leaues vpon it, as if they were skinnes, through which the ftalke 
pafTeth ; at the toppe whereof ftand diuers flowers, riling one after another, and not 
all flowring at once : for feldome fhall you haue aboue one flower blowne at a time, 
each whereof doth fo quickly paffe and fade away, that one may well fay, that it is but 
one dayes flower, or rather the flower of a few houres : the flower it felfe hath nine 
leaues, like vnto a Flowerdeluce, whereof the three that fall downe, haue in each of 
them a yellow fpot : the other three, which in the Flowerdeluces are hollow and 
ridged, couering the other three that fall downe, in this ftand vpright, and are parted 
at the ends : the three that ftand vp in the middle are fmall and fhort : the whole flower 
is fmaller then any Flowerdeluce, but of fundry colours ; for fome are of an excellent 
skie colour blew, others of a Violet purple, others of a darker purple colour, and fome 
white, and many others mixed, either pale blew and deepe purple, or white and blew 


The Garden of pleafant F/owers. i 7 i 

mixed or ftriped together very variably, quickly fading as I (aid before : the feede is 
enc lol"ed in fmall cods, fo thinne and tranfparent, that one may ealily fee, and tell the 
feeds as they lye, which are of a brownilh red colour : the roote is fmall, blackifh and 
round, wrapped in a thicke skinnc or huske, made like vnto a net, or fomewhat like 
vnto the roote of the cloth of gold Crocus : when the plant is in flower, it is found to 
haue two rootes one aboue another, whereof the vppermoit is firmc and found, and 
the vndermoft loofe and fpongie, in like manner as is found in the rootes of diuers Or- 
chides or Satyrions, Bce-rlowers anil the like, and without any good tafte, or fwcct- 
nelFe at all, although Clulius faith otherwifc. 

Sifyrinchium Mauritanicum. The Barbary Nut. 

There is another of this kinde, not differing from the former in any other notable 
part, but in the flower, which in this is of a delayed purplifh red colour, hauing in each 
of the three lower leaues a white fpot, in ftead of the yellow in the former, but are as 
foone fading as they. 

The Place. 

The former doe grow very plentifully in many parts both of Spaine and 
Portugall, where Guillaume Boel, a Dutch man heretofore remembrcd 
often in this Booke, found them ; of the fundry colours fpecified, whereas 
Clulius inakcth mention but of one colour that he found. 

The ether was found in that part of Barbary, where Fez and Morocco do 
ftand, and brought firft into the Lowe-Countries : but they are both very 
tender, and will hardly abide the hard Winters of thefe colder regions. 

The Time. 
The firft flowreth in May and lune, the laft not vntill Auguft. 

The Names. 

The name Sifyrinchium is generally impofed vpon this plant, by all au- 
thors that haue written thereof, thinking it to bee the right Sifyrinchium of 
Theophraftus : but concerning the Spanifli name Noze//ia, which Clufius 
faith it is called by in Spaine, I haue beene credibly enformed by the afore- 
named Boel, that this roote is not fo called in thofe parts ; but that the fmall 
or common ftript Crocus is called Nozelha, which is fweete in tafte, and 
delired very greedily by the Shepheards and Children, and that the roote 
of this Sijyrinchium or Spanifh Nut, is without any tafte, and is not eaten. 
And againe, that there is not two kindes, although it grow greater, and 
with more flowers, in thofe places that are neare the Sea, where both the 
walhing of the Sea water, and the moirture and ayre of the Sea, caufeth the 
ground to bee more fertile. This I thought good, from the true relation 
of a friend, to giue the world to vnderftand, that truth might expell errour. 

The Vertues. 

Thefe haue not beene knowne to bee vfed to any Phylicall purpofe, but 
wholly neglected, vnleffe fome may eate them, as Clulius reporteth. 


172 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Iris bulbofa. The bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

THe Flowerdeluces that haue bulbous rootes are of two forts, the one^greater 
then the other : the greater bearing larger and broader leaues and flowers, and 
the leffer narrower. But before I giue you the defcriptions of the vfuall grea- 
ter kindes, I muft needes place one or two in the fore-front that haue no fellowes ; the 
one is called of Clufius, his broad leafed Flowerdeluce, and the other a Perfian, fome- 
what like vnto it, which although they differ notably from the reft, yet they haue the 
neareft refemblance vnto thofe greater kindes, that come next after them. 

Iris bulbofa prima latifolia Clujij. 
Clufius his firft great bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

This Flowerdeluce hath diuers long and broad leaues, not ftiffe, like all the other, 
but foft and greenifh on the vpperfide, and whitifh vnderneath ; among which rife vp 
fometimes feuerall fmall, fhort, flender ftalkes, and fometimes but one, not aboue 
halfe a foote high, bearing at the top one flower a peece, fomewhat like vnto a Flow- 
erdeluce, confiding of nine leaues, whereof thofe three that ftand vpright, are fhorter 
and more clofed together, then in other forts of Flowerdeluces ; the other three that 
fall downe, turne vp their ends a little, and thofe three, that in other Flowerdeluces 
doe couer them at the bottome, ftand like the vpright leaues of other Flowerdeluces, 
but are parted into two ends, like vnto two fmall eares : the whole flower is of a faire 
blew, or pale skie colour in moft, with a long ftripe in the middle of each of the three 
falling leaues, and in fome white, but more feldome : the roote is reafonable great, 
round and white, vnder the blackifh coates wherewith it is couered, hauing many 
long thicke white rootes in ftead of fibres, which make them feeme to be Afphodill 
rootes. The flower is very fweete. . 

Iris bulbofa Perjica. The Perfian bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

This Perfian Flowerdeluce is fomewhat like vnto the former, both in roote and in 
leafe, but that the leaues are fhorter and narrower, and the flower being much about 
the fame fafhion, is of a pale blew rufletifh colour, each of the three lower falling 
leaues are almoft wholly of a browne purple colour, with a yellow fpot in the middle 
of them : this as it is very rare, fo it feldome beareth flowers with vs. 

The Place. 

The firft groweth in many places of Spaine and Portugall, from whence 
I and others haue often had it for our Gardens, but by reafon of the tender- 
neffe thereof, it doth hardly endure the fharpneffe of our cold Winters, vn- 
lefle it be carefully preferued. 

The other is faid to come from Perfia, and therefore it is fo entituled, 
and is as tender to be kept as the other. 

The Time. 

The firft flowreth moft vfually not vntill May with vs, yet many times 
fooner : but in January and February, as Clufius faith, in the naturall pla- 
ces thereof. 

The other is as early oftentimes when it doth flower with vs. 

The Names. 

Becaufe Clufius by good iudgement referreth the firft to the greater 


The Garden of pica/ant Flowers, 173 

kindcs of Flowerdeluces, and placeth it in the fore rankc, calling it Iris bul- 
bofa latifolia prima, that is, The fidl broad leafed Flowerdelucc, and all o- 
thers doe the like, I haue (as you fee) in the like manner put it before all the 
other, and keepe the fame name. The Spaniards, as he faith, called it Lirio 
<-/'p(i</ti>nil, and they of Corduba, Linos azu/es. 

The other hath no other name then as it is in the title. 

i . Iris bulbofa motor Juie Anglica carulca. 
The blew EnglUh bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

This bulbous Flowerdeluce rifeth vp early, euen in lanuary oftentimes, with fiue 
or fix long and (narrow, in comparifon of any great breadth, but in regard of the other 
kinde) broad whitifh green leaues, crefted or ftraked on the bacldide, and halfe round, 
the inlide being hollow like a trough or gutter, white all along the infide of the leafe, 
and blunt at the end ; among which rifeth vp a ftiffe round llalke, a cubit or two foot 
high, at the toppe whereof, out of a skinnie huske, commeth forth one or two flowers, 
confiding ot' nine leaues a peece, three whereof that are turned downewards, are lar- 
ger and broader then the other, hauing in each of them a yellow fpot, about the mid- 
dle of the leafe, other three are fmall, hollow, ridged or arched, couering the lower 
part next the llalke of thofe falling leaues, turning vp their ends, which are diuided 
into two parts, other three ftand vpright, and are very fmall at the bottome of them, 
and broader toward the toppe : the whole flower is of a faire blew colour ; after the 
flowers arc pall, come vp three fquare heads, fomewhat long, and lanke, or loofe, 
containing in them round yellowiih feede, which when it is ripe, will rattle by the fha- 
king of the winde in the dry huskes : the roote of this kinde is greater and longer then 
any of the fmaller kindes with narrow leaues, couered with diuers browne skinnes, 
which feeme to be fraught with long threeds like haires, efpecially at the fmall or vp- 
per end of the roote, which thing you (hall not finde in any of the fmaller kindes. 

2. Iris bulbofa maior pur pur ea & purpuro inolacea. 
The paler or deeper purple great bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

Thefe purple Flowerdeluces differ not from the laft defcribed, either in roote or 
leafe : the chiefell difference conlilleth in the flowers, which in thefe are fomewhat 
larger then in the former, and in the one of a deepe blew or Violet purple colour, and 
in the other of a deepe purple colour, in all other things alike. 

There is alfo another, in all other things like vnto the former, but only in the flower, Flore 
which is ot a pale or bleake blew, which we call an dh-colour. 

3. Iris bulbofa maior purpurea variegatajiue Jlriata. 
The great purple (Iript bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

There is another of the purple kinde, whofe flower is purple, but with fome veines 
or ilripes of a deeper Violet colour, diuerfly running through the whole leaues of 
the flower. 

And another of that bleake blew or a(h-colour, with lines and veines of purple in Flare ti 
the leaues of the flowers, fome more or lefle then other. JMau f 

And againe another, whofe flower is of a purple colour like vnto the fecond, bot'pAng 
that round about that yellow fpot, in the middle of each of the three falling leaues (as<"^ e' 
is vfuall in all the bulbous Flowerdeluces) there is a circle of a pale blew or alh-colour, 
the rell of the leafe remaining purple, as the other parts of the flower is. 

4. Iris bulbofa maior fore rubcntc. 
The great peach coloured bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

There is another of thefe greater kindes, more rare then any of the former, not 
differing in roote, leafe, or flower, from the former, but onely that the flower in this is 
of a pale reddiih purple colour, comming fomewhat neare vnto the colour of a peach 
bloffbme. . Iris 

174 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

5. Iris bulbofa maior Jiue latifolia alba. 
The great white bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

The great white bulbous Flowerdeluce, rifeth not vp fo early out of the ground as 
the blew or purple doth, but about a moneth or more after, whofe leaues are fome- 
what larger, and broader then of the others : the ftalke is thicker and fhorter, bea- 
ring vfually two very large and great flowers, one flowring a little before the other, 
yet oftentimes both in flower together in the end, of a bleake blewifh white colour, 
which wee call a filuer colour, while they are in the budde, and before they be blowne 
open, but then of a purer white, yet with an eye or fhew of that filuer colour remai- 
ning in them, the three falling leaues being very large, and hauing that yellow fpot in 
the middle of each of them : the feedes are likewife inclofed in heads, like vnto the 
blew or purple kindes, but larger, and are of a reddifh yellow colour like them : the 
roote likewife is not differing, but greater. 

6. Iris bulbofa maior alba variegata. 
The great white ftript bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

This white ftript Flowerdeluce, is in roote, leafe, and flower, and in manner of 
growing, like vnto the former white Flowerdeluce; the onely difference is in the 
marking of the flower, being diuers from it : for this hath in the white flower great 
veines, ftripes, or markes, of a Violet blew colour, difperfed through the leaues of the 
flower very variably, which addeth a fuperexcellent beauty to the flower. 

7. Iris bulboja maior fine latifolia verficolor. 
The great party coloured bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

There is no difference in this from the former, but in the flower, which is of a whi- 
tifh colour in the three falling leaues, hauing a circle of afh-colour about the yellow 
fpot, the three rigged leaues being likewife whitifh, but ridged and edged with that 
afh-colour, and the three vpright leaues of a pale blewifh white colour, with fome 
veines therein of a blewifh purple. 

There hath beene brought vnto vs diuers rootes of thefe kindes, with the dryed 

farietai. flowers remaining on them, wherein there hath beene feene more varieties, then I can 

well remember to exprefTe, which variety it is very probable, hath rifen by the fowing 

of the feeds, as is truely obferued in the narrower leafed kinde of Flowerdeluce, in the 

Tulipa, and in fome other plants. 

Wee haue heard of one of this kinde of broad leafed Flowerdeluces, that fhould 
Flore luteo. beare a yellow flower, in the like manner as is to be feene in the narrow leafed ones : 
but I haue not feene any fuch, and therefore I dare report no further of it, vntill time 
hath difcouered the truth or falfhood of the report. 

The Place. 

Lobelius is the firft reporter, that the blew Flowerdeluce or firft kinde 
of thefe broad leafed Flowerdeluces, groweth naturally in the Weft parts 
of England ; but I am in fome doubt of the truth of that report : for I ra- 
ther thinke, that fome in their trauels through Spaine, or other parts 
where it groweth, being delighted with the beauty of the flower, did 
gather the rootes, and bring them ouer with them, and dwelling in fome 
of the Weft parts of England, planted them, and there encreafing fo 
plentifully as they doe, they were imparted to many, thereby in time 
growing common in all Countrey folkes Gardens thereabouts. They 
grow alfo, and all the other, and many more varieties, about Tho- 
loufe, from whence Plantinianus Gaflanus both fent and brought vs 
them, with many other bulbous rootes, and rare plants gathered there- 


The Garden of plcafant Flowers. 


I Iris bulbofa !fitit<ni<i friiti,i C/N/JI. Clufius his tuft great bulbous Mowcrdelucc. 2 Iris bulbofa motor cftntlta tint Anglica. 
The great blew or Engltfh bulbous Flowerdeluce. 3 Irii b*lbofa mator purpima varugata. The great purple ftript bulbous Flower- 
deluce. 4 Iris bulhofa anguftifolia mainr alba. The greater white narrow leafed bulbou* Flowerdeluce. 5. Iris btilbofa angu/ti 
folia vtrficolor. The party coloured narrow leafed bulbous Flowerdeluce. 6. Iris bulbofa angu/tifnlia Africaita. The purple 
African bulbous narrow leafed Flowerdeluce. 

176 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Time. 

Thefe doe flower vfually in the end of May, or beginning of June, and 
their" feede is ripe in the end of luly or Auguft. 

The Names. 

Lobel calleth the firft Englifh blew Flowerdeluce, Hyacinthus Poctarum 
flore Iridis, & propter Hyacinthinum color em, id eft I'iolaceum diSlus: but I know 
not any great good ground for it, more then the very colour ; for it is nei- 
ther of the forme of a Lilly, neither hath it thofe mourning markes imprin- 
ted in it, which the Poet faineth to bee in his Hyacinth. It is moft truely 
called an Iris, or Flowerdeluce (and there is great difference betweene a 
Lilly and a Flowerdeluce, for the formes of their flowers) becaufe it anfwe- 
reth thereunto very exactly, for the flower, and is therefore called vfually by 
moft, either Iris bulbofa Anglica, or Iris bulbofa motor fine latifolia, for a diffe- 
rence betweene it, and the leffer with narrow leaues: In Englifh, eyther 
The great Englifh bulbous Flowerdeluce, or the great broad leafed bul- 
bous Flowerdeluce, which you will, adding the other name, according to 
the colour. 

And thus much for thefe broad leafed bulbous Flowerdeluces, fo much as hath 
come to our knowledge. Now to the feuerall varieties of the narrow leafed bulbous 
Flowerdeluces, fo much likewife as we haue been acquainted with. 

Iris bulbofa minor flue anguftifolia alba. 
The fmaller white or narrow leafed bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

This firft Flowerdeluce, which beareth the fmaller flower of the two white ones, 
that are here to bee defcribed, fpringeth out of the ground alwaies before Winter, 
which after breaketh forth into foure or fiue fmall and narrow leaues, a foote long or 
more, of a whitifh greene on the infide, which is hollow and chanalled, and of a 
blewifh greene colour on the outfide, and round withall : the ftalke of this kinde is 
longer and flenderer then the former, with fome fhorter leaues vpon it, at the toppe 
whereof, out of fhort skinny leaues, ftand one or two flowers, fmaller, fhorter, and 
rounder then the flowers of the former broad leafed Flowerdeluces, but made after 
the fame proportion with nine leaues, three falling downewards, with a yellow fpot 
in the middle, other three are made like a long arch, which couer the lower part next 
the ftalke of thofe falling leaues, and turne vp at the ends of them, where they are di- 
uided into two parts : the other three ftand vpright, betweene each of the three falling 
leaues, being fomewhat long and narrow: the flower is wholly (fauing the yellow 
fpot) of a pure white colour, yet in fome hauing a fhew of fome blew throughout, and 
in others towards the bottome of the three vpright leaues : after the flowers are paft, 
there rife vp fo many long cods or feede veflels, as there were flowers, which are 
longer and fmaller then in the former, and a little bending like a Corner, with three 
round fquares, and round pointed alfo, which diuiding it felfe when the feede is ripe 
into three parts, doe fhew fix feuerall cells or places, wherein is contained fuch like 
round reddifh yellow feedes, but fmaller then the former : the roote is fmaller and 
fhorter then the former, and without any haires or threeds, couered with browne thin 
skinnes, and more plentifull in giuing encreafe. 

Iris bulbofa angujlifolia alba JJore maiore. 
The greater white narrow leafed bulbous Flowerdeluce. 

I fhall not neede to make a feuerall defcription to euery one of thefe Flowerdeluces 
that follow, for that were but to make often repetition of one thing, which being once 
done, as it is, may well ferue to expreffe all the reft, and but onely to adde the efpe- 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

ciall differences, either in leafe or flower, tor bigndle, colour, or forme, as is expedient 
to exprefle and diftinguifh them feuerally. This greater white hulhous Flowerdelucc 
is like vnto the laft defcribed in all parts, fauing that it is a little larger and higher, both 
in leate, ftalke, and flower, and much whiter then any ot' thefe mixed forts that follow, 
yet not fo white as the former : the roote hereof is likewife a little bigger and rounder 
in the middle. 

A'.'-: ..:. 


The narrow 


There is another, whofe falling leaues haue a little (hew of yellownefle 
Milkc white. j n them, and fo are the middle ridges of the arched leaues, but the vpright 
leaues are more white, not differing in roote or leafe from the firft white. 

And another, whofe falls are of a ycllowilh white, like the laft, the ar- 
Silucr colour. cne j i eaues are whiter, and the vpright leaues of a blewilh white, which we 
call a liluer colour. 

Another hath the fals yellowilh, and fometimes with a little edge of 
white about them, and fometimes without ; the vpright leaues are whitilh, 
as the arched leaues are, yet the ridge yellower. 

\iabrii Another hath his fals yellow, and the vpright leaues white, all thefe 
flowers are about the fame bignefle with the firft. 

But we haue another, whofe flower is fmaller, and almoft as white as the 
a*g- fecond, the lower leaues are fmall, and doe as it were ftand outright, not 
hauing almoft any fal at all, fo that the yellow fpot feemeth to be the whole 
leafe, the arched leaues are not halfe fo large as in the former, and the vp- 
right leaues bowe themfelues in the middle, fo that the tops doe as it were 
meete together. 

And another of the fame, whofe falling leaues are a little more eminent 
and yellow, with a yellower fpot. 

/ We haue another kinde that is called the Spanilh yellow, which rifeth 
tea H(Q>a*ica. not vp f o high, as ordinarily moft of the reft doe, and is wholly of a gold 

The Spamfli ,, i 

yellow. yellow colour. 

PattJe i*ua. There is another, that vfually rifeth higher then the former yellow, and 

Straw colour. j s w holly of a pale yellow, but deeper at the fpot. 

AlbiJa lutea. There is alfo another like vnto the pale yellow, but that the falling leaues 

Pale Straw co- are whiter then all the reft of the flower. 

There is a fmaller or dwarfe kinde, brought from the backe parts of Bar- 
bary, neare the Sea, like vnto the yellow, but fmaller and lower, and in 
ftead of vpright leaues, hath fmall Ihort leaues like haires : it flowreth very 

ThefmallBar-, ., , , in.- i /- j 

bary yellow, late, atter all others haue almolt giuen their leede. 

We haue another fort is called the party coloured Spanilh bulbous Flow- 
Mii "erdeluce, whofe falling leaues are white, the arched leaues of a whitifh (il- 
The party co- uer colour, and the vpright leaues of a fine blewilh purple, 
loured Span- Yet fometimes this doth vary ; for the falling leaues will haue either an 
^D'iutrftas. edge of blew, circling the white leaues, the arched leaues being a little 
The dinerfity blewer, and the vpright leaues more purple. 

Or the fals will be almoft wholly blew, edged with a blewer colour, the 
arched leaues pale blew, and the vpright leaues of a purplilh blew Violet 

Or the fals white, the arched leaues pale white, as the vpright leaues are. 
Or not of fo faire a blewilh purple, as the firft fort is. 
Some of them alfo will haue larger flowers then others, and be more li- 
berall in bearing flowers : for the firft fort, which is the moft ordinary, fel- 
dome beareth aboue one flower on a ftalke, yet fometimes two. And of the 
others there are fome that will beare vfually two and three flowers, yet fome 
againe will beare but one. All thefe kindes fmell fweeter then many of the 
Cnt]tafiut other, although the moft part be without fent. 

There is another kinde, that is fmaller in all the parts thereof then the 
former, the ftalke is (lender, and not fo high, bearing at the toppe one or 
two fmall flowers, all wholly of a faire blewilh purple, with a yellow fpot 




The fmall 
early purple 
Portugal! . 

178 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

in euery one of the three falling leaues, this vfually flowreth early, euen 
with the firft bulbous Flowerdeluces. 

Purpurea ma- We haue another purple, whofe flower is larger, and ftalke higher, and 
is of a very reddifh purple colour, a little aboue the ground, at the foote or 
le bottome of the leaues and ftalke : this flowreth with the later fort of Flow- 


- There is another, whofe flower is wholly purple, except the yellow 
The'iate purple, fpot, and flowreth later then any of the other purples. 
purpuna ruief- There is yet another purple, whofe vpright leaues are of a reddifh pur- 

cens labris cceru- . i i r 1 1 1 /" i > i 

lets. pie, and the tailing leaues or a blew colour. 

withbfew faui ple And another of a reddifh purple, whofe falling leaues are of a whitilh 

^"n/i'abrisTidi'ao blew colour, in nothing elfe differing from the laft. 

purple Another hath his falling leaues of a faire gold yellow, without any ftripe, 
y et in fome there are veines running through the yellow leaues, and fome 
P iute p is. rea lai " is h aue an e dg e f a fullen darke colour about them : the vpright leaues in e- 
pSpy&'Teu Uei 7 ^ ^efe, are of a Violet purple. 
Purpurea laMs Another is altogether like this laft, but that the falling leaues are of a pale 

exaltidocteruleo o 

& luteo mixtis. blew and yellow, trauernng one the other, and the arched leaues of a pale 

Party coloured . n - 

purple with ftriptpurplllh Colour. 

subpurpu'rea Another hath his vpright leaues ot a paler purple, and the falling leaues 

loins luteis. " & 

Pale purple with yellOW. 

ApikrfNBpk And another little differing from it, but that the arched leaues are whitifh. 
S ris C iutei l s e . a Another whofe vpright leaues are of a pale blew, and the falling leaues 

Party coloured -^.l!- 
blew and yellow. JCUOW. 

C egantiJn?. s And another of the fame fort, but of a little paler blew. 
A faire haire co- w e haue another fort, whofe vpright leaues are of a faire brownifh yel- 
AUen. obfoie- i ow colour, which fome call a Fuille mart, and others an haire colour ; the 
A duii haire co- falling leaues yellow. 

And another of the fame colour, but fomewhat deader. 

Iris bulbofa Africana ferpentrice caule. 
The purple or murrey bulbous Barbary Flowerdeluce. 

This Flowerdeluce as it is more ftrange (that is, but lately knowne and pofTerTed 
by a few) fo it is both more defired, and of more beauty then others. It is in all 
refpedls, of roote, leafe, and flower, for the forme like vnto the middle fort of thefe 
Flowerdeluces, onely the loweft part of the leaues and ftalke, for an inch or therea- 
bouts, next vnto the ground, are of a reddifh colour, fpotted with many fpots, and the 
flower, being of a meane fize, is of a deepe purplifh red or murrey colour the whole 
flower throughout, except the yellow fpot in the middle of the three lower or falling 
leaues, as is in all others. 

And laftly, there is another fort, which is the greateft of all thefe nar- 
lea obfoleta la- row l ea f ec l Flowerdeluces, in all the parts of it ; for the roote is greater 
The duskie tnen any of the other, being thicke and fhort : the leaues are broader and 
party colour- longer, but of the fame colour : the ftalke is ftronger and higher then any of 
ed purple. t hem, bearing two or three flowers, larger alfo then any of the reft, whofe 
falling leaues are of a duskie yellow, and fometimes with veines and bor- 
ders about the brimmes, of another dunne colour, yet hauing that yellow 
fpot that is in all : the arched leaues are of a fullen pale purplifh yellow, and 
the vpright leaues of a dull or duskie blewifh purple colour : the heads or 
homes for feede are likewife greater, and fo is the feede alfo a little. 

The Place. 

Thefe Flowerdeluces haue had their originall out of Spaine and Portu- 
gall, as it is thought, except thofe that haue rifen by the fowing, and thofe 
which are named of Africa. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Tiim-. 

Thefe flower in lune, ;ind fometimcs abide vnto luly, but vfually not fo 
early as the former broad leat'ed kindcs, and arc foone fpoiled with wet in 
their flowring. 

The Names. 

The fcucrall names, both in Latinc and Englifh, are fufficicnt for them as 
they are fet downc ; for we know no better. 

The Vertues. 

There is not any thing extant or to be heard, that any of thefe kindes of 
Flowerdeluces hath been vfed to any Phyficall purpofes, and feme onely 
to decke vp the Gardens of the curious. 

And thus much for thefe forts of bulbous Flowerdeluces, and yet I doubt not, but 
that there are many differences, which haue rifen by the fowing of the feede, as many 
may obferue from their owne labours, for that euery yeare doth (hew forth fome va- 
riety that is not feene before. And now I will conuert my difcourfe a while likewife, 
to pafle through the feuerall rankes of the other kindes of tuberous rooted Flowerde- 
luces, called Flagges. 

Iris latifolia tuberofa. The Flagge or Flowerdeluce. 

THere are two principall kindes of tuberous or knobby rooted Flowerdeluces, 
that is, the tall and the dwarfe, or the greater and the lefler ; the former called 
Iris maior or latifolia, and the other Iris minor, or rather Chamaeiris ; and each of 
thefe haue their lefler or narrow leafed kindes to bee comprehended vnder them : Of 
all which in their order. And firft of that Flowerdeluce, which for his excellent beau- 
tie and raritie, deferueth the firft place. 

Iris Chalccdonica Jiuc ^njiana maior. The great Turkic Flowerdeluce. 

The great Turkic Flowerdeluce, hath diuers heads of long and broad frefli greene 
leaues, yet not fo broad as many other of thofe that follow, one folded within ano- 
ther at the bottome, as all other of thefe Flowerdeluces are : from the middle of fome 
one of thofe heads (for euery head of leaues beareth not a flower) rifeth vp a round 
ftiffe ftalke, two foote high, at the toppe whereof ftandeth one flower (for I neuer ob- 
ferued it to beare two) the largell almoft, but rareft of all the reft, confifting of nine 
leaues, like the others that follow, but of the colour almoft of a Snakes skinne, it is fo 
diuerfly fpotted ; for the three lower falling leaues are very large, of a deepe or darke 
purple colour, almoft blacke, full of grayilh fpots, ftrakes, and lines through the whole 
leaues, with a blacke thrume or freeze in the middle of each of them : the three arched 
leaues that couer them, are of the fame darke purple colour, yet a little paler at the 
fides, the three vpper leaues are very large alfo, and of the fame colour with the lower 
leaues, but a little more liuely and frefh, being fpeckled and ftraked with whiter fpots 
and lines; which leaues being laid in water, will colour the water into a Violet colour, 
but if a little Allome be put therein, and then wrung or prefled, and the iuice of thefe 
leaues dryed in the (hadow, will giue a colour almoft as deepe as Indico, and may 
ferue for fhawdowes in limming excellent well : the flower hath no fent that can be per- 
ceiued, but is onely commendable for the beauty and rarity thereof: it feldome bea- 
reth feedes in thefe cold Countries, but when it doth, it is contained in great heads, 


i8o The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

being brownifh and round, but not fo flat as in other forts, the roots are more browne 
on the outfide, and growing tuberous thicke, as all other that are kept in Gardens. 

Iris Chalcedonica fiue Sufiana minor. The lefTer Turkic Flowerdeluce. 

There is another hereof little differing, but that the leafe is of a more yellowifh 
greene colour, and the flower neither fo large or faire, nor of fo perfpicuous markes 
and fpots, nor the colour of that liuely (though darke) luftre. 

The Place. 

Thefe haue been fent out of Turkic diuers times among other things, and 
it fhould feeme, that they haue had their originall from about Sufis, a chiefe 
Citie of Perfia. 

The Time. 

They flower in May moft vfually, before any of the other kindes. 

The Names. 

They haue been fent vnto vs, and vnto diuers other in other parts, from 
Conftantinople vnder the name of Alaia Sujiana, and thereupon it hath 
been called, both of them and vs, either Iris Chalcedonica, or Su/iana, and for 
diftinftion maior or minor: In Englifh, The Turkic Flowerdeluce, or the 
Ginnie Hen Flowerdeluce, the greater or the lefler. 

Iris alba Florentina. The white Flowerdeluce. 

The great white Flowerdeluce, hath many heads of very broad and flat long leaues, 
enclofing or folding one within another at the bottome, and after a little diuided one 
from another toward the top, thin edged, like a fword on both fides, and thicker in the 
middle : from the middle of fome of thefe heads of leaues, rif eth vp a round ftiffe ftalk, 
two or three foot high, bearing at the top one, two, or three large flowers, out of feue- 
rall huskes or skins, confifting of nine leaues, as all the other do, of a faire white colour, 
hauing in the middle of each of the three falling leaues, a fmall long yellow frize or 
thrume, as is moft vfuall in all the forts of the following Flowerdeluces, both of the 
greater and fmaller kindes : after the flowers are paft, come the feed, inclofed in thicke 
fhort pods, full fraught or ftored with red roundifh and flat feede, lying clofe one vpon 
another : the roote is tuberous or knobby, fhooting out from euery fide fuch like tube- 
rous heads, lying for the moft part vpon or aboue the ground, and faftened within the 
ground with long white firings or fibres, which hold them ftrongly, and encreafeth 
F/ore pallido. faft. There is another like vnto this laft in all things, fauing that the colour of the 
flower is of a more yellowifh white, which we vfually call a Straw colour. 

Iris alba maior verficolor. The white party coloured Flowerdeluce. 

This variable Flowerdeluce is like vnto the former, but that the leaues are not fo 
large and broad, the flower hereof is as large almoft, and as white as the former, but it 
hath a faire lift or line of a blewifh purple downe the backe of euery one of the three 
vpright leaues, and likewife round about the edges, both of the vpper and lower 
leaues, and alfo a little more purplifh vpon the ridge of the arched leaues, that couer 
the falling leaues : the roote hereof is not fo great as of the former white, but a little 
flenderer and browner. 

Iris Dalmatica maior. The great Dalmatian Flowerdeluce. 

This greater Flowerdeluce of Dalmatia, hath his leaues as large and broad as any 
of the Flowerdeluces whatfoeuer, his ftalke and flower doe equall his other propor- 

The Gar (Jen of pleafant Flowers. iHi 

tion, oncly the colour of the flower is differing, being of a faire watchct or bleakc 
blew colour wholly, with the yellow fri/e or thrum downc the middle of the lower 
or falling leaues, as before is ("aid to be common to all thefe forts of Flowerdeluccs ; in 
all other parts it little diffcreth, fauing onely this is obfcrued to haue a fmall (hew of a 
purplilh red about the bottome of the greene leaues. 

Iris purpurca Jiue -cnlgaris. The common purple Flowcrdeluce. 

This Flowcrdeluce, which is molt common in Gardens, differcth nothing at all 
from thofe that are formerly dcfcribcd, either in roote, leafc, or flower for the forme 
of them, but onely that the leaues of this are not fo large as the laft, and the flower it 
felfe is of a deep purple or Violet colour, and fometimes a little declining to rednefle, 
cfpecially in fome places. 

Sometimes this kinde of Flowerdeluce will hauc flowers of a paler purple colour, p u :-fmea fai 
comming ncare vnto a blew, and fometimes it will haue vcines or (tripes of a deeper / " / "" t '"^' 
blew, or purple, or alh-colour, running through all the vpper and lower leaues. 

There is another like vnto this, but more purple in the fals, and more pale in the c*nie labi 
vpright leaues. furpunn. 

Iris Afiatica carulea. The blew Flowerdeluce of Afia. 

This Flowerdeluce of Afia, is in largenefle of leaues like vnto the Dalmatian, but 
beareth more llore ot flowers on feuerall branches, which are of a deeper blew co- 
lour, and the arched leaues whitifh on the fide, and purplifh on the ridges, but in other 
things like vnto it. 

There is another neare vnto this, but that his leaues are a little narrower, and his /**//>*//<. 
flowers a little more purple, efpecially the vpper leaues. 

Iris Damafcena. The Flowerdeluce of Damafco. 

This is likewife altogether like the Flowerdeluce of Afia, but that it hath fome white 
veines in the vpright leaues. 

Iris Lu/itanica bijtora. The Portugall Flowerdeluce. 

This Portugall Flowerdeluce is very like the common purple Flowerdeluce, but 
that this is not fo large in leaues, or flowers, and that it doth often flower twice in a 
yeare, that is, both in the Spring, and in the Autumne againe, and befides, the flowers 
haut a better or Tweeter fent, but of the like purple or Violet colour as it is, and com- 
ming forth out of purplifh skins or huskes. 

Ins Camerarij Jiuc purpurca ivr/icolor maior. 
The greater variable coloured purple Flowerdeluce. 

The greater of the variable purple Flowerdeluces, hath very broad leaues, like vn- 
to the leaues of the common purple Flowerdeluce, and fo is the flower alfo, but diffe- 
ring in colour, for the three lower leaues are of a deepe purple colour tending to red- 
nefle, the three arched leaues are of the colour with the vpper leaues, which are of a 
pale or bleake colour tending to yellownefle, fhadowed ouer with a fmoakie purplifh 
colour, except the ridges of the arched leaues, which are of a more liuely purple co- 

Iris purpurea verjicolor minor. The lefTer variable purple Flowerdeluce. 

This Flowerdeluce differeth not in any thing from the latf, but onely that it hath 
narrower greene leaues, and fmaller and narrower flowers, elfe if they be both con- 
ferred together, the colours will not feeme to varie the one from the other any whit 
at all. 

There is another fomewhat neare vnto thefe two laft kindes, whofe huskes from Aiu, 

whence-/'" 5 *"- 

1 82 The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 

whence the flowers doe flioote forth, haue purple veines in them, and fo haue the fal- 
ling purplifh leaues, and the three vpright leaues are not fo fmoakie, yet of a dun pur- 
ple colour. 

Iris cterulea verficolor. The blew party coloured Flowerdeluce. 

This party coloured Flowerdeluce hath his leaues of the fame largenefle, with the 
lefler variable purple Flowerdeluce laft defcribed, and his flowers diuerfly marked : 
for fome haue the fals blew at the edges, and whitifh at the bottome, the arched leaues 
of a yellowifh white, and the vpright leaues of a whitifh blew, with yellowifh edges. 
Some againe are of a darker blew, with brownifh fpots in them. And fome are fo pale 
a blew, that we may well call it an afh-colour : And laftly, there is another of this fort, 
whofe vpright leaues are of a faire pale blew, with yellowifh edges, and the falling 
leaues parted into two colours, fometimes equally in the halfe, each fide futable to the 
other in colour : And fometimes hauing the one leafe in that manner : And fome- 
times but with a diuers coloured lift in them ; in the other parts both of flower and 
leafe, like vnto the other. 

Iris lutea variegate. The yellow variable Flowerdeluce. 

This yellow variable Flowerdeluce lofeth his leaues in Winter, contrary to all the 
former Flowerdeluces, fo that his roote remaineth vnder ground without any fhew of 
leafe vpon it : but in the beginning of the Spring it fhooteth out faire broad leaues, 
falling downwards at the points or ends, but fhorter many times then any of the for- 
mer, and fo is the ftalke likewife, not rifing much aboue a foote high, whereon are fet 
two or three large flowers, whofe falling leaues are of a reddifh purple colour, the three 
that ftand vpright of a fmoakie yellow, the arched leaues hauing their ridges of a 
bleake colour tending to purple, the fides being of the former fmoakie yellow colour, 
with fome purplifh veines at the foote or bottome of all the leaues : the roote groweth 
fome what more flender and long vnder ground, and of a darker colour then manie of 
the other. 

Another fort hath the vpright leaues of a reaf enable faire yellow, and ftand more 
vpright, not bowing downe as moft of the other, and the purple fals haue pale edges. 
rietas. Some haue their greene leaues party coloured, white and greene, more or lefle, and fo 
are the huskes of the flowers, the arched leaues yellow, as the vpright leaues are, with 
purplifh veines at the bottome. And fome haue both the arched and vpright leaues of 
fo pale a yellow, that we may almoft call it a ftraw colour, but yellower at the bot- 
tome, with purple veines, and the falling leaues purple, with two purple fpots in them. 

And thefe are the forts of the greater tuberous or Flagge Flowerdeluces that haue 
come to our knowledge : the next hereunto are the lefler or narrow leafed kindes to be 
defcribed; and firft of the greateft of them. 

i. Iris angu/h folia 'Tripolitana aurea. The yellow Flowerdeluce of Tripoly. 

This Flowerdeluce I place in the forefront of the narrow leafed Flowerdeluces, 
for the length of the leaues, compared with the breadth of them ; it may fitly bee cal- 
led a narrow leafed Flowerdeluce, although they be an inch broad, which is broader 
then any of them that follow, or fome of thofe are fet downe before, but as I faid, the 
length make them feem narrow, and therefore let it take vp his roome in this place, with 
the defcription that followeth. It beareth leaues a yard long, or not much lefle, and 
an inch broad, as is faid before, or more, of a fad greene colour, but not fhining : the 
ftalke rifeth vp to be foure or fiue foote high, being ftrong and round, but not very 
great, bearing at the toppe two or three long and narrow gold yellow flowers, of the 
fafhion of the bulbous Flowerdeluces, as the next to bee defcribed is, without any 
mixture or variation therein : the heads for feede are three fquare, containing within 
them many flat cornered feedes : the roote is long and blackifh, like vnto the reft that 
follow, but greater and fuller. 

2. Iris 

'The Garden tf pleafant l : /owcrs. 

I IHt Chalcedonica Jtut Sujiana maior. The great Turkic I loucrdelucc. 1 Irit alba I'tuniilina. The white Flowcrdeluce. 3 Irii 
lalifoiia taritgata. The variable Flowerdeluce. 4 Ckamairit latifolia maiur. The greater dwarfe 1'lovicrdelucc. 

184 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

2. Iris angujtifolia maior cterulea. 
The greater blew Flowerdeluce with narrow leaues. 

This kinde of Flowerdeluce hath his leaues very long and narrow, of a whitifh 
greene colour, but neither fo long or broad as the laft, yet broader, thicker and ftiffer 
then any of the reft with narrow leaues that follow: the ftalke rifeth fometimes no 
higher then the leaues, and fometimes a little higher, bearing diuers flowers at the top, 
fucceffiuely flowring one after another, and are like vnto the flowers of the bulbous 
Flowerdeluces, but of a light blew colour, and fometimes deeper : after the flowers 
are part, rife vp fix cornered heads, which open into three parts, wherein is contained 
browne feede, almoft round: the roote is fmall, blackifh and hard, fpreading into 
many long heads, and more clofely growing or matting together. 

3. Iris angujtifolia purpurea marina. The purple narrow leafed Sea Flowerdeluce. 

This Sea Flowerdeluce hath many narrow hard leaues as long as the former, and 
of a darke greene colour, which doe fmell a little ftrong: the ftalke beareth two or 
three flowers like the former, but fomewhat lefle, and of a darke purple or Violet co- 
lour : in feede and roote it is like the former. 

4. Iris anguftifolia purpurea verficolor. 
The variable purple narrow leafed Flowerdeluce. 

The leaues of this Flowerdeluce are very like the former Sea Flowerdeluce, and do 
a little ftinke like them ; the flowers are differing, in that the vpper leaues are wholl) 
purple or violet, and the lower leaues haue white veines, and purple running one a- 
mong another : the feede and rootes differ not from the former purple Sea kinde. 

5. Iris angujlifoha minor Pannonica Jiue verjicolor Clujij. 

The fmall variable Hungarian Flowerdeluce of CluJius. 

This Hungarian Flowerdeluce (firft found out by Clufius, by him defcribed, and 
of him tooke the name) rifeth vp with diuers fmall tufts of leaues, very long, narrow, 
and greene, growing thicke together, efpecially if it abide any time in a place ; among 
which rifeth vp many long round ftalkes, higher then the leaues, bearing two or three, 
or foure fmall flowers, one aboue another, like the former, but fmaller and of greater 
beauty: for the lower leaues are variably ftriped with white and purple, without any 
thrume or fringe at all ; the vpper leaues are of a blewifh fine purple or Violet colour, & 
fo are the arched leaues, yet hauing the edges a little paler : the heads for feede are 
fmaller, and not fo cornered as the other, containing feedes much like the former, but 
fmaller : the roote is blacke and fmall, growing thicker and clofer together then any 
other, and ftrongly faftened in the ground, with a number of hard ftringie rootes : the 
flowers are of a reafonable good fent. 

6. Iris anguftifolia maior flore duplici. The greater double blew Flowerdeluce. 

This Flowerdeluce, differeth not either in roote or leafe from the firft great blew 
Flowerdeluce of Clufius, but onely in that the leaues grow thicker together, and that 
the flowers of this kinde are as it were double with many leaues confufedly fet toge- 
ther, without any diftincl: parts of a Flowerdeluce, and of a faire blew colour with 
many white veines and lines running in the leaues ; yet oftentimes the ftalke of flowers 

thath but two or three fmall flowers diftinftly fet together, riling as it were out of one 

7. Iris angujtifolia minor alba Clujij. 
The fmall white Flowerdeluce of Hungary. 

This like wife differeth little from the former Hungarian Flowerdeluce of Clufius, 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 


i Iris imgH/tifalia Trifolitatm. The yellow Flowerdeluce of Tripoli. 2 Ins OM^u/tifolia motor tarulta. The greater blew Flow- 
erdeluce with" narrow leaues. \ Iris angufH/olia minor Pa**onica put vtrficolor Clujii. The fmall variable Hungarian Flowerde 
luce of Clufius. 4 Iris atiguftifolia inaint flort duplifi. The greater doable blew Flowerdeluce. 5 Chamairis atigvftifolia minnr. 
The teller Oraffe Flowerdeluce. fi Iris tubrro/a. The veluet Flowerdeluce. 

A 2 

1 86 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

but that the leafe is of a little paler greene colour, and the flower is of a faire whitifh 
colour, with fome purple at the bottome of the leaues. 

Next after thefe narrow leafed Flowerdeluces, are the greater and fmaller forts of 
dwarfe kindes to follow ; and laftly, the narrow or grafTe leafed dwarfe kindes, which 
will finifh this Chapter of Flowerdeluces. 

i. Chamairis latifolia maior alba. The greater white dwarfe Flowerdeluce. 

This dwarfe Flowerdeluce hath his leaues as broad as fome of the letter kindes laft 
mentioned, but not fhorter ; the ftalke is very fhort, not aboue halfe a foote high or 
thereabouts, bearing moft commonly but one flower, feldome two, which are in fome 
of a pure white, in others paler, or fomewhat yellowifh through the whole flower, ex- 
cept the yellow frize or thrume in the middle of euery one of the falling leaues : after 
the flowers are paft, come forth great heads, containing within them round pale feed : 
the roote is fmall, according to the proportion of the plant aboue ground, but made 
after the fafhion of the greater kindes, with tuberous peeces fpreading from the fides, 
and ftrong fibres or firings, whereby they are faftened in the ground. 

2. Chamaeiris latifolia maior purpurea. The greater purple dwarfe Flowerdeluce. 

There is no difference either in roote, leafe, or forme of flower in this from the for- 
mer dwarfe kinde, but onely in the colour of the flower, which in fome is of a very 
deepe or blacke Violet purple, both the toppes and the fals : in others the Violet pur- 
ple is more liuely, and in fome the vpper leaues are blew, and the lower leaues purple, 
yet all of them haue that yellow frize or thrume in the middle of the falling leaues, 
that the other kindes haue. 

Altera. There is another that beareth purple flowers, that might be reckoned, for the fmal- 

neffe and fhortneffe of his ftalke, to the next kinde, but that the flowers and leaues of 
this are as large as any of the former kindes of the fmaller Flowerdeluces. 

3. Ghamceiris latifolia minor alba. The leffer white dwarfe Flowerdeluce. 

There is alfo another fort of thefe Flowerdeluces, whofe leaues and flowers are 
leffe, and wherein there is much variety. The leaues of this kinde, are all for the moft 
part fomewhat fmaller, narrower, and fhorter then the former : the ftalke with the 
flower vpon it fcarce rifeth above the leaues, fo that in moft of them it may be rather 
called a foote-ftalke, fuch as the Saffron flowers haue, and are therefore called of ma- 
nie a/cauXoi, without ftalkes ; the flowers are like vnto the firft defcribed of the dwarfe 
kindes, and of a whitifh colour, with a few purplifh lines at the bottome of the vpper 
leaues, and a lift of greene in the falling leaues. 

Stramlnea. Another hath the flowers of a pale yellow, called a Straw colour, with whitifh 

ftripes and veines in the fals, and purplifh lines at the bottome of the vpper leaues. 

4. Chamairis latifolia minor purpurea. The leffer purple dwarfe Flowerdeluce. 

The difference of this from the former, confifteth more in the colour then forme of 

the flower, which is of a deep Violet purple, fometimes paler, and fometimes fo deep, 

that it almoft feemeth blacke : And fometimes the fals purplifh, and the vpper leaues 

blew. Some of thefe haue a fweete fent, and fome none. 

Ctenlea. There is another of a fine pale or delayed blew colour throughout the whole flower. 

5. Chamairis latifolia minor fuauerubens. 
The leffer blufh coloured dwarfe Flowerdeluce. 

This Flowerdeluce hath the falling leaues of the flower of a reddifh colour, and 
the thrumes blew : the vpper and arched leaues of a fine pale red or flefh colour, cal- 
led a blufh colour ; in all other things it differeth not, and fmelleth little or nothing 
at all. 

6. Chamairis 

The Garden of pieafant flowers. 187 

6. Chamairis latifrlia minor lutea verficolor. 
The lefler yellow variable dwarfe Flowerdelucc. 

The tailing leaues of this Flowerdeluce arc yellowifh, with purple lines from the 
middle downewards, fometimes of a deeper, and fometimes of a paler colour, and 
white thrumes in the middle, the vpper leaues are likewife of a yellowifh colour, with 
purple lines in them : And fometimes the yellow colour is paler, and the lines both in 
the vpper and lower leaues of a dull or dead purple colour. 

3. Chamairis latifolta minor ceerulea verficolor. 
The lefler blew variable dwarfe Flowerdeluce. 

The vpper leaues of this flower arc ot a blewifh yellow colour, fpotted with purple 
in the broad part, and at the bottome very narrow : the falling leaues are fprcad ouer 
with pale purplilh lines, and a fmall (hew of blew about the brimmcs : the thrume is 
yellow at the bottome, and blewilh aboue : the arched leaues are of a blewifh white, be- 
ing a little deeper on the ridge. 

And fometimes the vpper leaues are of a paler blew rather whitilh, with the yellow : 
both thefe haue no fent at all. 

8. Chamairis marina purpurea. The purple dwarfe Sea Flowerdeluce. 

This fmall Flowerdeluce is like vnto the narrow leafed Sea Flowerdeluce before 
defcribed, both in roote, leafe, and flower, hauing no other difference, but in the fmal- 
nelle and lownefle of the growing, being of the fame purple colour with it. 

9. Chamairis angujtifolia maior. The greater Grafle Flowerdeluce. 

This Grafle Flowerdeluce hath many long and narrow darke greene leaues, not fo 
Itiffe as the former, but lither, and bending their ends downe againe, among which 
rife vp diuers llalkes, bearing at the toppe two or three fweete flowers, as fmall as any 
of them fet downe before, of a reddifli purple colour, with whitifh yellow and purple 
ftrakes downe the middle of the falling leaues : the arched leaues are of a horfe flefh 
colour all along the edges, and purple vpon the ridges and tips that turne vp againe : 
vnder thefe appeare three browne aglets, like vnto birds tongues: the three vpper 
leaues are fmall and narrow, of a perfecl purple or Violet colour : the heads for feede 
haue (harper and harder cornered edges then the former : the feedes are fomewhat 
grayifh like the former, and fo are the rootes, being fmall, blacke, and hard, growing 
thicke together, fattened in the ground with fmall blackifh hard firings, which hardly 
fhoote againe if the roote be remoued. 

10. Chamairis angujtifolia minor. The lefler Grafle Flowerdeluce. 

This Flowerdeluce is in leaues, flowers, and rootes fo like the lafi defcribed, that 
but onely it is fmaller and lower, it is not to be dillinguifhed from the other. And this 
may fuffice for thefe forts of Flowerdeluces, that furnifh the Gardens of the curious 
louers of thefe varieties of nature, fo farre forth as hath parted vnder our knowledge. 
There are fome other that may be referred hereunto, but they belong to another hi- 
llory ; and therefore I make no mention of them in this place. 

The Place. 

The pkces of moft of thefe are fet downe in their feuerall titles; for 
fome are out of Turkic, others out of Hungaria, Dalmatia, Illyria, &c. 
as their names doe import. Thofe that grow by the Sea, are found in 
Spaine and France. 


1 88 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Time. 

Some of thefe do flower in Apr ill, fome in May, and fome not vntill lune. 

The Names. 

The names exprefled are the fitted: agreeing vnto them, and therefore it 
is needlefle againe to repeate them. Many of the rootes of the former or 
greater kindes, being dryed are fweete, yet fome more then other, and fome 
haue no fent at all : but aboue all the reft, that with the white flower, called 
of Florence, is accounted of all to be the fweeteft root, fit to be vfed to make 
fweete powders, &c. calling it by the name of Orris rootes. 

Iris tuberofa. The Veluet Flowerdeluce. 

Vnto the Family of Flowerdeluces, I muft needes ioyne this peculiar kinde, becaufe 
of the neare refemblance of the flower, although it differ both in roote and leafe ; left 
therefore it f hould haue no place, let it take vp a roome here in the end of the Flower- 
deluces, with this defcription following. It hath many fmall and foure fquare leaues, 
two foote long and aboue fometimes, of a grayifh greene colour, ftiffe at the firft, but 
afterwards growing to their full length, they are weak and bend downe to the ground : 
out of the middle, as it were of one of thefe leaues, breaketh out the ftalke, a foot high 
and better, with fome leaues thereon, at the toppe whereof, out of a huske rifeth one 
flower, (I neuer faw more on a ftalke) conlifting of nine leaues, whereof the three that 
fall downe are of a yellowifh greene colour round about the edges, and in the middle 
of fo deepe a purple, that it feemeth to be blacke, refembling blacke Veluet : the three 
arched leaues, that couer the lower leaues to the halfe, are of the fame greenifh colour 
that the edges and backfide of the lower leaues are : the three vppermoft leaues, if 
they may be called leaues, or rather fhort peeces like eares, are green alfo, but wherein 
a glimpfe of purple may be feene in them : after the flower is paft, there followeth a 
round knob or whitifh feede veflell, hanging downe by a fmall foote-ftalke, from be- 
tweene the huske, which is diuided as it were into two leaues, wherein is contained 
round white feede. The roote is bunched or knobbed out into long round rootes, 
like vnto fingers, two or three from one peece, one diftant from another, and one 
longer then another, for the moft part of a darkifh gray colour, and reddifh withall on 
the outride, and fome what yellowifh within. 

The Place. 

It hath beene fent out of Turkic oftentimes (as growing naturally there- 
abouts) and not knowne to grow naturally any where elfe. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in Aprill or May, fometimes earlier or later, as the Spring 
falleth out to be milde or fharpe. 

The Names. 

Matthiolus contendeth to make it the true HermodaStylus, rather from 
the fhew of the rootes, which (as is faid) are like vnto fingers, then from any 
other good reafon : for the rootes hereof eyther dry or greene, do nothing 
refemble the true HermodaSlyli that are vfed in Phyficke, as any that know- 
eth them may ealily perceiue, either in forme or vertue. It is more truely 
referred to the Flowerdeluces, and becaufe of the tuberous rootes, called 
Iris tuberofa^ although all the Flowerdeluces in this Chapter haue tuberous 


The Garden of plcajant Flowers. 189 

rootes, yet this much differing from them all. In Englilli it i* vfually called, 
The Vcluet Flowerdeluce, becaufe the three tailing leaues feeme to be like 
fmooth blacke Veluet. 

The Vertues. 

Both the rootes and the flowers of the great Flowerdeluces, are of great 
vfe tor the purging and cleanling of many inward, as well as outward difea- 
fes, as all Authors in Phylicke doe record. Some haue vfed alfo the greene 
rootes to cleanfe the skinne, but they had needc to be carefull that vfe them, 
lert they take more harme then good by the vfe of them. The dryed rootes 
called Orris (as is faid) is of much vfe to make fweete powders, or other 
things to perfume apparrell or linnen. The iuice or decoclion of the green 
roots doth procure both neezing to be fnuft vp into the noftrils, and vomi- 
ting very llrongly being taken inwardly. 

Glntliolns. Corne Flagge. 

NExt vnto the Flagges or Flowerdeluces, come the Gladioli or Corne Flagges to 
bee entreated of, for fome refemblance of the leaues with them. There are 
hereof diuers forts, fome bigger and fome letter, but the chiefeft difference is 
in the colour of the flowers, and one in the order of the flowers. Of them all in their 
feuerall orders. 

Gladiolus narbonenjis. The French Corne Flagge. 

The French Corne Flagge rifeth vp with three or foure broad, long, and ftiffe 
greene leaues, one as it were out of the fide of another, being ioyned together at the 
bottome, fomewhat like vnto the leaues of Flowerdeluces, but ftiffer, more full of 
ribbes, and longer then many of them, and (harper pointed : the Italke rifeth vp from 
among the leaues, bearing them on it as it rifeth, hauing at the toppe diuers huskes, 
out of which come the flowers one aboue another, all of them turning and opening 
themfelues one way, which are long and gaping, like vnto the flowers of Foxegloue, 
a little arched or bunching vp in the middle, of a faire reddifh purple colour, with two 
white fpots within the mouth thereof, one on each fide, made like vnto a Lozenge 
that is fquare and long pointed : after the flowers are pall, come vp round heads or 
feede veltels, wherein is contained reddifh flat feede, like vnto the feece of the Fritil- 
laria, but thicker and fuller : the roote is fomewhat great, round, flat, and hard, with a 
(hew as if if were netted, hauing another fhort fpongie one vnder it, which when it 
hath done bearing, and the llalke dry, that the roote may be taken vp, fticketh clofe to 
the bottome, but may be eafily taken away, hauing vfually a number of fmall rootes 
encreafed about it, the leaft whereof will quickly grow, fo that if it be fuffered any long 
time in a Garden, it will rather choake and pelter it, then be an ornament vnto it. 

Gladiolus Italicus binis Jioribus ordinibus. The Italian Corne Flagge. 

The Italian Corne Flagge is like vnto the French in roote, leafe, and flower, with- 
out any other difference, then that the roote is fmaller and browner, the leafe and 
italke of a darker colour, and the flowers (being of a little darker colour like the for- 
mer, and fomewhat fmaller) rtand out on both fides of the ftalke. 

Gladiolus ByzMtitifius. Corne Flagge of Conltantinople. 

This Corne Flagge that came firfl from Conftantinople, is in all things like vnto 
the French Corne Flagge lalt defcribed, but that it is larger, both in rootes, leaues, and 


1 90 The Garden of pieafant Flowers. 

flowers, and likewife that the Flowers of this, which ftand not on both fides, are of a 
deeper red colour, and flower later, after all the reft are paft : the roote hereof being 
netted as plainly as any of the former, is as plentifull alfo to giue encreafe, but is more 
tender and lefle able to abide our fharpe cold Winters. 

Gladiolus jiore rubente. Blufh Corne Flagge. 

This blufh kinde is like vnto the French Corne Flagge in all refpecls, fauing onely 
that the flowers are of a pale red colour, tending to whitenefTe, which wee vfually call 
a blufh colour. 

Gladiolus Jlore albo. White Corne Flagge. 

This white Corne Flagge alfo differeth not from the laft, but onely that the rootes 
are whiter on the outiide, the leaues are greener, without any browneffe or darkneffe 
as in the former, and the flowers are fnow white. 

Gladiolus purpureus minor. The fmall purple Corne Flagge. 

This alfo differeth not from any of the former, but onely in the fmallneffe both of 
leafe, ftalke, and flowers, which ftand all on the one fide, like vnto the French kinde, 
and of the fame colour : the roote of this kinde is netted more then any other. 

The Place. 

They grow in France and Italy, the leaft in Spaine, and the Byzantine, 
as it is thought, about Constantinople, being (as is faid) firft fent from 
thence. lohn Tradefcante allured mee, that hee faw many acres of ground 
in Barbary fpread ouer with them. 

The Time. 

They all flower in lune and luly, and the Byzantine lateft, as is faid be- 

The Names. 

It hath diuers names; for the Latines call it Gladiolus, of the forme of a 
fword, which the leafe doth refemble. The Romanes Segefa/is, becaufe it 
groweth in the Corne fields. Some call it ViSlorialis rotunda, to put a diffe- 
rence between it, and the longa, which is a kinde of Garlicke. Plinie faith, 
that Gladiolus is Cypirus, but to decide that controuerfie, and many others, 
belongeth to another difcourfe, this being intended only for pleafure. Ger- 
rard miftaketh the French kinde for the Italian. 

The Vertues. 

The roote being bruifed, and applyed with Frankinfenfe (and often of 
it felfe without it) in the manner of a pultis or plaifter, is held of diuers to 
be fingular good to draw out fplinters, thornes, and broken bones out of 
the fleTh. Some take it be effecluall to ftirre vp Venerie, but I fomewhat 
doubt thereof: For Galen in his eighth Booke of Simples, giueth vnto it a 
drawing, digefting and drawing faculty. 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


i Gladiolus Narbonenfis. The French Corne Flagge. 2 Gladiolus Italian. The Italian Corne Flange. 3 Gladiolus Brtan- 
HHUS. Corne Flagge of Conftantinoplc. 4 Palma Chrifti mat. The great male handed Satyrion. 5 Ore his Hfrmafhriiitili, ,1 
Candida. The white Bmterflie Orchis. 6 Orchis Ueliltas Jiut apiftra. The Bee flower or'Bee Orchis. 7 Dtus Caninus flort 
piirftirnnle. Dogges tooth Violet with a pale purplifh flower. K Dins Canitms flare albo, Dogges tooth Violet with a white flower, 

192 The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 


Orchis fiue Satyrium. Bee flowers. 

ALthough it is not my purpofe in this place, to giue a generall hiftory of all the 
forts of Orchides, Satyrions, and the reft of that kinde ; yet becaufe many of 
them are very pleafant to behold, and, if they be planted in a conuenient place, 
will abide fome time in Gardens, fo that there is much pleafure taken in them : I fhall 
intrude fome of them for curiolities fake, to make vp the profpect of natures beautifull 
variety, and only entreate of a few, leauing the reft to a more ample declaration. 

i. Satyrium Bajilicum Jiue Pa/ma Chrifti mas, 
The greater male handed Satyr ion. 

This handed Satyrion hath for the moft part but three faire large greene leaues, 
neare vnto the ground, fpotted with fmall blackiih markes : from among which rifeth 
vp a ftalke, with fome fmaller leaues thereon, bearing at the toppe a bufh or fpike of 
flowers, thicke fet together, euery one whereof is made like a body, with the belly 

I broader belowe then aboue, where it hath fmall peeces adioyned vnto it : the flower 
is of a faire purple colour, fpotted with deeper purple fpots, and hauing fmall peeces 
like homes hanging at the backes of the flowers, and a fmall leafe at the bottome of the 
foote-ftalke of euery flower : the rootes are not round, like the other Orchides, but 
fomewhat long and flat, like a hand, with fmall diuifions belowe, hanging downe like 

>the fingers of a hand, cut fhort off by the knockles, two alwayes growing together, 
with fome fmall fibres or firings aboue the heads of thefe rootes, at the bottome of 
the ftalke. 

2. Satyrium Bajilicum Jiue Pa/ma Chrifti famina. 
The female handed Satyrion. 

This female Satyrion hath longer and narrower leaues then the former, and fpotted 
with more and greater fpots, comparfing the ftalke at the bottome like the other : this 
beareth likewife a bufh of flowers, like vnto the other, but that each of thefe haue heads 
like hoods, whereas the former haue none : in fome they are white with purple fpots, 
and in others of a reddifh purple, with deepe or darke coloured fpots : the roots are alike. 

3. Orchis Hermaphroditica Candida. The white Butterflie Orchis. 

The rootes of this kinde take part with both the forts of Orchis and Satyrium, being 
neither altogether round, nor fully handed, and thereupon it tooke the name, to fig- 
nifie both kindes : the leaues are two in number, feldome more, being faire and broad, 
like vnto the leaues of Lillies, without any fpot at all in them : at the toppe of the 
ftalke ftand many white flowers, not fo thicke fet as the firft or fecond, euery one being 
fafhioned like vnto a white Butterflie, with the wings fpread abroad. 

4. Orchis Melitias Jiue apifera. The Bee flower or Bee Orchis. 

This is a fmall and lowe plant for the moft part, with three or foure fmall narrow 
leaues at the bottome : the ftalke is feldome aboue halfe a foote high, with foure or fiue 
flowers thereon one aboue another, hauing round bodies, and fomewhat flat, of a kind 
of yellowifh colour, with purple wings aboue them, fo like vnto an honey Bee, that it 
might foone deceiue one that neuer had feene fuch a flower before : the roots are two 
together, round and white, hauing a certaine muccilaginejje or clamminerTe within 
them, without any tafte almoft at all, as all or the moft part of thefe kindes haue. 

5. Orchis Sphegodes. Gnats Satyrion. 

The leaues of this Orchis are fomewhat larger then of the Bee flower, the ftalke alfo 


The Garden of plcafant Flowers. 193 

fomewhat higher: the flowers arc fewer on the toppe, but fomewhat larger then of 
the Bee flowers, made to the refemblance of a Gnat or great long Flic : the rootcs are 
two round bulbes, as the other are. 

6. Orchis Myodes. Flic Orchis. 

The Flic Orchis is like vnto the lalt defcribed, both in leafe and roote, the diffe- 
rence is in the flower, which is neither fo long as the Gnat Satyrion, nor fo great as the 
Bee Orchis, but the neather part of the Flic is blacke, with a lilt of afh-colour eroding 
the backe, with a (hew of legges hanging at it : the naturall Flic fecmeth fo to bee in 
loue with it, that you (hall feldome come in the heate of the day, but you (hall rinde 
one fitting clofe thereon. 

The Place. 

Thefe grow in many places of England, fome in the Woods, as the But- 
terflie, and the two former handed Satyrions: others on dry bankes and 
barren balkes in Kent, and many other places. 

The Time. 

They flower for the moll part in the beginning or middle of May, or 

The Names. 

Their feuerall names are exprefled in their titles, fo much as may fuffice 
for this difcourfe. 

The Vertues. 

All the kindes of Orchis are accounted to procure bodily luft, as well the 
flowers dirtilled, as the rootes prepared. 

The rootes boyled in red Wine, and afterwards dryed, are held to bee a 
lingular good remedie againlt the bloody Flixe. 

Dens Caninus. Dogs tooth Violet. 

VNto the kindes of Orchides, may fitly be ioyned another plant, which by 
many is reckoned to be a Satyrium, both from the forme of roote and leafe, 
and from the efficacy or vcrtue correfpondent thereunto. And although it 
cannot be the Satyrium Erythronium of Diofcorides, as fome would entitle it, for that 
as I haue (hewed before, his Satyrium tryphillum is the Tulipa without all doubt ; yet 
becaufe it differeth very notably, and carrieth more beauty and refpedt in his flower 
then they, I (hall entreate thereof in a Chapter by it felfe, and fet it next vnto them. 

Dem Caninus Jtore albo. Dogs tooth Violet with a white flower. 

The white Dogs tooth hath for his roote a white bulbe, long and fmall, yet vfually 
greater then either of the other that follow, bigger belowe then aboue, with a fmall 
peece adioyning to the bottome of it, from whence rife vp in the beginning of the 
Spring, after the Winter frofts are palt, two leaues for the molt part (when it will 
flower, or elfe but one, and neuer three together that euer I faw) clofed together when 
they firft come vp out of the ground, which inclofe the flower betweene them : the 
leaues when they are opened do lay themfelues flat on the ground, or not much aboue 
it, one oppofite vnto the other, with the ftalke and the flower on it (landing betweene 
them, which leaues are of a whitifh greene colour, long and narrow, yet broader in the 

B 2 middle 

194 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

middle then at both ends, growing lefle by degrees each way, fpotted and ftriped all 
ouer the leaues with white lines and fpots : the ftalke rifeth vp halfe a foote high or 
more, bearing at the toppe one flower and no more, hanging downe the head, larger 
then any of the other of this kinde that follow, made or confiding of fix white long 
and narrow leaues, turning themfelues vp againe, after it hath felt the comfort of the 
Sunne, that they doe almoft touch the ftalke againe, very like vnto the flowers of Cy- 
clamen or Sowebread : it hath in the middle of the flower fix white chiues, tipt with 
darke purple pendents, and a white three forked ftile in the middle of them : the flower 
hath no fent at all, but commendable onely for the beauty and forme thereof: after 
the flower is part, commeth in the place a round head feeming three fquare, contai- 
ning therein fmall and yellowifh feede. 

Dens Caninus Jiore purpurafcente. Dogs tooth with a pale purple flower. 

This other Dogs tooth is like vnto the former, but lefler in all parts, the leafe 
whereof is not fo long, but broad and fhort, fpotted with darker lines and fpots : the 
flower is like the other, but fmaller, and of a delayed purple colour, very pale fome- 
times, and fometimes a little deeper, turning it felfe as the other, with a circle round 
about the vmbone or middle, the chiues hereof are not white, but declining to purple : 
the roote is white, and like vnto the former, but lefler, as is faid before. 

Dens Caninus fare rubro. Dogs tooth with a red flower. 

This is in all things like vnto the laft, both for forme and bignefle of flower and 
leafe : the chiefe difference confifteth in this, that the leaues hereof are of a yellowifh 
mealy greene colour, fpotted and ftreaked with redder fpots and ftripes, and the 
flower of a deeper reddifh purple colour, and the chiues alfo more purplifh then the 
laft, in all other things it is alike. 

The Place. 

The forts Dens Caninus doe growe in diuers places; fome in Italy on 
the Euganean Hils, others on the Apenine, and fome about Gratz, the chiefe 
Citie of Stiria, and alfo about Bayonne, and in other places. 

The Time. 

They flower in March moft vfually, and many times in Aprill, accor- 
ding to the feafonablenefle of the yeare. 

The Names. 

Clufius did call it firft Dentali, and Lobel, and from him fome others Sa- 
fyrium, and Erythronium, but I haue faid enough hereof in the beginning of 
the Chapter. It is moft commonly called Dens Caninus, and we in Englifh, 
either Dogs tooth, or Dogs tooth Violet. Gefner called it HermodaStylus, 
and Matthiolus Pfeudohermodaftylus. 

The Vertues. 

The roote hereof is held to bee of more efficacy for venerous effedts, 
then any of the Orchides and Satyrions. 

They of Stiria vfe the rootes for the falling lickneffe. 

Wee haue had from Virginia a roote fent vnto vs, that wee might well 
iudge, by the forme and colour thereof being dry, to be either the roote of 
this, or of an Orchis, which the naturall people hold not onely to be fingu- 
lar to procure luft, but hold it as a fecret, loth to reueale it. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 195 

CHAP. XXI I 1 1. 
Cyclamen. Sowebrcad. 

THe likeneffe of the flowers, and the f potting ot' the leaues of the Dens Caninus, 
with thefe of the Cyclamen or Sowebread, maketh mee ioyne it next there- 
unto : as alfo that after the bulbous rooted plants I might begin with the tube- 
rous that remaine, and make this plant the beginning of them. Of this kinde there are 
diuers forts, differing both in forme of leaues and time of flowring: for fome doe 
flower in the Spring of the yeare, others afterwards in the beginning of Summer : but 
the molt number in the end of Summer, or beginning of Autumne or Harucll, whereof 
fome haue round leaues, others cornered like vnto luie, longer or fhorter, greater or 
f mailer. Of them all in order, and fidt of thofe that come in the Spring. 

I. Cyclamen J'ernum fore purpurer). Purple flowred Sowebread of the Spring. 

This Sowebread hath a fmaller roote then mort of the others, yet round and blac- 
kilh on the outfide, as all or moll of the rell are (I fpeake of them that I haue feene ; for 
Clulius and others doe report to haue had very great ones) from whence rife vp di- 
uers round, yet pointed leaues, and fomewhat cornered withall, greene aboue, and 
("potted with white fpots circlewife about the leafe, and reddiih vnderneath, which at 
their firft comming vp are folded together ; among which come the flowers, of a red- 
difh purple colour and very fweete, euery one vpon a fmall, long, and (lender reddifh 
foote-llalke, which hanging downe their heads, turne vp their leaues againe : after the 
flowers are pall, the head or feede veffel fhrinketh downe, winding his footeftalke, 
and coyling it felfe like a cable, which when it toucheth the ground, there abideth hid 
among the leaues, till it be growne great and ripe, wherein are contained a few fmall 
round f cedes, which being prefently fowne, will growe firfl into round rootes, and af- 
terwards from them flioote forth leaues. 

2. Cyclamen Veriium ftore albo. White flowred Sowebread of the Spring. 

The white flowring Sowebread hath his leaues like the former, but not fully fo 
much cornered, bearing fmall fnow white flowers, as fweete as the other : and herein 
conlilleth the chiefeft difference, in all other things it is alike. 

3. Cyclamen Vernum Creticum ftore albo. White Candy Sowebread of the Spring. 

This Sowebread is fomewhat like the former white kinde, but that the leaues grow 
much larger and longer, with more corners at the edges, and more eminent fpots on 
them : the flowers alfo fomewhat longer and larger, and herein confifteth the whole 

4. Cyclamen /E/tivum. Summer Sowebread. 

Summer Sowebread hath round leaues like vnto the Romane Sowebread, but fome- 
what cornered, yet with fhorter corners then the luie leafed Sowebread, full of white 
fpots on the vpperlide of the leaues, and very purple vnderneath, fometimes they haue 
fewer fpots, and little or no purple vnderneath : the flowers hereof are as fmall, as 
purple, and as fweete, as the purple Sowebread of the Spring time : the roote hereof 
is like wife fmall, blacke, and round. 

5. Cyclamen Romanum rottttuKfolutm. Romane Sowebread with round leaues. 

The Romane Sowebread hath round leaues, fomewhat like vnto the common 
Sowebread, but not fully fo round pointed at the ends, a little cornered fometimes 
alfo, or as it were indented, with white fpots round about the middle of the leaues, 


196 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

and very confpicuous, which make it feeme the more beautifull : the flowers appeare 
in Autumne, and are fhorter, and of a deeper purplifh red colour then the luie Sowe- 
bread, rifing vp before the leaues for the moft part, or at leaft with them, and little or 
nothing fweete : the roote is round and blacke, vfually not fo flat as it, but growing 
fometimes to bee greater then any other kinde of Sowebread. There is fometimes 
fome variety to be feene, both in the leaues and flowers of this kinde ; for that fome- 
time the leaues haue more corners, and either more or lefle fpotted with white ; the 
'.rietas. flowers likewife of fome are larger or lefler, longer or rounder, paler or deeper colou- 
red one then another. This happeneth moft likely from the fowing of the feede, cau- 
fing the like variety as is feene in the luie leafed Sowebread. It doth alfo many times 
happen from the diuerfity of foyles and countries where they grow : the feed of this, 
as of all the reft, is fmall and round, contained in fuch like heads as the former, ftan- 
ding almoft like the head of a Snake that is twined or folded within the body thereof. 
This and the other Autumnall kindes, prefently after their fowing in Autumne, fhoote 
forth leaues, and fo abide all the Winter, according to their kinde. 

6. Cyclamen folio hederee autunmale. luie leafed Sowebread. 


The luie leafed Sowebread groweth in the fame manner that the former doth, that 
is, bringeth forth flowers with the leaues fometimes, or moft commonly before them, 
whofe flowers are greater then the common round leafed Sowebread, fomewhat 
longer then the former Romane or Italian Sowebreads, and of a paler purple colour, 
almoft bluifh, without that fweete fent as is in the firft kinde of the Spring : the greene 
leaues hereof are more long then round, pointed at the ends, and hauing alfo one or 
two corners on each fide, fometimes much fpotted on the vpperfide with white fpots 
and marks, and fometimes but a little or not at all ; and fo likewife fometimes more or 
lefle purple vnderneath : all the leaues and flowers doe ftand vfually euery one feue- 
rally by themfelues, vpon their owne flender foote-ftalkes, as moft of all the other 
metas. kindes doe : but fometimes it happeneth, that both leaues and flowers are found grow- 
ing from one and the fame ftalke, which I rather take to be accidentall, then naturall fo 
to continue : the feede hereof is like the former kindes, which being fowne produceth 
variety, both in the forme of the leaues, and colour and fmell of the flowers : fome be- 
ing paler or deeper, and fome more or lefle fweete then others : the leaues alfo, fome 
more or lefle cornered then others : the root groweth to be great, being round and flat, 
and of a blackifh browne colour on the outfide. 

7. Cyclamen autumnale hedertzfolio Jlore albo. 
luie leafed Sowebread with white flowers. 

There is one of this kinde, whofe leaues are rounder, and not fo much cornered as 
the former, flowring in Autumne as the laft doth, and whofe flowers are wholly 
white, not hauing any other notable difference therein. 

8. Cyclamen autumnale angujti folium. Long leafed Sowebread. 

This kinde of Sowebread may eafily be knowne from all the other kindes, becaufe 
his leafe is longer and narrower then others, fafhioned at the bottome thereof with 
points, fomewhat like vnto Arum or Wake Robin leaues : the flowers are like the 
former forts for forme, but of a purple colour. There is alfo another of this kinde in 
all things like the former, but that the flowers are white. 

9. Cyclamen Antiochenum Autumnale Jlore purpureo duplici. 
Double flowred Sowebread of Antioch. 

This Sowebread of Antioch with double flowers, hath his leaues fomewhat round, 
like vnto the leaues of the Summer Sowebread, but with lefle notches or corners, & full 
of white fpots on them : jit beareth flowers on ftalks, like vnto others, & likewife fome 
ftalks that haue two or three flowers on them, which are very large, with ten or twelue 


77/f' Garden of p/ctijant Flowers. 

I Cyclamen I'ernum flort purfntria. Purple flowred Sowebread of the Spring. 2 Cyclamen a/tivum. Summer Sowebread. 
3 Folium Cyclaminis Crtlui vernalii flort Candida. A leafe of Candie Sowebread. 4 Cyclamen Romanum Autumn, tie. Romanc 
Sowebread of the Autumne. 5 Cyclamen hcdercefolio Anlnmmlr. luie leafed Autumne Sowebread. 6 Folium Cyclaminit 
AutHmnaliijIorf albo. A leafe of the Autumne Sowebread with a \\hite flower. 7 Folinm Cyclaminit anguftifolii Aulnmnalit. 
A leafe of the long leafed Sowebread. K C\clamcn Anliodieaum Aiitumnate flare ample pnrpureo dufliti. The double flowred 
Sowebread of Antioch. 9 Cyclamen vnlgarr folio rotunda. The common round leafed Sowebread. 

198 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

leaues a peece, of a faire Peach colour, like vnto the flowers of purple Sowebread of 
the Spring, and deeper at the bottome. 

There are of this kinde fome, whofe flowers appeare in the Spring, and are as large 
and double as the former, but of a pure white colour. 

There are of thefe Sowebreads of Antioch, that haue but fingle flowers, fome ap- 
pearing in the Spring, and others in Autumne. 

10. Cyclamen iwlgare folio rotundo. The common Sowebread. 

The common Sowebread (which is moft vfed in the Apothecaries Shops) hath 
many leaues fpread vpon the ground, rifing from certaine fmall long heads, that are 
on the greater round rootes, as vfually moft of the former forts doe, being in the like 
manner folded together, and after fpread themfelues into round greene leaues, fome- 
what like vnto the leaues of Afarum, but not fhining, without any white fpots on the 
vpperflde for the moft part, or but very feldome, and reddifh or purplifh vnderneath, 
and very feldome greener : the flowers ftand vpon fmall foot-ftalkes, and mew them- 
felues open for the moft part, before any leaues doe appeare, being f mailer and fhorter 
then thofe with luie leaues, and of a pale purple colour, yet fometimes deeper, hang- 
ing downe their heads, and turning vp their leaues againe, as all others doe, but more 
fweete then many other of the Autumne flowers : after the flowers are paft, come the 
heads turning or winding themfelues downe in like manner as the other doe, hauing 
fuch like feede, but fomewhat larger, and more vneuen, or not fo round at the leaft : 
the roote is round, and not flat, of a browner colour, and not fo blacke on the outfide 
as many of the others. 

The Place. 

The Sowebreads of the Spring doe both grow on the Pyrenasan Moun- 
taines in Italy, and in Candy, and about Mompelier in France ; Antioch in 
Syria alfo hath yeelded fome both of the Spring and Autumne. Thofe 
with round and luie leaues grow in diuers places both of France and Italy : 
and the common in Germany, and the Lowe-Countries. But that Autumne 
Sowebread with white flowers, is reported to grow in the Kingdome of 
Naples. I haue very curioufly enquired of many, if euer they found them 
in any parts of England, neare or further off from the places where they 
dwell : but they haue all affirmed, that they neuer found, or euer heard of 
any that haue found of any of them. This onely they haue aflured, that 
there groweth none in the places, where fome haue reported them to grow. 

The Time. 

Thofe of the Spring doe flower about the end of Aprill, or beginning 
of May. The other of the Summer, about the end of lune or in luly. The 
reft fome in Auguft, and September, others in October. 

The Names. 

The Common Sowebread is called by moft Writers in Latine, Panis 
Porcinus, and by that name it is knowne in the Apothecaries mops, as alfo 
by the name Arthamta, according to which name, they haue an ointment 
fo called, which is to be made with the iuice hereof. It is alfo called by di- 
uers other names, not pertinent for this difcourfe. The moft vfuall name, 
whereby it is knowne to mort Herbarifts, is Cyclamen (which is the Greeke 
word) or as fome call it Cyclaminus, adding thereunto their other feuerall 
titles. In Englifh, Sowebread. 

The Vertues. 

The leaues and rootes are very effecluall for the fpleene, as the Oint- 
ment before remembred plainly proueth, being vfed for the fame purpofe, 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 199 

and that to good effect. It is vfed alfo for women in long and hard trauels, 
where there is danger, to accelerate the birth, either the roote or the leate 
being applyed. But tor any amorous effects, I hold it meere fabulous. 


Anemone. \Vindeflower and his kindes. 

THe next tuberous rooted plants that are to follow (of right in my opinion) are 
the Ancmwf or Windeflowers, and although fome tuberous rooted plants, 
that is, the Afphodils, Spiderworts, and Flowerdeluces haue beene before in- 
ferted, it was, both becaufe they were in name or forme of flowers futable to them 
whom they were ioyned vnto, and alfo that they ihould not be feuered and entreated 
of in two feuerall places : the relt are now to follow, at the leaft fo many of them as 
be beautifull flowers, fit to furnilh a Florifts Garden, for natures delightfome varieties 
and excellencies. To dillinguifh the Family of Anemones I may, that is, into the wilde 
kindes, and into the tame or mannured, as they are called, and both of them nourfed 
vp in Gardens ; and of them into thofe that haue broader leaues, and into thofe that 
haue thinner or more iagged leaues : and of each of them, into thofe that bcare fingle 
flowers, and thofe that beare double flowers. But to defcribe the infinite (as I may fo 
fay) variety of the colours of the flowers, and to giue to each his true dirtinction and 
denomination, Hie /afar, hoc opus eji, it farre pafleth my ability I confeiTe, and I thinke 
would grauell the belt experienced this day in Europe (and the like I faid concerning 
Tulipas, it being as contingent to this plant, as is before faid of the Tulipa, to be with- 
out end in yeelding varieties :) for who can fee all the varieties that haue fprung from 
the fowing of the feede in all places, feeing the variety of colours rifen from thence, is 
according to the variety of ayres &c grounds wherein they are fowne, skill alfo helping 
nature in ordering them aright. For the feede of one and the fame plant fowne in di- 
uers ayres and grounds, doe produce that variety of colours that is much differing one 
from another ; who then can difplay all the mixtures of colours in them, to fet them 
downe in fo fmall a roome as this Book ? Yet as I haue done (in the former part of this 
Treatife) my good will, to exprefle as many of each kinde haue come to my know- 
ledge, fo if I endeauour the like in this, I hope the courteous wil accept it, and hold me 
excufed for the reft : otherwife, if I were or could be abfolute, I mould take from my felf 
and others the hope of future augmentation, or addition of any new, which neuer will 
be wanting. To begin therefore with the wilde kinds (as they are fo accounted) I fliall 
firtt entreate of the Pulfatillas or Pafque flowers, which are certainly kindes of wilde 
Anemones, both in leafe and flower, as may well be difcerned by them that are iudici- 
ous (although fome learned men haue not fo thought, as appeareth by their writings) 
the rootes of them making one fpeciall note of difference, from the other forts of 
wilde Anemones. 

I . Pulfatilla Anglica purpurca. The purple Pafque flower. 

The Pafque or Pafle flower which is of our owne Country, hath many leaues lying 
on the ground, fomewhat rough or hairie, hard in feeling, and finely cut into many 
fmall leaues, of a darke greene colour, almolt like the leaues of Carrets, but finer and 
fmaller, from among which rife vp naked ftalkes, rough or hairie alfo, fet about the 
middle thereof with fome fmall diuided leaues comparting them, and riling aboue 
thel e leaues about a f panne, bearing euery one of them one pendulous flower, made of 
fix leaues, of a fine Violet purple colour, but fomewhat deepe withall, in the middle 
whereof lland many yellow threeds, fet about a middle purple pointell : after the 
flower is palt, there commeth vp in the Itead thereof a bufhie head of long f cedes, 
which are fmall and hoarie, hauing at the end ot euery one a (mall haire, which is gray 
likewife: the roote is fmall and long, growing downewards into the ground, with a 
tuft of haire at the head thereof, and not lying or running vnder the vpper crult there- 
of, as the other wilde Anemones doe. 

2. Pulfa- 

2OO The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

2. Pulfatilla Danica. The Pafle flower of Denmarke. 

There is another that was brought out of Denmarke, very like vnto the former, but 
that it is larger both in roote and leafe, and flower alfo, which is of a fairer purple co- 
lour, not fo deepe, and befides, will better abide to bee mannured then our Englifh 
kinde will, as my felfe haue often proued. 

ore Of both thefe forts it is faid, that fome plants haue bin found, that haue borne white 
dbo ^ fore fl OW ers. And likewife one that bore double flowers, that is, with two rowes of leaues. 


3. Pulfatilla flore rubro. The red Pafle flower. 

Lobel, as I take it, did firft fet forth this kinde, being brought him from Syria, the 
leaues whereof are finer cut, the flower fmaller, and with longer leaues, and of a red 

4. Pulfatilla flore luteo. The yellow Pafle flower. 

The yellow Pafle flower hath his leaues cut and diuided, very like vnto the leaues 
of the firft kinde, but fomewhat more hairie, greene on the vpperfide, and hairie vn- 
derneath : the ftalke is round and hoary, the middle whereof is befet with fome fmall 
leaues, as in the other, from among which rifeth vp the ftalke of the flower, confifting 
of fix leaues of a very faire yellow colour on the infide, and of a hoary pale yellow on 
the outfide ; after which followeth fuch an head of hairie thrummes as in the former : 
the roote is of the bignefle of a mans finger. 

5. Pulfatilla flore albo. The white Pafle flower. 

The white Pafle flower (which Clufius maketh a kinde of Anemone^ and yet as hee 
faith himfelfe, doth more nearely refemble the Pulfatilla) hath, from amongft a tuft or 
head of haires, which grow at the toppe of a long blacke roote, many leaues ftanding 
vpon long ftalkes, which are diuided as it were into three wings or parts, and each 
part finely cut and diuided, like vnto the Pafle flower of Denmarke, but fomewhat 
harder in handling, greenifh on the vpperfide, and fomewhat gray vnderneath, and 
very hairie all ouer : among thefe leaues rife vp the ftalkes, befet at the middle of them 
with three leaues, as finely cut and diuided as thofe belowe, from aboue which ftandeth 
the flower, being fmaller, and not fo pendulous as the former, but in the like manner 
confifting of fix leaues, of a fnow white colour on the infide, and a little browner on 
the outfide, with many yellow thrums in the middle : after the flower is paft, rifeth vp 
fuch a like hoary head, compofed as it were of many haires, each whereof hath a fmall 
feede faftened vnto it, like as the former Pafle flowers haue. 

The Place. 

The firft is found in many places of England, vpon dry bankes that lye 
open to the Sunne. 

The fecond was firft brought, as I take it, by Doctor Lobel from Den- 
marke, & is one of the two kinds, that Clufius faith are common in Germa- 
nic, this bearing a paler purple flower, and more early then the other, which 
is the fame with our Englilh, whofe flower is fo darke, that it almoft fee- 
meth blacke. 

The red kinde, as Lobel faith, came from Syria. 

The yellow Pafle flower, which Clufius maketh his third wilde Anemone, 
was found very plentifully growing at the foote of St. Bernards Hill, neare 
vnto the Cantons of the Switzers. 

The white one groweth on the Alpes neare Auftria, in France likewife, 
and other places. 


The Garden of pleafant 


I Pnlfatilln fnrfurta cum folio, femine, & radice. The purple Pafque flower with Icafc, feed, and root. i. Piilfntilla lutto Jtore. 
The yellow Pafque flower. 3 I'ulfalilLi ruhra Syriata Lobtlij. Red Pafque flower of I.ohel. 4 Pulfatilla rubra Sieertij. 

Swertz his red Pafque flower. 5 Pulfatilla flort albo. White Pafque flower. 6 Anfmomt Jilufflris albo Hallhioli. Thewilde 
white broad leafed Windflower. 7 Ammont filucftrit tenuifolia alba. The wildt finale white \\indflouer. K Anemone fdutftrit 
tnmifolia lutto. The yellow wilde thin leafed Windflower. 9 Atumoxe Khitfirii Iri/olia Dodontti. The three-leafed wilde Wind- 
flower. 10 Antmmu Hituftris Jlart flrno albo. The double white wilde Windflower. n. A ntmo*ej!lvtftrii fiort plena pur- 
pttrto. The double purple wilde Windeflower. * Stmnt fcpfralim Hivulfum. The feed feparated. t Kodict cum folio infrriort. 
The rootc with a lower leafe. 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Time. 

All of them doe flower early in the yeare, that is, in the beginning of A- 
prill, about which time moft commonly Eafter doth fall. 

The Names. 

Their proper names are giuen to each in their feuerall titles, being all of 
them kindes of wilde Anemones, as I faid in the beginning of the Chapter, 
and fo for the moft part all Authors doe acknowledge them. We call them 
in Englifh, becaufe they flower about Eafter, Pafque flower, which is the 
French name for Eafter, or Euphonicz gratia, Paffe flower, which may pafle 
currant, without any further defcant on the name, or elfe Pulfatilla, if you 
will, being growne old by cuftome. 

The Vertues. 

The fharpe biting and exulcerating quality of this plant, caufeth it to be 
of little vfe, notwithstanding loachimus Camerarius faith in his Hortus Me- 
dicus, that in Boruffia, which is a place in Italy, as I take it, the diftilled wa- 
ter hereof is vfed with good fuccefle, to be giuen to them that are troubled 
with a Tertian Ague ; for he faith that it is medicamentum OK^POKTIKOV, that is, a 
medicine of force to helpe obftruftions. 

Anemone filuejtris lati folia albajiue tertia Matthioli. 
The white wilde broad leafed Windflower. 

This Windflower hath diuers broad greene leaues, cut into diuifions, and dented 
about, very like vnto a broad leafed Crowfoote, among which rifeth vp a ftalke, ha- 
uing fome fuch like cut leaues in the middle thereof, as growe below, but fmaller ; on 
the toppe whereof ftandeth one large white flower, conlifting of fiue leaues for the 
moft part, with fome yellow threads in the middle, ftanding about fuch a greene head 
as is in the tame or garden Anemones, which growing greater after the flower is paft, 
is compofed of many fmall feedes, wrapped in white wooll, which as foone as they 
are ripe, raife themfelues vp from the bottome of the head, and flye away with the 
winde, as the other tame or garden kindes doe : the roote is made of a number of long 
blacke firings, encreafing very much by running vnder ground, and (hooting vp in di- 
uers places. 

Anemone filueftris tenuifolia lutea. The yellow wilde thin leafed Windflower. 

The yellow wilde Anemone rifeth vp with one or two fmall round naked ftalkes, 
bearing about the middle of them, fmall, foft, and tender iagged leaues, deeply cut in 
and indented on the edges about, from aboue which doth grow the ftalke, bearing 
fmall yellow flowers, ftanding vpon weake foote-ftalkes, like vnto a fmall Crowfoot, 
with fome threads in the middle : the roote is long and fmall, fomewhat like vnto the 
roote of Pollipodie, creeping vnder the vpper cruft of the earth : this kinde is lower, 
and fpringeth fomewhat earlier then the other wilde kindes that follow. 

Anemone Jilueftris tenuifolia albajimplex. 
The fingle white thin leafed wilde Windflower. 

This white wilde Anemone rifeth vp with diuers leaues vpon feuerall long ftalkes ; 
which are fomewhat like vnto the former, but that they are fomewhat harder, and not 
fo long, nor the diuifions of the leaues fo finely fnipt about the edges, but a little 
broader, and deeper cut in on euery fide: the flowers hereof are larger and broader 
then the former, white on the infide, and a little purplifh on the outfide, efpecially at 


'The Garden of pleaftint Flowers. 203 

the bottomc of the flower next vnto the llalke : the roote of this is very like vnto the 

There is another of this kinde, whofe flowers are purple, in all other things it is like Prprt*. 
vnto the white. 

And likewife another, with a blulh or carnation coloured flower. C*ti*ea fine 

There is one that is onely nurfed vp with vs in Gardens, that is fomewhat like vnto/* 4 *' r **""- 
thefe former wilde Anemones in roote and leafc, but that the flower of this, being pure 
white within, and a little purplilh without, confiding of eight or nine fmall round Pengnna aO 
pointed leaues, hath fometimes fome leaues vndcr the flower, party coloured white 
and greene : the flower hath likewife a greene head, like a Strawberry, comparted a- 
bout with white threads, tipt with yellow pendents. 

And another ot the fame kinde with the lall, whofe flower confirting of eight or Pertgr'ma r/'n 
nine leaues, is of a greenilh colour, except the foure outermoll leaues, which are a lit-"'"' 
tie purplilh, and diuided at the points into three parts ; the middle part is of a greenilh 
white colour, with a greene head in the middle as the other. 

Anemone /Hue/iris trifolia Dodoneei. The three leafed wilde Windflower. 

This wilde Anemone hath his rootes very like vnto the former kindes ; the leaues are 
alwaies three fet together at the toppe of flender ftalkes, being fmall and indented a- 
bout, very like vnto a three leafed Grafie, but fmaller : the flower confifteth of eight 
fmall leaues, fomewhat like vnto a Crowtbote, but of a whitifh purple or blufh colour, 
with fome white threads, and a greene rough head in the middle. 

Anemone Ji I us/Ms Jlore pleno albo. The double white wilde Windflower. 

This double kinde is very like vnto the fmgle white kinde before defcribed, both 
in his long running rootes, and thin leaues, but fomewhat larger : the flowers hereof 
are very thicke and double, although they be fmall, and of a faint fweete fent, very 
white after it is full blowne for fiue or fix dayes, but afterwards it becommeth a little 
purplifh on the infide, but more on the outfide : this neuer giueth feede (although it 
haue a fmall head in the middle) like as many other double flowers doe. 

Anemone Jiluejiris fore pleno purpureo. The double purple wilde Windflower. 

This double purple kinde hath fuch like iaeged leaues as the laft defcribed hath, but 
more hoarie vnderneath : the flower is of a one light purple toward the points of the 
leaues, the bottomes being of a deeper purple, but as thicke, and full of leaues as the 
former, with a greene head in the middle, like vnto the former : this kinde hath fmall 
greene leaues on the rtalkes vnder the flowers, cut and diuided like the lower leaues. 

The Place. 

The firft broad leafed Anemone groweth in diuers places of Auftria and 
Hungary. The yellow in diuers woods in Germany, but not in this Coun- 
trey that euer I could learne. The other fingle wilde kindes, fome of them 
are very frequent throughout the moft places of England, in Woods, 
Groues, and Orchards. The double kindes were found, as Clufius faith, in 
the Lowe-Countries, in a Wood neare Louaine. 

The Time. 

They flower from the end of March (that is the earlietf) and the begin- 
ning of Aprill, vntill May, and the double kindes begin within a while after 
the fingle kinds are part. 

The Names. 

They are called Ranunculi Jiluarum, and Ranunculi nemorum, and as Clu- 

204 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

fius would haue them, Leimonia of Theophraftus ; they are generally called 
of molt Herbarifts Anemones Jilueflres, Wilde Anemones or Windflowers. 
The Italians call them Gengeuo faluatico, that is, Wilde Ginger, becaufe the 
rootes are, befides the torme, being fomewhat like fmall Ginger, of a bi- 
ting hot and fharpe tarte. 

Anemone Lujitanica Jiue hor ten/is latifolia fare Jimp lid luteo. 
The fingle Garden yellow Windflower or Anemone. 

This fingle yellow Anemone or Windflower hath diuers broad round leaues, fome- 
what diuided and endented withall on the edges, brownifh at the firft rifing vp out of 
the ground, and almoft folded together, and after of a fad greene on the vpperiide, 
and reddifh vnderneath ; among which rife vp fmall (lender ftalkes, befet at the mid- 
dle of them with two or three leaues, more cut and diuided then thofe belowe, with 
fmall yellow flowers at the toppe of them, confifting of ten or twelue leaues a peece, 
hauing a few yellow threads in the middle of them, ftanding about a fmall greene 
head, which in time growing ripe hath fmall flat feede, inclofed within a foft wooll 
or downe, which is eaiily blowne away with the winde : the roote groweth downe- 
ward into the ground, diuerfly fpread with branches here and there, of a brownim yel- 
low on the outfide, and whitim within, fo brittle, that it can hardly bee touched with- 
out breaking. 

Anemone latifolia Jtore luteo duplici. The double yellow Anemone or Windflower. 

This double yellow Anemone hath fuch broad round leaues as the fingle kinde 
hath, but fomewhat larger or ranker : the ftalkes are befet with larger leaues, more 
deeply cut in on the edges : the flowers are of a more pale yellow, with fome purplifh 
veines on the outfide, and a little round pointed ; but they are all on the infide of a 
faire yellow colour, confifting of two rowes of leaues, whereof the innermoft is the 
narrower, with a fmall greene head in the middle, compaffed with yellow threads as 
in the former : the roote is like the roote of the fingle ; neither of thefe haue any good 
fent, and this fpringeth vp and flowreth later then the fingle kinde. 

Anemone latifolia pur pur ea ftellatajiue papaveracea. 
The purple Starre Anemone or Windflower. 

The firft leaues of this purple Anemone, which alwayes fpring vp before Winter, 
(if the roote be not kept too long out of the ground,) are fomewhat like the leaues of 
Sanicle or Selfe-heale, but the reft that follow are more deeply cut in and iagged ; a- 
mong which rife vp diuers round ftalkes, befet with iagged leaues as all other Anemo- 
nes are, aboue which leaues, the ftalkes rifing two or three inches high, beare one 
flower a peece, compofed of twelue leaues or more, narrow and pointed, of a bleake 
purple or whitim afh-colour, fomewhat fhining on the outfide, and of a fine purple co- 
lour tending to a murrey on the infide, with many blackifh blew threads or thrummes 
in the middle of the flower, fet about a head, whereon groweth the feede, which is 
fmall and blacke, inclofed in foft wooll or downe, which flieth away with the winde, 
carrying the feede with it, if it be not carefully gathered : the roote is blackifh on the 
outfide, and white within, tuberous or knobby, with many fibres growing at it. 

Anemone purpurea Stellata altera. Another purple Starre Anemone. 

There is fo great diuerfity in the colours of the flowers of thefe broad leafed kinds of 
Anemones or Windflowers, that they can very hardly be exprefled, although in their 
leaues there is but little or no difference. I mall not neede therefore to make feuerall 
defcriptions of euery one that lhall be fet downe ; but it will be fufficient, I thinke, to 
giue you the diftinctions of the flowers : for as I faid, therein is the greateft and chie- 
feft difference. This other Starre Anemone differeth not from the former in leafe or 
flower, but onely that this is of a more pale f ullen colour on the outfide, and of a paler 
purple colour on the infide. There 

'7 /ic Garden of plea/nut Flowers. 


i Antmont latifolia fion luleo ftmf>li,-i. The ("ingle yellow Anemone. 2 Anemont latifolia flon lutiodnf>lifi. The double yellow 
Anemone. 3 Anemone latifolia flort purpurto Sttllato. The purple Starre Anemone. 4 Anemone latifolia ft<rf>urea dilutior. 
The pale purple Siarre Anemone. 5 Anemone latifolia florc miniato tiiluto. The pate red Anemone. 6 Anemone latifolia coc- 
fiHraCardinalif dida. The Cardinall Anemone. 7 Aiumoiu lalifolia ituarnata Hifpnnica. The Spanifh incarnate Anemone. 
8 Antmoiu latifolia Pauo/imfltx dicta. The lelfer Orenge tawney Anemone. 9 Anemone latifolia fort cornea. The carnation 
Anemone. 10 A item me lalifolia Arantiaea fmt Patio motor. The double Orenge tawney Anemone. n Antmont Suteritica fine 
Cypanftia. The double Anemone of Cyprus. 12 Anfmam iali/olia Jtort fUno altuitt. The double pale blufh Anemone. 
13 Anemone Chalcedonifa maxima. The great Spanifh Marigold Anemone. 14 Anemone Catununi fine Ptrfica. The double 
Perlian Anemone. t Animoxit latifolia radict. The roote of a great Anemone. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Viola fturput ea. 



Carnea vlva- 





Incamata Hif- 




Pauo malor 
fimplici fore. 

Pauo minor. 

Parietal mag- 
na ex feminio. 

There is another, whofe flower hath eight leaues, as many of them that 
follow haue (although diuers forts haue but fix leaues in a flower) and is of 
a Violet purple, and therefore is called, The Violet purple Anemone. 

Of all thefe three forts laft defcribed, there be other that differ only in ha- 
uing white bottomes, fome fmaller and fome larger. 

There is alfo another of the fame Violet purple colour with the former, 
but a little paler, tending more to rednefle, whofe flowers haue many 
white lines and ftripes through the leaues, and is called, The purple ftript 

There is another, whofe greene leaues are fomewhat larger, and fo is the 
flower likewife, confifting of eight leaues, and fometimes of more, of the 
colour of Carnation lilke, fometimes pale and fometimes deeper, with a 
whitifh circle about the bottome of the leaues, which circle in fome is 
larger, and more to be feene then in others, when the flower layeth it felfe 
open with the heate of the Sunne, hauing blewifh threads in the middle. 
This may be called, the Carnation Anemone. 

We haue another, whofe flower is betweene a Peach colour and a Vio- 
let, which is vfually called a Gredeline colour. 

And another of a fine reddifh Violet or purple, which we call, The Co- 
chenille Anemone. 

And another of a rich crimfon red colour, and may be called, The Car- 
dinall Anemone. 

Another of a deeper, but not fo liuely a red, called, The bloud red Ane- 

Another of an ordinary crimfon colour, called, The crimfon Anemone. 

Another of a Stamell colour, neare vnto a Scarlet. 

Another of a fine delayed red or flefh colour, and may bee called, The 
Incarnidine Anemone. 

Another whofe flower is of a liuely flefh colour, fhadowed with yellow, 
and may be called, The Spanifh Incarnate Anemone. 

Another of a faire whitifh red, which we call, The Blufh Anemone. 

Another whofe flower confifleth of eight leaues, of a darke whitifh co- 
lour, ftript all ouer with veines of a fine blufh colour, the bottomes being 
white, this may be called, The Nutmegge Anemone. 

Another whofe flower is of a pale whitifh colour, tending to a gray, fuch 
as the Monkes and Friers were wont to weare with vs, and is called, A 
Monkes gray. 

There is another, whofe leafe is fomewhat broader then many or moft 
of the Anemones, comming neare vnto the leafe of the great double O- 
renge coloured Anemone ; the flower whereof is lingle, conlifting of eight 
large or broad leaues, very neare vnto the fame Orenge colour, that is in 
the double flower hereafter defcribed, but fomewhat deeper. This is vfu- 
ally called in Latine, Pauo maior Jimp lici fare, and we in Englifh, The great 
lingle Orenge tawnie Anemone. 

There is likewife of this kinde another, whofe flower is letter, and called, 
The letter Orenge tawnie Anemone. 

There is belides thefe exprefled, fo great a variety of mixt colours in the 
flowers of this kinde of Anemone with broad leaues, arifing euery yeare 
from the fowing of the feede of fome of the choifeft and fitteft for that 
purpofe, that it is wonderfull to obferue, not onely the variety of fingle 
colours, but the mixture of two or three colours in one flower, befides the 
diuerfity of the bottomes of the flowers, fome hauing white or yellowifh 
bottomes, and fome none, and yet both of the fame colour ; and likewife 
in the thrums or threads in the middle : But the greateft wonder of beauty 
is in variety of double flowers, that arife from among the other fingle ones, 
fome hauing two or three rowes of leaues in the flowers, and fome fo thicke 
of leaues as a double Marigold, or double Crowfoote, and of the fame 
feuerall colours that are in the fingle flowers, that it is almoft impofli- 
ble to exprefle them feuerally, and (as is faid before) fome falling out to 
bee double in one yeare, which will proue fingle or lefle double in an- 

The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 207 

other, yet very many abiding conftant double as at the tirlt ; and therefore 
let this briefe recitall be fufficient in Head of a particular of all the colours. 

Anemone ChulceJonica maxima verftcolor. 
The great double Windflowcr of Conftantinople. 

This great Anemone of Conrtantinople hath broader and greener leaues then any 
of the tormer kindes, and not fo much diuided or cut in at the edges, among which 
rife vp one or two ftalkes, (feldome more from one roote) hauing fome leaues about 
the middle of the llalke, as other Anemones haue, and bearing at the toppes of the 
ftalkes one large flower a peece, very double, whofe outermoft leaues being broadelt, 
are greenilh ;it the firft, but afterwards red, hauing fometimes fome greene abiding Hill 
in the leaues, and the red ftriped through it : the other leaues which are within thefe 
are fmaller, and of a perfect red colour ; the innermoll being fmallcft, are of the fame 
red colour but turned fomewhat inward, hauing no thrummes or threads in the mid- 
dle, as the former haue, and bearing no feede : the roote is blackith on the outfide, and 
white within, thicke and tuberous as the other kindes, but thicker fet and clofe toge- 
ther, not I hooting any long (lender rootes as others doe. Some Gentlewomen call this 
Anemone, The Spanilh Marigold. 

Anemone Chalcedonica alterajiue Pauo maior Jtore duplici. 
The great double Orenge tawney Anemone. 

This other great Anemone of Conftantinople hath his large leaues fo like vnto 
the laft, that one can hardly diftinguifh them af under; the ftalke hath alfo fuch like 
leaues fet vpon it, bearing at the toppe a faire large flower, confiding of many leaues 
fet in two or three rowes at the molt, but not fo thicke or double as the laft, yet feeming 
to be but one thicke rowe of many fmall and long leaues, of an excellent red or crim- 
fon colour, wherein fome yellow is mixed, which maketh that colour is called an O- 
renge tawney ; the bottomes of the leaues are red, compared with a whitiih circle, 
the thrummie head in the middle being befet with many darke blackifh threads : the 
roote is like the former. 

Anemone Superitica jiue Cyparifsia. The double Anemone of Cyprus. 

This Anemone (which the Dutchmen call Superitz, and as I haue beene enformed, 
came from the Ifle of Cyprus) hath leaues very like the laft double Anemone, but not 
altogether fo large : the flower confifteth ot fmaller leaues, of colour very neare vnto 
the laft double Orenge coloured Anemone, but more thicke of leaues, and as double 
as the firft, although not fo great a flower, without any head in the middle, or thrums 
about it as is in the laft, and differeth not in the roote from either of them both. 

Somewhat like vnto this kinde, or as it were betweene this and the firft kinde of 
thefe great double Anemones, we haue diuers other forts, bearing flowers very thicke 
and double ; fome ot them being white, or whitifh, or purple, deeper or paler, and fome 
ot a reddifh colour tending to Scarlet or a Carnation colour, and fome alfo of a blulh 
or flelh colour, and diuers other colours, and all of them continue conftant in their 

Anemone Cacumeni Maringi fiue Per/ica. The double Perfian Anemone. 

This rare Anemone, which is faid to come out of Perfia to Conftantinople, and 
from thence to vs, is in leafe and roote very like vnto the former double Anemones 
before defcribed ; onely the flower hereof is rather like vnto the fecond great double 
Orenge coloured Anemone, vfually called Pauo maior fare pleno, being compofed of 
three rowes of leaues, the outermoft rowe confiding of ten or twelue larger leaues, 
and thofe more inward lefler and more in number, but all of them variably mixed 
with white, red, and yellow, hauing the bottomes of the leaues white : but inftead of 
a middle head with thrums about it, as the other hath, this hath a few narrow leaues, 
of a deepe yellow colour in the middle of the flower, ftanding vpright. 


2o8 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Hauing thus farre proceeded in the two parts of the kindes of Anemones or Wind- 
flowers, it remaineth to entreate of the reft, which is thofe Anemones which haue thin 
cut leaues, whereof fome haue reckoned vp thirty forts with Jingle flowers, which I 
confefTe I haue not feene ; but fo many as haue come to my knowledge, I fhall here fet 

Anemone tenuifolia fiue Geranifolia ccerulea. 
The Watchet Anemone or Storkes bill leafed Windflower. 

This firft Windflower with thin cut leaues, rifeth not out of the ground vntil the great 
Winter frofts be paft, that is, about the middle or end of February, and are fomewhat 
brownifh at their firft appearing, but afterwards fpread into wings of greene leaues, 
fomewhat broader then the reft that follow, diuided into three parts, & each part into 
three leaues, euery one cut in about the edges, one ftanding againft another vpon a 
long (lender foote-ftalke, and the end leafe by it felfe : among thefe rifeth vp two or 
three greene ftalkes, garnifhed with fuch like thin leaues as are at the bottome, from 
aboue which rife the flowers, but one vpon a ftalke, confifting of fourteene or fifteene 
fmall pale blew or watchet leaues, lefler then any of the fingle kindes that follow, 
compafling many whitifh threads, and a fmall greene head in the middle, fomewhat 
like the head of the wilde Crowfoote, wherein is contained fuch like feede : the roote 
is blackifh without, thrufting out into long tuberous peeces, fomewhat like vnto fome 
of the broad leafed Anemones. 

'ba. Of this kinde there is another, whofe leaues are not browne at their firft rifing, but 

greene, and the flowers are white, in other things not differing. 

Anemone tenuifolia purpurea vu/garis. 
The ordinary purple Anemone with thin leaues. 

This purple Anemone which is moft common, and therefore the lefTe regarded, 
hath many winged leaues ftanding vpon feuerall ftalkes, cut and diuided 'into diuers 
leaues, much like vnto the leaues of a Carrot ; among which rife vp ftalkes with fome 
leaues thereon (as is vfuall to the whole Family of Anemones, both wilde and tame, 
as is before faid ;) at the toppes whereof ftand the flowers, made of fix leaues moft vfu- 
ally, but fometimes they will haue feuen or eight, being very large, and of a perfect 
purple Violet colour, very faire and liuely : the middle head hath many blackim 
thrums or threads about it, which I could neuer obferue in my Gardens to beare feed : 
the roote is fmaller, and more fpreading euery way into fmall long flat tuberous parts, 
then any other kindes of fingle or double Anemones. 

CameapalKda. There is another very like in leafe and roote vnto the former, but the 

flower is nothing fo large, and is whitifh, tending to a blufh colour, and 

of a deeper blufh colour toward the bottome of the flower, with blackifh 

blew thrums in the middle, and giueth no feede that I could euer obferue. 

Canea viuida There is likewife another like vnto the laft in leafe and flower, but 

vngmbus albis. t j iat t h e fl ower j s larger then it, and is a of a liuely blufh colour, the leaues 

hauing white bottomes. 

Alba venii pur r And another, whofe flower is white, with purple coloured veines and 
pums. ftripes through euery leafe, and is a lefTer flower then the other. 

Anemone tenuifolia coccinea fimplex. The fingle Scarlet Anemone with thin leaues. 

The leaues of this Scarlet Windflower are fomewhat like vnto the former, but a lit- 
tle broader, and not fo finely cut and diuided : the flower confifteth of fix reafonable 
large leaues, of an excellent red colour, which we call a Scarlet; the bottomes of the 
leaues are large and white, and the thrums or threads in the middle of a blackim pur- 
ple colour : the roote is tuberous, but confifting of thicker peeces, fomewhat like vnto 
the rootes of the broad leafed Anemones, but fomewhat browne, and not fo blacke, 
and moft like vnto the roote of the double Scarlet Anemone. 

CocAnea abfq ; There is another of this kinde, whofe flower is neare vnto the fame co- 
vnguibus. i ourj DUt t hi s h at h no w hi te bottomes at all in his leaues. 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 209 

\\'t- haue another which hath as large a flower as any fingle, and is of an 

Orient deepe red crimfon Veluet colour. 
Sa*g*iM<i. There is another of a deeper red colour, and is called, The blond red 

Tingle Anemone. 
R*bra junJo And another, whofe flower is red with the bottome yellow. 

Another of a perfect crimfon colour, whereof fome haue round pointed 
,"'" leaues, and others fharpe pointed, and fome a little lighter or deeper then 


Alba jiamini- There is alfo one, whofe flower is pure white with blewifh purple 
^ /""?*"" thrums in the middle. 

Hi/fa- And another, whofe flower is very great, of a kinde of fullen blufh co- 
*Alia tanui, ^ our ' ^ ut y et P^ ea ^ ant witn blewifh threads in the middle. 

And another with blufh veines in euery leafe of the white flower. 
AU>a furpm tii And another, the flower whereof is white, the bottomes of the leaues 

being purple. 

Prfurafce*i. Another whofe flower conlifteth of many I mall narrow leaues, of a pale 
purple or blulh colour on the outfide, and fomewhat deeper within. 

There is another like in leafe and roote vnto the firft Scarlet Anemone, 
he flower hereof confifteth of feuen large leaues without any bot- 
tomes, of a white colour, hauing edges, and fome large ftripes alfo of a car- 
nation or flefh colour to bee feene in them, marked fomewhat like an Ap- 
ple bloflbme, and thereupon it is called in Latine, Anemone tenuifolia Jim- 
plcx alba inflar jtorum pomi, or facie Jiorum fomi, that is to fay in Englifh, 
The fingle thin leafed Anemone with Apple bloflbme flowers. 
Multiple. I haue heard that there is one of this kinde with double flowers. 

I . Anemone tenuifolia Jiore coccineo pleno -vu/garis. 
The common double red or Scarlet Anemone. 

The leaues of this double Anemone are very like vnto the leaues of the fingle Scar- 
let Anemone, but not fo thin cut and diuided as that with the purple flower : the flower 
hereof when it firfl openeth it felfe, confilleth of fix and fometimes of feuen or eight 
broad leaues, of a deepe red, or excellent Scarlet colour, the middle head being thick 
clofed, and of a greenifh colour, which after the flower hath flood blowne fome time, 
doth gather colour, and openeth it felfe into many fmall leaues, very thicke, of a more 
pale red colour, and more Stamell like then the outer leaues : the root of this is thicke 
and tuberous, very like vnto the root of the fingle Scarlet Anemone. 

2. Anemone tenuifolia Jiore coccineo plena variegafa. 
The party coloured double Crimfon Anemone. 

We haue a kinde hereof, varying neither in roote, leafe, or forme of flower from 
the former, but in the colour, in that this will haue fometimes the outer broad leaues 
party coloured, with whitifh or blufh coloured great ftreakes in the red leaues both in- 
fide and outfide ; as alfo diuers of the middle or inner leaues ftriped in the fame man- 
ner: the roote hereof giueth fairer flowers in fome yeares then in others, and fome- 
times giue flowers all red againe. 

3. Anemone tenuifolia Jiore coccineo Jaturo pleno. 
The double crimfon Veluet Anemone. 

Wee haue another alfo, whofe flower is of a deepe Orenge tawny crimfon colour, 
neare vnto the colour of the outer leaues, of the lefler French Marigold, and not diffe- 
ring from the former in any thing elfe. 

4. Anemone tenuifolia Jiore plcno fuaucrubente. The greater double blufh Anemone. 

There is fmall difference to be difcerned, either in the roote or leaues of this from 

D2 the 

2 i o The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

the former double Scarlet Anemone, fauing that the leaues hereof are a little broader, 
and feeme to bee of a little frefher greene colour : the flower of this is as large almoft, 
and as double as the former, and the inner leaues likewife almoft as large as they, be- 
ing of a whitifh or flefh colour at the firrt opening of them, but afterwards become of 
a moft liuely blufh colour ; the bottomes of the leaues abiding of a deeper blufh, and 
with long ftanding, the tops of the leaues will turne almoft wholly white againe. 

5. Anemone tenuifolia jlore albo pleno. The double white Anemone. 

This double white Anemone differeth little from the former blufh Anemone, but 
in that it is fmaller in all the parts thereof, and all o that the flower hereof being wholly 
of a pure white colour, without any fhew of blufh therein, hath the middle thrummes 
much fmaller and fhorter then it, and not rifing vp fo high, but feeme as if they were 
chipped off euen at the toppes. 

6. Anemone tenuifolia jlore pleno albicante. The lefTer double blufh Anemone. 

This fmall double blufh Anemone differeth very little from the double white laft 
recited, but onely in the colour of the flower : for they are both much about the big- 
neffe one of another, the middle thrums likewife being as fmall and fhort, and as euen 
aboue, onely the flower at the firft opening is almoft white, but afterwards the outer 
leaues haue a more fhew of blufh in them, and the middle part a little deeper then they. 

7. Anemone tenuifolia jlore pleno purpureo vio/aceo. The double purple Anemone. 

This double purple Anemone is alfo of the fame kindred with the firft double red or 
Scarlet Anemone for the form or doubleneffe of the flower, confifting but of fix or fe- 
uen leaues at the moft in this our Country, although in the hotter it hath ten or twelue, 
or more as large leaues for the outer border, and as large fmall leaues for the inner 
middle alfo, and almoft as double, but of a deepe purple tending toward a Violet co- 
lour, the outer leaues being not fo deepe as the inner: the roote and leafe commeth 
neare vnto the fingle purple Anemone before defcribed, but that the roote fpreadeth 
not fo fmall and fo much. 

8. Anemone tenuifolia jlore pleno purpureo ceeruleo. 
The double blew Anemone. 

This Anemone differeth not in any thing from the former double purple, but onely 
that the flower is paler, and more tending to a blew colour. 

9. Anemone tenuifolia Jlore pleno rofeo. The double Rofe coloured Anemone. 

The double Rofe coloured Anemone differeth alfo in nothing from the former 
double purple, but onely in the flower, which is fomewhat fmaller, and not fo thicke 
and double, and that it is of a reddifli colour, neare vnto the colour of a pale red Rofe, 
or of a deepe coloured Damaske. 

10. Anemone tenuifolia jlore pleno carneo viuacifsimo. 
The double Carnation Anemone. 

This Anemone, both in roote, leafe, and flower, commeth neareft vnto the former 
double white Anemone, for the largeneffe and doubleneffe of the flower, and in the 
fmalneffe of the middle thrums, and euenneffe at the toppes of them, being not fo large 
and great a flower as the double purple, either in the inner or outer leaues, but yet is 
very faire, thicke and double, and of a moft liuely Carnation filke colour, very deepe, 
both the outer leaues and middle thrums alfo fo bright, that it doth as it were amaze, 
and yet delight the minde of the beholder, but by long ftanding in the Sun, waxe a lit- 
tle paler, and fo pafle away as all the moft beautifull flowers doe. 

1 1 . Anemone 

The Garden of pled/ant Flo-wers, 

21 i 

i Anemone tentiifotia fimpiex fmrpurra. The Tingle purple Anemone with thin cut leauts. i Antmme tenwfolta fimplex alba 
pnra. The ("ingle pure white Anemone. 3 Anemone ttMuifoliaJimf'lrx ckermefinn. The Tingle bright Crimfon Anemone. 4 
Aiumoiu tenuifolia Jim flu feuiffvinea. The finale bloud red Anemone. 5 Anemone tetiiiifolia Jimplex facie fiorum pomi. 
The Tingle Apple bloome Anemone. 6 Anemone tenuifolia Jimplejc purpurafcrni. The Tingle purplifh blufh Anemone. 7 
Anemone tntiifolia /implex alba vnguibtis carneit. The (ingle white Anemone with blufh bottomes. 8 Anemone ienuifolia fi ore 
plena cotemto. The double red or ordinary Scarlet Anemone. 9 Aiumont tenuifolta flore plena rubrofu/ta coma Amarantina. 
The double purple Veluet Anemone. 10 Anemnnc ttnuifolia flore plena purpnro violeuto. The double blewirti purple Anemone. 
li Anemone tennifolia flore plena imarne/lini colorit fencei nveui/timi. The double 
tion lilke colour. 

Carnation Anemone, or of a liuely Carna- 

2i2 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

1 1 . Anemone tenui folia JJore rubrofufco pleno coma Amarantina. 
The double purple Veluet Anemone. 

This double Veluet Anemone is in all things like the laft defcribed Carnation A- 
nemone, but fomewhat larger, the difference confifteth in the colour of the flower, 
which in this is of a deep or fad crimfon red colour for the outer leaues, and of a deep 
purple Veluet colour in the middle thrums, refembling the colour of the lefler Ama- 
ranthus purpureus, or Purple flower gentle hereafter defcribed, whereof it tooke the 
name, which middle thrums are as fine and fmall, and as euen at the toppes as the 
white or laft Carnation Anemones. 

12. Anemone tenui folia flore pleno tricolor. 
The double purple Veluet Anemone of three colours. 

This double Anemone alfo is very like the laft defcribed Anemone, but that in the 
middle of the purple thrums, there thrufteth forth a tuft of threads or leaues of a more 
light crimfon colour. 

And thus much for the kindes of Anemones or Windflowers, fo farre forth as haue 
hitherto come to our knowledge ; yet I doubt not, but that more varieties haue beene 
elfewhere collected, and will be alfo in our Countrey daily and yearly obferued by 
diuers, that raife them vp from fowing the feede, wherein lyeth a pretty art, not yet fa- 
miliarly knowne to our Nation, although it be very frequent in the Lowe-Countries, 
where their induftry hath bred and nourifhed vp fuch diuerfities and varieties, that 
they haue valued fome Anemones at fuch high rates, as moft would wonder at, 
and none of our Nation would purchafe, as I thinke. And I doubt not, if wee would 
be as curious as they, but that both our ayre and foyle would produce as great variety, 
as euer hath been f eene in the Lowe-Countries ; which to procure, if any of our Nati- 
on will take fo much paines in fowing the feedes of Anemones, as diuers haue done of 
Tulipas : I will fet them downe the beft directions for that purpofe that I haue learned, 
or could by much fearch and tryall attaine vnto ; yet I muft let them vnderftand thus 
much alfo, that there is not fo great variety of double flowers raifed from the feede of 
the thin leafed Anemones, as from the broad leafed ones. 

Firft therefore (as I faid before) concerning Tulipas, there is fome fpeciall choice to 
be made of fuch flowers, whofe feed is fitted to be taken. Of the Latif alias, the double 
Orenge tawney feede being fowne, yeeldeth pretty varieties, but the purples, and 
reds, or crimfons, either Latifolias or T'enuifolias, yeeld fmall variety, but fuch as draw 
neareft to their originall, although fome be a little deeper or lighter then others. But 
the light colours be they which are the chiefe for choice, as white, afh-colour, blufh 
or carnation, light orenge, fimple or party coloured, fingle or double, if they beare 
feede, which muft bee carefully gathered, and that not before it bee thorough ripe, 
which you fhall know by the head ; for when the feede with the wollinefle beginneth 
to rife a little of it felfe at the lower end, it muft bee then quickly gathered, left the 
winde carry it all away. After it is thus carefully gathered, it muft be laid to dry for a 
weeke or more, which then being gently rubbed with a little dry fand or earth, will 
caufe the feede to be fomewhat better feparated, although not thoroughly from the 
woollinefle or downe that compafleth it. 

Within a moneth at the moft after the feede is thus gathered and prepared, it muft 
be fowne ; for by that meanes you fhall gaine a yeare in the growing, ouer that you 
mould doe if you fowed it in the next Spring. 

If there remaine any woollinefle in the feede, pull it in funder as well as you can, 
and then fowe your feede reafonable thin, and not too thicke, vpon a plaine fmooth 
bed of fine earth, or rather in pots or tubbes, and after the fowing, fift or gently ftraw 
ouer them fome fine good frefh mould, about one fingers thicknefle at the moft for the 
firft time : And about a moneth after their firft fpringing vp, fift or ftraw ouer them 
in like manner another fingers thicknefle of fine earth, and in the meane time if the 
weather proue dry, you murt water them gently and often, but not to ouerglut them 
with moifture; and thus doing, you (hall haue them fpring vp before Winter, and 


The Garden of plcnfant Flowers. 

grow pretty (trong, able to abide the fharpc Winter in their nonage, in vling fome 
little care to couer them loofely with fomc fearne, or furfe, or bcane hamc, or ftraw, 
or any fuch, which yet mult not lye clofe vpon them, nor too farre from them neither. 

The next Spring ut'ter the fowing, if you will, but it is better if you (lay vntill Au- 
gult, you may then remoue them, and fet them in order by rowes, with fufficient di- 
Itance one from another, where they may abide, vntill you fee what manner of flower 
each plant will beare, which you may difpofe of according to your minde. 

Many of them being thus ordered (if your mould be fine, loofe, and frefh, not fto- 
nie, clayiih, or from a middin) will beare flowers the fecond yeare after the fowing, 
and moll or all of them the third yeare, if the place where you fowe them, be not an- 
noyed with the fmoake of Brewers, Dyers, or Maultkils, which if it be, then will they 
neuer thriue well. 

Thus much haue I thought good to fet downe, to incite fome of our owne Nation 
to be indultrious; and to helpe them forward, haue giuen fuch rules of directions, that 
I doubt not, but they will vpon the tryall and view of the variety, proceede as well in 
the fowing of Anemones as of Tulipas. 

I cannot (Gentlewomen) withold one other fecret from you, which is to informe 
you how you may fo order Anemones, that after all others ordinarily are part, you 
may haue them in flower for two or three moneths longer then are to be feene with 
any other, that vfeth not this courfe I direct you. 

The ordinary time to plant Anemones, is moft commonly in Auguft, which will 
beare flower fome peraduenture before Winter, but moft vfually in February, March, 
and Aprill, few or none of them abiding vntill May ; but if you will keepe fome roots 
out of the ground vnplanted, vntill February, March, and Aprill, and plant fome at 
one time, and fome at another, you (hall haue them beare flower according to their 
planting, thofe that mall be planted in February, will flower about the middle or end 
of May, and fo the reft accordingly after that manner : And thus may you haue the 
pleafure of thefe plants out of their naturall feafons, which is not permitted to be en- 
ioyed in any other that I know, Nature being not fo prone to bee furthered by art in 
other things as in this. Yet regard, that in keeping your Anemone rootes out of the 
ground for this purpofe, you neither keep them too dry, nor yet too moift, for fprou- 
ting or rotting; and in planting them, that you fet them not in too open a funny place, 
but where they may be fomewhat (hadowed. 

The Place. 

I (hall not need to fpend much time in relating the feuerall places of thefe 
Anemones, but onely to declare that the mort of them that haue not beene 
raifed from feed, haue come from Constantinople to vs ; yet the firft broad 
leafed or yellow Anemone, was firft found in Portugall, and from thence 
brought into thefe parts. And the firft purple Starre Anemone in Germa- 
nic, yet was the fame fent among others from Conftantinople alfo. And 
the firlt thin cut leafed Anemone came firft out of Italy, although many of 
that fort haue come likewife from Conltantinople. And fo haue the double 
red or Scarlet Anemones, and the great double blufti, which I firft had by 
the gift of M r . Humfrey Packington of Worcefterfhire Efquire, at Haruing- 

The Time. 

The times of their flowring are fufficiently expreffed in the defcripti- 
ons, or in the rules for planting. 

The Names. 

The Turkilh names whereby the great double broad leafed kindes haue 
beene fent vnto vs, were Giul Catamer, and Giul Catamer lale ; And Bi- 
nizade, Binizante, and Galipoli lale for the thinne cut leafed Anemones. 
All Authors haue called them Anemones, and are the true Herbce vend. 


214 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Wee call them in Englifti eyther Anemones, after the Greeke name, 
or Windflowers, after the Latine. 

The Virtues. 

There is little vfe of thefe in Phyficke in our dayes, eyther for inward or 
outward difeafes ; onely the leaues are vfed in the Ointment called Marcia- 
tum, which is compofed of many other hot herbes, and is vfed in cold 
griefes, to warme and comfort the parts. The roote, by reafon of the 
fharpenefle, is apt to drawe downe rheume, if it be tailed or chewed in the 

Aconitum. Wolfebane. 

THere be diuers forts of Wolfebanes which are not fit for this booke, but are 
referued for a generall Hiftory or Garden of Simples, yet among them there 
are fome, that notwithftanding their euill quality, may for the beauty of their 
flowers take vp a roome in this Garden, of whom I meane to entreate in this place : 
And firft of the Winter Wolfesbane, which for the beauty, as well as the earlineffe of 
his flowers, being the firft of all other, that fhew themfelues after Chriftmas, defer- 
ueth a prime place ; and therefore for the likenefTe of the rootes vnto the Anemones, 
I ioyne it next vnto them. 

i. Aconitum Hyemale. The Winters Wolfesbane. 

This little plant thrufteth vp diuers leaues out of the ground, in the deepe of Win- 
ter oftentimes, if there be any milde weather in January, but moft commonly after 
the deepe frofts, bearing vp many times the fnow vpon the heads of the leaues, which 
like vnto the Anemone, doe euery leafe rife from the roote vpon feuerall fhort foote- 
ftalkes, not aboue foure fingers high, fome hauing flowers in the middle of them, 
(which come vp firft moft vfually) and fome none, which leaues ftand as it were 
round, the ftalke riling vp vnder the middle of the leafe, deeply cut in and gamed to 
the middle rtalke almoft, of a very faire deepe greene colour, in the middle whereof, 
clofe vnto the leafe, ftandeth a fmall yellow flower, made of fix leaues, very like a 
Crowfoote, with yellow threads in the middle : after the flower is fallen, there rife vp 
diuers fmall homes or cods fet together, wherein are contained whitifh yellow round 
feede. The roote is tuberous, fo like both for fhape and colour vnto the rootes of A- 
nemones, that they will eafily deceiue one not well experienced, but that it is browner 
and fmooth without, and yellow within, if it be broken. 

2. Ac onitum flore albido, Jiue Aconitum luteum Ponticum, 
The whitim yellow Wolfesbane. 

This Wolfesbane (hooteth not out of the ground vntill the Spring be well begun, 
and then it fendeth forth great broad greene leaues, deeply cut in about the edges, 
not much vnlike the leaues of the great wilde Crowfoote, but much greater ; from a- 
mong which leaues rifeth vp a ftrong ftiffe ftalke, three foote high, hauing here and 
there leaues fet vpon it, like vnto the loweft, but fmaller ; the toppe of the ftalke is di- 
uided into three or foure branches, whereon are fet diuers pale yellow flowers, which 
turne at the laft to be almoft white, in fafhion like almoft vnto the flowers of the Hel- 
met flower, but much fmaller, and not gaping fo wide open : after the flowers 
are part come vp diuers ftiort poddes, wherein is contained blacke feede: the 
roote is made of a number of darke browne rtrings, which fpread and faften 
themfelues ftrongly in the ground. 

3. Napellus 

The Garden of plea Jan t Flowers. 215 

3. Napellm i-t-ru.f fare caruleo. Blew Helmet flower or Monkes hood. 

The \ lelinet flower hath diucrs leaues of a frcfh grccne colour on the vpperlide, 
and grayifli vnderneath, much fpread abroad and cut into many flits and notches, 
more then any ot" the Wolfebanes ; the Italke rifeth vp two or three foot high, befet to 
the top with the like leaues, but f mailer: the toppe is fometimes diuided into two or 
three branches, but more vfually without, whereon ftand many large flowers one a- 
boue another, in forme very like vnto a Hood or open Helmet, being compofed of 
Hue leaues the vppermoft of which and the greateft, is hollow, like vnto an Helmet 
or Headpeece, two other t'mall leaues are at the fides of the Helmet, clofing it like 
dieekes, and come fomewhat vnder, and two other which are the fmalleft hang down 
like labels, or as if a clofe Helmet were opened, and fome peeces hung by, of a perfect 
or t'aire blew colour, (but grow darker, hauing flood long) which caufeth it be fo nou- 
riilied vp in Gardens, that their flowers, as was vfuall in former times, and yet is in 
many Countrey places, may be laid among greene herbes in windowes and roomes 
tor the Summer time : but although their beauty may be entertained for the vfes afore- 
laitl, yet beware they come not neare your tongue or lippes, left they tell you to your 
colt, they are not fo good as they feeme to be : in the middeft of the flower, when it is 
open and gapeth wide, are feene certaine fmall threads like beards, ftanding about a 
middle head, which when the flower is part, groweth into three or foure, or more fmall 
bluckilh pods, containing in them blacke feede: the rootes are brownifh on the out- 
iide, and white within, fomewhat bigge and round aboue, and fmall downewards, 
fomewhat like vnto a fmall Ihort Carrot roote, fometimes two being ioyned at the 
head together. But the name Napellus anciently giuen vnto it, doth Ihew they referred 
the forme of the roote vnto a fmall Turnep. 

Anthora. The wholfome Helmet flower, or counterpoifon Monkes hood. 

This wholfome plant I thought good to infert, not onely for the forme of the flow- 
er, hut alfo for the excellent properties thereof, as you (hall haue them related here- 
after. The rootes hereof are fmall and tuberous, round and fomewhat long, ending 
for the moft part in a long fibre, and with fome other fmall threads from the head 
downeward : from the head whereof rifeth vp diuers greene leaues, euery one feue- 
rally vpon a ftalke, very much diuided, as finely almoft as the leaues of Larkes heeles 
or fpurres : among which rifeth vp a hard round ftalke, a foote high and better, with 
fome fuch leaues thereon as grow belowe, at the toppe whereof ftand many fmall 
yellowilh flowers, formed very like vnto the former whitifh Wolfesbane, bearing 
many blacke feedes in pods afterwards in the like manner. 

Many more forts of varieties of thefe kindes there are, but thefe onely, as the moft 
fpecious, are nourfed vp in Florifts Gardens for pleafure; the other are kept by fuch 
as are Catholicke obferuers of all natures ftore. 

The Place. 

All thefe grow naturally on Mountaines, in many fhadowie places of 
the Alpes, in Germany, and elfewhere. 

The Time. 

The tirit flowreth (as is faid) in lanuary, and February, and fometimes 
vntill March be well Ipent, and the feede is foone ripe after. 
The other three flower not vntill lune and luly. 

The Names. 

The firft is vfually called Aconitum hyemale Btlgarum. Lobelius calleth it 



2i6 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers, 

Bulbofus vnifolius Batrachoides, Aconitum Elleboraceum, and Ranunculus Mo- 
nophyllos, and fome by other names. Moft Herbarifts call it Aconitum hye- 
male, and we in Englifh thereafter, Winters Wolfesbane ; and of fome, Yel- 
low Aconite. 

The fecond is called by moft Writers, Aconitum luteum Ponticum : Some 
alfo Lupicida, Luparia, and Canicida, of the effect in killing Wolues and 
Dogs: And fome, becaufe the flower is more white then yellow, doe call 
it Aconitum jlore albido, we call it in Englifh, The whitifh yellow Aconite, 
or Wolfesbane, but fome after the Latine name, The yellow Wolfesbane. 

The third is called generally Napellus, and Verus, becaufe it is the true 
Napellus of the ancient Writers, which they fo termed from the forme of a 
Turnep, called Napus in Latine. 

The fourth is called Aconitum Salutiferum, Napellus Moyjis, Antora and 
Anthora, quafi Antithora, that is, the remedy againft the poifonfull herbe 
TAora, in Englifh according to the title, eyther wholfome Helmet flower, 
or counterpoifon Monkes hood. 

The Vertues. 

Although the firft three forts of plants be very poifonfull and deadly, yet 
there may bee very good vfe made of them for fore eyes (being carefully 
applyed, yet not to all forts of fore eyes neither without difcretion) if the 
diftilled water be dropped therein. 

The rootes of the counterpoifon Monkes hood are effeftuall not onely 
againft the poifon of the poifonfull Helmet flower, and all others of that 
kinde, but alfo againft the poifon of all venemous beafts, the plague or pe- 
ftilence, and other infectious difeafes, which raife fpots, pockes, or markes 
in the outward skinne, by expelling the poifon from within, and defending 
the heart as a moft foueraigne Cordiall. It it vfed alfo with good fuccefle 
againft the wormes of the belly, and againft the paines of the Wind collick. 


Ranunculus. The Crowfoote. 

NExt vnto the Aconites, of right are to follow the Ranunculi, or Crowfeete, for 
the nearenefle both of forme, of leaues, and nature of the plants, although leffe 
hurtfull, yet all of them for the moft part being ftiarpe and exulcerating, and 
not without fome danger, if any would be too bold with them. The whole Family of 
the Ranunculi is of a very large extent, and I am conftrained within the limits of a Gar- 
den of Pleafure ; I muft therefore felecl out onely f uch as are fit for this purpofe, and 
fet them here downe for your knowledge, leauing the reft for that other generall 
worke, which time may perfect and bring to light, if the couetous mindes of fome 
that fhould be moft affedted towards it, doe not hinder it : or if the helpe of generous 
fpirits would forward it. 

i . Ranunculus montanus albus humilior. The lowe white mountaine Crowfoot. 

This lowe Crowfoote hath three or foure broad and thicke leaues, almoft round, 
yet a little cut in and notched about the edges, of a fine greene and fhining colour on 
the vpperfide, and not fo green vnderneath, among which rifeth a fmall fhort ftalke, 
bearing one fnow white flower on the toppe, made of fiue round pointed leaues, with 
diuers yellow threads in the middle, ftanding about a greene head, which in time 
groweth to be full of feede, in forme like vnto a fmall greene Strawberry : the roote is 
compofed of many white ftrings. 

Dupl'ui fan. There is another of this lowe kinde, whofe leaues are fomewhat more [deeply cut 
in on the edges, and the flower larger, and fometimes a little double, as it were with 
two rowes of leaues, in other things not differing from the former. 

2. Ranunculus 

The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

2. Ranunculus motif tinus albus rnaior vf/ elatior. 
The great linglc white niountaiuc Crowtbote. 

The leaues of this Crowfoote are large and greenc, cut into three, and fometimcs 
into fine fpeciall diuilions, and each of them bcfidcs cut or notched about the edges, 
fomewhat refembling the leaues of the Globe Crowfootc, but larger: the (hike is 
two foote and a halfe high, hauing three fmall leaues fct at the ioynt of the ftalke, 
where it brancheth out into flowers, which (land foure or fiuc together vpon long 
toote-llalkes, made of flue white leaues a peece, very fweete, and fomewhat larger 
then the next white Crowfoote, with fomc yellow threads in the middle compafling 
a greenc head, which bringeth fecde like vnto other wilde Crowfeete: the rootc 
hath many long thicke whitilh llrings, comming from a thicke head. 

3. Ranunculus tnontanus albui minor. The lefler (ingle white Crowfoote. 

This Crowefoote hath faire large fpread leaues, cut into fiue diuifions, and fome- 
what notched about the edges, greene on the vpperfide, and paler vnderneath, hauing 
many veines running through the leaues : the (lalke of this rifeth not fo high as the 
former, although this be reafonable tall, as being neare two foote high, fpread into 
many branches, bearing fuch like white flowers, as in the former, but fmaller : the 
feede of this is like the former, and fo are the rootes likewifc. 

4. Ranunculus albus flore pleno. The double white Crowfoot. 

The double white Crowfoote is of the fame kinde with the laft fingle white Crow- 
foote, hauing fuch like leaues in all ref peels: the onely difference is in the flowers, 
which in this are very thicke and double. Some doe make mention of two forts of 
double white Crowfeete, one fomewhat lower then another, and the lower like- 
wife bearing more (lore of flowers, and more double then the higher: but I con- 
fefle, I haue neuer feene but one fort of double, which is the fame here exprefled, 
not growing very high, and reafonably well (lored with flowers. 

5. Ranunculus preecox Rutafolio fiue Coriandrifolio. 
The early Coriander leafed Crowfoote. 

This Crowfoote hath three or foure very greene leaues, cut and diuided into many 
1'mall peeces, like vnto the wing of leaues of Rue, or rather like the lower leaues of the 
Coriander (for they well referable either of them) euery of them (landing vpon a long 
purplifh ftalke, at the toppe whereof groweth the flower alone, being compofed or 
made of twelue fmall white leaues, broad pointed, and a little endented at the ends, 
fomewhat purplifh on the outfide, and white on the infide, fuflained by dtuers fmall 
greene leaues, which are in flead of a cup or huske : in the middle of the flower are 
many fmall white threads, tipt with yellow pendents, (landing about a fmall greene 
head, which after groweth to bee full of feedes like a Strawberry, which knobs giue 
fmall blackilh feede : the roote is white and fibrous. 

6. Ranunculus Thaliflrifolio maior. The great colombine leafed Crowfoot. 

The lower leaues of this Crowfoote haue long llalkes, and are very like vnto the 
fmaller leaues of Colombines, or the great Spanifh Thaliclrum^ which hath his leaues 
very like vnto a Colombine, foure or fiue rifing from the roote : the (lalke rifeth a- 
bout a foote and a halfe high, fomewhat reddifh, befet here and there with the 
like leaues, at the toppe whereof (land diuers fmall white flowers, made of fiue 
leaues a peece, with fome pale white threads in the middle : the feede is round 
and reddifh, contained in fmall huskes or homes: the roote is made of a bufh or 
tutt of white firings. 

E 2 7. Ranunculus 

2 1 8 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

j. Ranunculus ThaliStri folio minor Afphodeli radice. 
The fmall white Colombine leafed Crowfoote. 

This fmall Crowfoote hath three or foure winged leaues fpread vpon the ground, 
ftanding vpon long ftalkes, and confiding of many fmall leaues fet together, fpreading 
from the middle ribbe, euery leafe fomewhat refembling both in fhape and colour 
the fmalleft and youngeft leaues of Colombines : the flowers are white, ftanding at 
the toppe of the ftalkes, made of fiue round leaues : the root hath three or foure thick, 
fhort, and round yellowifh clogs hanging at the head, liko vnto the Afphodill roote. 
The great Herball of Lyons, that goeth vnder the name of Dalefchampius, faith, that 
D r . Myconus found it in Spaine, and fent it vnder the name of Oenanthe ; and therefore 
loannes Molineus who is thought to haue compofed that booke, fet it among the vm- 
belliferous plants, becaufe the Oenanthes beare vmbels of flowers and feede, and haue 
tuberous or cloggy rootes; but with what iudgement, let others fay, when they haue 
compared the vmbels of flowers and feede of the Oenanthes, with the flowers and 
feede of this plant, and whether I haue not more properly placed it among the Ranun- 
culi or Crowfeete, and giuen it a denomination agreeable to his forme. 

8. Ranunculus Globofus. The Globe Crowfoot. 

This Crowfoote (which in the Northerne countries of England where it groweth 
plentifully, is called Locker goulous) hath many faire, broad, darke greene leaues 
next the ground, cut into fiue, fixe, or feuen diuifions, and iagged befides at the edges ; 
among which rifeth vp a ftalke, whereon are fet fuch like leaues as are belowe, but 
fmaller, diuided toward the toppe into fome branches, on the which ftand feuerall 
large yellow flowers, alwayes folded inward, or as a clofe flower neuer blowing o- 
pen, as other flowers doe, confifting of eleuen leaues for the moft part, fet or placed in 
three rowes, with many yellow threads in the middle, ftanding about a greene rough 
head, which in time groweth to be fmall knops, wherein are contained blacke feede : 
the roote is compofed of many blackifh firings. 

9. Ranunculus pratenfa fare multiplici. The double yellow field Crowfoot. 

There is little or no difference in the leaues of this double Crowfoot, from thofe of 
the fingle kindes that growe in euery medowe, being large and diuided into foure 
or fiue parts, and indented about the edges, but they are fomewhat fmaller, and of a 
frefher greene : the flowers ftand on many branches, much diuided or feparated, 
being not very great, but very thicke and double : the roote runneth and cree- 
peth vnder ground like as the fingle doth. 

10. Ranunculus Anglic us maximus multiplex. 
The Garden double yellow Crowfoot or Batchelours buttons. 

This great double Crowfoote, which is common in euery Garden through Eng- 
land, hath many great blackifh greene leaues, iagged and cut into three diuifions, each 
to the middle ribbe : the ftalkes haue fome fmaller leaues on them, and thofe next vn- 
der the branches long and narrow : the flowers are of a greenifh yellow colour, very 
thicke and double of leaues, in the middle whereof rifeth vp a fmall ftalke, bearing an- 
other double flower, like to the other, but fmaller : the roote is round, like vnto a fmall 
white Turnep, with diuers other fibres annexed vnto it. 

1 1 . Ranunculus Gramineus. GrafTe leafed Crowfoot. 

The leaues of this Crowfoote are long and narrow, fomewhat like vnto Grafle, or 
rather like the leaues of fingle Gilloflowers or Pinckes, being fmall and fharpe poin- 
ted, a little hollow, and of a whitifh greene colour : among thefe leaues rife vp diuers 
flender ftalkes, bearing one fmall flower at the toppe of each, confifting of fiue yellow 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


t Aconitum Winter Wolfesbane. 2 Aconittm flort alkitio Jim luleiim Pontuum. The whitifh yellow Wolfesbane. 
j Nafellus -strut. Blew Helmets or Monkes hood. 4 Author*. The counterpoifon Monkes hood. 5 Ranunculut humilis 
aHnti fmpltx. The fingle white low Crowfoot. 6 Kattuxculnt kumilii nlkui duflui flort. The double lowe white Crowfoot. 
7 Ranuiuuliii CoriaMlrifolio. The early Coriander leafed Cro-.vfoot. 8 Ranunculus moxtanus elalior albus. The great Tingle 
white mountain Crowfoot. 9 Ranunculus montaiius albut flort fltno. The double white mountain Crowfoot. 10 Ranunculus 
Tkaliflrifolio minor. The lelTer Colombine leafed Crowfoot. 1 1 RaHtiiKulus globofui. The globe Crowfoot. 

220 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

leaues, with fome threads in the middle : the roote is compofed of many thicke, long, 
round white firings. 

There is another of this kinde that beareth flowers with two rowes of leaues, as if it 
were double, differing in nothing elfe. 

12. Ranunculus Lujitanicus Autumnalis. The Portugall Autumne Crowfoot. 

This Autumne Crowfoote hath diuers broad round leaues lying on the ground, fet 
vpon fhort foote-ftalkes, of a faire greene colour aboue, and grayifh vnderneath, fnipt 
all about the edges, hauing many veines in them, and fometimes fwelling as with bli- 
fters or bladders on them ; from among which rife vp two or three (lender and hairy 
ftalkes, bearing but one fmall yellow flower a peece, confifting of flue and fometimes 
of fix leaues, and fometimes of feuen or eight, hauing a few threads in the middle, fet 
about a fmall greene head, like vnto many of the former Crowfeete, which bringeth 
fmall blacke feede : the roote is made of many thicke fhort white firings, which f eeme 
to be grumous or kernelly rootes, but that they are fomewhat fmaller, and longer then 
any other of that kinde. 

13. Ranunculus Creticus latifolius. The broad leafed Candy Crowfoot. 

This Crowfoote of Candy, hath the greateft and broadeft leaues of all the forts of 
Crowfeete, being almoft round, and without any great diuifions, but onely a few 
notches about the edges here and there, as large or larger fometimes then the palme 
of a mans hand ; among which rifeth vp the flalke, not very high when it doth firfl 
flower, but afterwards, as the other flowers doe open themfelues, the ftalke groweth 
to be a foote and a halfe high, or thereabouts, hauing fome leaues on it, deeply cut in 
or diuided, and bearing many faire yellow flowers, confifting of fiue leaues a peece, 
being fomewhat whitifh in the middle, when the flower hath flood blowne a little 
time : the roote is compofed of a number of fmall kernelly knobs, or long graines, fet 
thicke together. This flowreth very early, being vfually in flower before the end of 
March, and oftentimes about the middle thereof. 

14. Ranunculus Creticus albus. The white Candy Crowfoote. 

The leaues of this Crowfoote are very like vnto the leaues of the red Crowfoote 
of Tripoli or Afia, hereafter fet downe, being fomewhat broad and indented about 
the edges, fome of the leaues being alfo cut in or gafhed, thereby making it as it were 
three diuifions, of a pale greene colour, with many white fpots in them : the ftalke ri- 
feth vp a foote high, with fome leaues on it, more diuided then the lower, and diuided 
at the toppe into two and fometimes into three branches, each of them bearing a faire 
fnow white flower, fomewhat large, included at the firft in a brownifh huske or cup of 
leaues, which afterwards ftand vnder the flowers, confifting of fiue white large round 
pointed leaues, in the middle whereof is fet many blackifh purple thrums, comparing 
a fmall long greene head, compofed of many fcales or chaffie whitifh huskes, when 
they are ripe, which are the feede, but vnprofitable in all that euer I could obferue : 
the rootes are many fmall graines or kernels, fet together as in the former, and much 
about the fame colour, that is, of a darke or duskie grayifh colour, but much fmaller. 
lbapurpums There is another of this kinde, whofe flowers haue purple edges, and fometimes 
fome veines of the fame purple in the leaues of the flowers, not differing in any other 
thing from the former. 
Alba arts m- And another, whofe edges of the flowers are of a bright red colour. 

15. Ranunculus Creticus Jiore argenteo. The Argentine, or cloth of filuer Crowfoot. 

The greene leaues of this Crowfoote are as fmall and thinne, cut in or diuided on 
the edges, as the laft two forts ; the ftalke rifeth vp fomewhat higher, and diuided into 
fome branches, bearing at the toppe of euery of them one flower, fomewhat fmaller 
then the former, compofed of fix, feuen, and fometimes of eight fmall round pointed 


77/i' Giirdcn of f>/enjtirit Mowers. 


i Ranunculus gramintus fiori fmplici f~ duftui. The fingle and the double graffe Crowfoot. 2 Ranunculus Lu/ilaiiicus Auhim- 
nalis. The Portugal! Autumne Crowfoot. 3 Ranunculus Crrluus lati/olint. The broad leafed Candy Crowfoot. 4 Ranunculus 
Angluus maximus multiplf*. The double Englifh Crowfoot. 5 Ranmuulut praitnft jlort multifilifi. The double yellow field 
Crowfoot. 6 Ramiiu-ulut Critical albus. The white Candy Crowfoot. 7 Ranunculi!! AJiatitm flort alba rtl faltiilu vario, 
The white or the ftraw coloured Crowfoot with red tops or edges. 8 Ranunculus Trifolilaam fion rubrojimplici. The fingle red 
Crowfoot of Tripoli. g Ranunculus Ajiatuiti flort rubro ampin. The large fingle red Crowfoot of Ada. 10 Ranunculus A/iaticm 
fart rubro fUno. The double red Crowfoot of Afia. 1 1 CaHha fialuftrit itort pUno. Double Marfh Marigold or Batchelouri. 

222 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

leaues, of a whitifh yellow blufh colour on the infide wholly, except fometimes a lit- 
tle ftript about the edges : but the outfide of euery leafe is finely ftript with crimfon 
ftripes, very thicke, fomewhat like vnto a Gilloflower : in the middle rifeth vp a fmall 
blacke head, compaffed about with blackifh blew threads or thrums, which head is as 
vnfruitfull for feede in our Countrey as the former. This flower hath no fuch greene 
leaues vnder it, or to enclofe it before it be blowne open as the former : the rootes are 
in all things like the former. 

6. Ranunculus Afiaticus Jiue Tripo lit anus fare rubro. 
The fmgle red Crowfoote of Afia or Tripoli. 

The lower leaues of this red Crowfoote are alwayes whole without diuifions, be- 
ing onely fomewhat deeply indented about the edges, but the other that rife after 
them are more cut in, fometimes into three, and fometimes into fiue diuifions, and 
notched alf o about the edges : the ftalke rifeth higher then any of the former, and hath 
on it two or three fmaller leaues, more cut in and diuided then thofe belowe : at the 
toppe whereof ftandeth one large flower, made of fiue leaues, euery one being nar- 
rower at the bottome then at the toppe, and not ftanding clofe and round one to an- 
other, but with a certaine diftance betweene, of a duskie yellowifh red colour on the 
outfide, and of a deepe red on the infide, the middle being fet with many thrums of a 
darke purple colour : the head for feede is long, and fcaly or chaffie, and idle in like 
manner as the reft : the roote is made of many graines or fmall kernels fet together, 
and doling at the head, but fpreading it felfe, if it like the ground, vnder the vpper 
cruft of the earth into many rootes, encreafing from long ftrings, that runne from the 
middle of the fmall head of graines, as well as at the head it felfe. 

1 7. Ranunculus Ajiaticus Jtore amplo rubro. The large lingle red Crowfoot of Afia. 

There hath come to vs out of Turkic, together with the former, among many other 
rootes, vnder the fame title, a differing fort of this Crowfoote, whofe leaues weare 
broader, and much goaler ; the flower alfo larger, and the leaues thereof broader, 
fometimes eight in a flower, ftanding round and clofe one to another, which maketh 
the fairer fhew : in all other things it is like the former. 

1 8. Ranunculus Ajiaticus fare rubro vario Jimp lid. 

The red ftript fingle Crowfoote of Afia. 

This party coloured Crowfoote differeth not eyther in roote or leafe from the for- 
mer, the chiefeft difference is in the flower, which being red, fomewhat like the for- 
mer, hath yet fome yellow ftripes or veines through euery leafe, fometimes but little, 
and fometimes fo much, that it feemeth to bee party coloured red and yellow : this 
fort is very tender ; for we haue twice had it, and yet perifhed with vs. 

19. Ranunculus Ajiaticus fare luteo vario Jimp lid. 
The yellow ftript lingle Crowfoote of Afia. 

There is little difference in the roote of this Crowfoote from the laft defcribed, but 
the leaues are much different, being very much diuided, and the flower is large, of a 
fine pale greenifh yellow colour, confifting of fix and feuen, and fometimes of eight 
or nine round leaues ; the toppes whereof haue reddilh fpots, and the edges fometimes 
alfo, with fuch purplilh thrums in the middle that the other haue. None of these for- 
mer Crowfeete with kernelly rootes, haue euer beene found to haue giuen fo good 
feed in England, as that being fowne, any of them would fpring vp ; for hereof tryall 
hath been often made, but all they haue lost their labour, that haue bestowed their 
paines therein, as farre as I know. 

20. Ranunculus 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 223 

20. Ranunculus Afiiticus t ftore rubro pleno. 
The double red Crowtbotc of Alia. 

The double red Crowfootc hath his rootcs and leaues fo like vnto the tingle red 
kinde, that none can perceiue any difference, or know the one from the other, vntill 
the budde of the flower doe appeare, which after it is any thing forward, may be per- 
c ciued to be greater and fuller then the budde of the fingle kinde. This kinde beareth 
molt vfually but one faire large double flower on the toppe of the ftalke, compofed of 
many leaues, I'et clofe together in three or foure rowes, of an excellent crimfon 
colour, declining to Scarlet, the outter leaues being larger then the inner ; and in 
ftead of thrummes, hath many fmall leaues fet together : it hath likewife fix fmall 
narrow greene leaues on the backlide of the flower, where the llalke is fattened to 
the flower. 

There is of this double kinde another fort, whofe flower is of the fame colour with PnRfen 
the former, but out of the middle of the flower arifeth another double flower, but 

The Place. 

Thefe plants grow naturally in diuers Countries ; fome in France, and 
Germany, and fome in England, fome in Spaine, Portugal!, and Italy, and 
fome haue been fent out of Turkic from Conftantinople, and fome from o- 
ther parts, their titles for the moft part def crying their Countries. 

The Time. 

Some of them flower early, as is fet downe in their defcriptions, or ti- 
tles. The others in Aprill and May. The white Candy Crowfoote, and 
the other fingle and double forts of Afia, about the fame time, or lomewhat 
later, and one in Autumne, as it is fet downe. 

The Names. 

The names that are giuen feuerally to them may well ferue this worke, 
that thereby they may bee diftinguimed one from another : For to fet 
downe any further controuerfie of names, how fitly or vnfitly they haue 
beene called, and how variably by diuers former Writers, is fitter for a ge- 
nerall Hiltory, vnto which I leaue what may be faid, both concerning thefe 
and the reft : Onely this I would giue you to vnderftand, that the Turkic 
kindes haue been fent to vs vnder the names of Terobolos for the fingle, and 
Terobolos Catamer lale for the double, and yet oftentimes, thofe that haue 
been fent for double, haue proued fingle, fo little fidelity is to bee found 
among them. 

The Vertues. 

All or moft of thefe plants are very fharpe and exulcerating, yet the care 
and induftry of diuers learned men haue found many good effects in many 
of them. For the rootes and leaues both of the wilde kindes, and of fome 
of thefe of the Garden, ftamped and applyed to the wrifts, haue driuen a- 
way the fits in Feuers. The roote likewife of the double Englifti kinde is 
applyed for peltilent fores, to helpe to breake them, by drawing the ve- 
nome to the place. They helpe likewife to take away fcarres and markes 
in diuers places of the body. 

224 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Caltha palujlris fore pleno. Double Marfh Marigold. 

AS an appendix to the Crowfeete, I muft needes adde this plant, yet feuerally 
by it felfe, becaufe both it and his fingle kinde are by moft adioyned there- 
unto, for the neare refemblance both in fhape and fharpnefTe of quality. The 
fingle kinde I leaue to the Ditch fides, and moift grounds about them, as the fitteft pla- 
ces for it, and onely bring the double kinde into my Garden, as fitteft for his goodly 
proportion and beauty to be entertained, and haue place therein. 

The double Marfh Marigold hath many broad and round greene leaues, a little en- 
dented about the edges, like vnto the fingle kinde, but not altogether fo large, efpeci- 
ally in a Garden where it ftandeth not very moift : the ftalkes are weake, round, hol- 
low, and greene, diuided into three or foure branches at the toppe, with leaues at the 
feuerall ioynts, whereon ftand very double flowers, of a gold yellow colour : the fiue 
outer leaues being larger then any of the reft that are encompaffed by them, which 
fall away after they haue ftood blowne a great while (for it endureth in flower a mo- 
neth or more, efpecially if it ftand in a fhadowie place) without bearing any feed : the 
rootes are compofed of many thicke, long, and round whitifh ftrings, which runne 
downe deep into the ground, and there are faftened very ftrongly. 

The Place. 

This plant groweth naturally in diuers Marfhes, and moift grounds in 
Germany, yet in fome more double then in others ; it hath long agoe 
beene cherifhed in our Gardens. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in Aprill or May, as the yeare proueth earlier or later : all 
his leaues doe in a manner quite perifh in Winter, and fpring anew in the 
end of February, or thereabouts. 

The Names. 

There is great controuerfie among the learned about the fingle kinde, 
but thereof I mail not neede to fpeake in this place ; if God permit I 
may in a fitter. This is called generally in Latine, Caltha palujlris multi- 
plex, or fare pleno. And wee in Englifh (after the Latine, which take 
Caltha to be that which wee vfually call Calendula, a Marigold) The dou- 
ble Marfh Marigold. 

The Vertues. 

The roote hereof is fharpe, comming neare vnto the quality of the 
Crowfeete, but for any fpeciall property, I haue not heard or found any. 


The Garden o/ * pi enfant Flowers. 


llfpatica nobilis fine trifolia. Noble Liucrwort. 

NExt vnto the Crowfeete are to follow the Hepaticas, becaufc of the likenefle 
with them, feeming to be fmall Crowfeete in all their parts, but of another 
and more wholfome kinde. Their diuerfity among themfelues confifteth 
chiefly in the colour of the flowers, all of them being fmgle, except one which is very 
t hi eke and double. 

i . Hepatica fare ceeruleo Jimplici maior. 
The great (ingle blew Hepatica or noble Liuerwort. 

The flowers of this Hepatica doe fpring vp, blow open, and fometimes fhed and 
fall away, before any leaues appeare or fpread open. The rootes are compofed of a 
bulh of blackilh firings, from the feuerall heads or buttons whereof, after the flow- 
ers are rifen and blowne, arife many frefh greene leaues, each feuerally Handing vpon 
his foot-llalke, folded together, and fomewhat browne and hairy at their firft com- 
ming, which after arc broad, and diuidcd at the edges into three parts: the flowers 
likewife Hand euery one vpon his owne feuerall foote-flalke, of the fame height with 
the leaues for the moll part, which is about foure or fiue fingers breadth high, made of 
fix leaues moll vfually, but fometimes it will haue feuen or eight, of a faire blew co- 
lour, with many white chiues or threads in the middle, Handing about a middle green 
head or vrnbone, which after the flower is fallen groweth greater, and fheweth many 
fmall graines or feede fet clofe together (with three fmall greene leaues compafling 
them vnderneath, as they did the flower at the bottome) very like the head of feed of 
manic Crowfeete. 

2. Hepatica minor fare pallido cccruleo. The fmall blew Hepatica. 

The leaues of this Hepatica are fmaller by the halfe then the former, and grow 
more aboundantly, or burning thicke together : the flowers (when it fheweth them, 
for I haue had the plant halfe a fcore yeares, and yet neuer faw it beare flower aboue 
once or twice) are of a pale or bleake blew colour, not fo large as the flowers of the 

3. Hepatica fare purpureo. Purple Hepatica or noble Liuerwort. 

This Hepatica is in all things like vnto the firft, but onely the flowers are of a 
deeper blew tending to a Violet purple: and therefore I mall not neede to reiterate 
the former defcription. 

4. Hepatica fiore albo minor. The lelTer white Hepatica. 

The flowers of this Hepatica are wholly white, of the bignefle of the red or purple, 
and the leaues fomewhat fmaller, and of a little whiter or paler greene colour, elfe in 
all other things agreeing with the former. 

5. Hepatica alba magno fare. The great white Hepatica. 

There is no other difference herein from the lall, but that the flower being as white, 
is as large as the next. 

6. Hepatica albida fiue argentea. Alb-coloured or Argentine Hepatica. 

Both the leaues and the flowers of this Hepatica are larger then any of the former, 
except the laft: the flowers hereof at the firft opening feeme to bee of a blufh afti-co- 
lour, which doe fo abide three or foure dayes, decaying ftill vntill it turne almoft 

F 2 white, 

226 The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 

white, hauing yet ftill a fhew of that blufh afh-colour in them, till the very laft. 
7. Hepatica alba jlraminibus rubris. White Hepatica with red threads. 

There is no difference between this Hepatica and the firft white one, fauing that the 
threads in the middle of the flower, being white, as in the former, are tipt at the ends 
with a pale reddifh colour, which adde a great beauty to the flowers. 

8. Hepatica Jiore rubro. Red Hepatica or noble Liuerwort. 

The leaues of this Hepatica are of a little browner red colour, both at their firft 
comming vp, and afterwards, efpecially in the middle of the leafe more then any of 
the former : the flowers are in forme like vnto the reft, but of a bright blufh, or pale red 
colour, very pleafant to behold, with white threads or chiues in the middle of them. 

9. Hepatica jlore purpureo multiplici Jiue pleno. 
The double purple Hepatica. 

The double Hepatica is in all things like vnto the fmgle purple kinde, fauing onely 
that the leaues are larger, and ftand vpon longer foote-ftalkes, and that the flowers are 
fmall buttons, but very thicke of leaues, and as double as a flower can be, like vnto the 
double white Crowfoote before defcribed, but not fo bigge, of a deepe blew or pur- 
ple colour, without any threads or head in the middle, which fall away without gi- 
uing any feede. 

10. Hepatica jlore ceeruleo pleno. The double blew Hepatica. 

In the colour of this flower, confifteth the chiefeft difference from the laft, except one 
may fay it is a little lefle in the bignefle of the flower, but not in doublenefle of leaues. 

The Place. 

All thefe plants with fingle flowers grow naturally in the Woods, and 
fhadowie Mountaines of Germany in many places, and fome of them in 
Italy alfo. The double kinde likewife hath been fent from Alphonfus Pan- 
tius out of Italy, as Clufius reporteth, and was alfo found in the Woods, 
neare the Caftle of Starnbeg in Auftria, the Lady Heufenftains pofleflion, 
as the fame Clufius reporteth alfo. 

The Time. 

Thefe plants doe flower very early, and are of the firft flowers that fhew 
themfelues prefently after the deepe frofts in lanuary, fo that next vnto the 
Winter Wolfesbane, thefe making their pride appeare in Winter, are the 
more welcome early guefts. The double kinde flowreth not altogether fo 
early, but ftieweth his flower, and abideth when the others are paft. 

The Names. 

They haue obtained diuers names; fome calling them Hepatica, Hepatica 
nobilis, Hepaticum trifolium, Trifolium nobile, 'Trifolium aureum, and fome Tri- 
nitas, and Herba Trinitatis. In Englifh you may call them either Hepatica, 
after the Latine name, as moft doe, or Noble Liuerwort, which you pleafe. 

The Vertues. 

Thefe are thought to coole and ftrengthen the liuer, the name importing 
as much ; but I neuer faw any great vfe of them by any the Phyfitians of our 
London Colledge, or effect by them that haue vfed them in Phyficke in our 
Country. CHAP. 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


I HtpatUaflore albv amplo fimfliei. The large white Hepatica. 2 Hepatita flort nbra fmflici. The red Hepatica. 3 He- 
patica flore purpvreo plena. The double purple Hepatica. 4 Geranium tuberojum. Knobbed Cranes bill. 5 (,,raitinni llatra- 
ckoidei flore a/to nil carulto. The blew or white Crowfoote Cranes bill. 6 Geranium Htmatodei. The red Rofe Cranes bill. 
7 (Cranium Romanum ftriatum. The variable ftript Cranes bill. 8 Geranium Creticum. Candy Cranes bill. 

228 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


Geranium. Storkes bill or Cranes bill. 

AS was faid before concerning the Crowfeet, of their large extent and reftraint, 
the like may be faid of the Storkes bils or Cranes bils ; for euen of thefe as of 
them, I muft tor this worke fet forth the defcriptions but of a few, and leaue 
the reft to a generall worke. 

i. Geranium tuberofum vel bulbofum. Bulbous or knobbed Cranes bill. 

The knobbed Cranes hath three or foure large leaues fpread vpon the ground, of a 
grayifh or rather dufty greene colour, euery one of them being as it were of a round 
forme, but diuided or cut into fix or feuen long parts or diuifions, euen vnto the mid- 
dle, which maketh it feeme to be fo many leaues, each of the cuts or diuifions being 
deeply notched or indented on both fides; among which rifeth vp a ftalke a foote 
high or better, bearing thereon diuers pale but bright purple flowers, made of fiue 
leaues a peece, after which come fmall heads with long pointed beakes, refembling 
the long bill of a Storke or Crane, or fuch like bird, which after it is ripe, parteth at 
the bottome where it is biggeft, into foure or fiue feedes, euery one whereof hath a 
peece of the beake head faftened vnto it, and falleth away if it bee not gathered : the 
roote is tuberous and round, like vnto the roote of the Cyclamen or ordinary Sowbread 
almoft, but fmaller, and of a darke ruflet colour on the outfide, and white within, 
which doth encreafe vnder ground, by certaine firings running from the mother root 
into fmall round bulbes, like vnto the rootes of the earth Chefnut, and will prefently 
fhoote leaues, and quickly grow to beare flowers, but will not abide to be kept long 
dry out of the ground, without danger to be vtterly fpoiled. 

Geranium Batrachoides Jfore cceruleo. The blew Crowfoote Cranes bill. 

This Crowfoote Cranes bill hath many large leaues, cut into fiue or fix parts or di- 
uifions, euen to the bottome, and iagged befides on the edges, fet vpon very long 
flender foote-ftalkes, very like the leaues of the wilde Crowfoot ; from among which 
rife vp diuers ftalkes with great ioynts, fomewhat reddifh, fet with leaues like the for- 
mer : the toppes of the ftalkes are fpread into many branches, whereon ftand diuers 
flowers, made of fiue leaues a peece, as large as any of the wilde or field Crowfeete, 
round pointed, of a faire blew or watchet colour, which being paft, there doe arife 
fuch heads or bils, as other of the Cranes bils haue : the roote is compofed of many 
reddifh firings, fpreading in the ground, from a head made of diuers red heads, which 
lye oftentimes eminent aboue the ground. 

Geranium Batrachoides JJore albo. The white Crowfoote Cranes bill. 

This Cranes bill is in leafe and flower altogether like the former, the onely diffe- 
rence betweene them confifteth in the colour of the flower, which in this is wholly 
white, and as large as the former : but the roote of this hath not fuch red heads as the 
other hath. 

Geranium Batracfwides Jfore albo & caruleo varzo. 
The party coloured Crowfoote Cranes bill. 

The flowers of this Cranes bill are variably ftriped and fpotted, and fometimes di- 
uided, the one halfe of euery leafe being white, and the other halfe blew, fometimes 
with lefler or greater fpots of blew in the white leafe, very variably, and more in fome 
years then in others, that it is very hard to exprefTe all the varieties that may be obfer- 
ued in the flowers, that blow at one time. In all other parts of the plant, it is fo like vnto 
the former, that vntill it be in flower, the one cannot be knowne from the other. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

5. Geranium R<itr t nhoi(ks iilterum Jiorf f>urf>ttrco. 
Purple Crowfoote Cranes bill. 

This purple Cranes bill hath many leaues rifing from the roote, fct vpon long foot- 
ftalkes, foiiK'what like vnto tlu other, yet not fo broad, but more diuidcd or cut, that 
is, into 1'euen or more Hits, euen to the middle, each whereof is likewife cut in on the 
edges more deeply then the former ; the (talkes are fomewhat knobbed at the ioynts, 
fet with leaues like vnto the lower, and bearing a great tuft of buds at the toppes of the 
branches, which breake out into faire large flowers, made of fiue purple leaues, which 
doe fomewhat referable the flower of a Mallow, before it be too full blowne, each 
whereof hath a reddilh pointell in the middle, and many fmall threads comparting it, 
this vmbell or tuft of buds doe flower by degrees, and not all at once, and euery flower 
abideth open little more then one day, and then (heddeth, fo that eucry day yeeldeth 
frdh flowers, which becaufe they are fo many, are a long while before they are all 
pall or I pent : after the flowers arc part, there arife fmall beake heads or bils, like vnto 
the other Cranes bils, with fmall turning feede : the rootc is compofed of a great tuft 
of llrings, fattened to a knobby head. 

6. Gerunittm Romanum ixrfeolor Jiue Jtriatum. The variable rtript Cranes bill. 

This beautifull Cranes bill hath many broad yellowilh greene leaues arifing from 
the roote, diuided into fiue or fix parts, but not vnto the middle as the firrt kindes are : 
each of thefe leaues hath a blackilh fpot at the bottome corners of the diuilions, the 
whole leafe as well in forme as colour and fpots, is very like vnto the leafe of the Ge- 
rtinium fu fc um, or fpotted Cranes bill, next following to be defcribed, but that the 
leaues of this are not I'o large as the other : from among thefe leaues fpring vp fundry 
Italkes a foote high and better, ioynted and knobbed here and there, bearing at the 
tops two or three fmall white flowers, confuting of fiue leaues a peece, fo thickly & va- 
riably Itriped with fine fmall reddifh veines, that no green leafe that is of that bignefle 
can fhew fo many veines in it, nor fo thick running as euery leafe of this flower doth : in 
the middle of the flower rtandeth a fmall pointell, which when the flower is part doth 
grow to be the feed vertell, whereon is fet diuers fmall feeds, like vnto the fmall feedes 
of other Cranes bils : the root is made of many fmall yellow threads or firings. 

7. Geranium fujcum Jiue maculatum. Swart tawny or fpotted Cranes bill. 

The leaues of this Cranes bill are in all points like the laft defcribed, as well in the 
torme and diuilions as colour of the leaues, being of a yellowHh greene colour, but 
larger and ftronger by much : the Italkes of this rife much higher, and are ioynted or 
knobbed with reddifh knees or ioynts, on the tops whereof ftand not many although 
large flowers, confuting of fiue leaues a peece, each whereof is round at the end, and a 
little fnipt round about, and doe bend or turne themfelues backe to the (talkewards, 
making the middle to be highelt or molt eminent ; the colour of the flower is of a darke 
or deepe blackifh purple, the bottome of euery leafe being whiter than the rert ; it hath 
allo a middle pointell Itanding out, which afterwards bring forth feede like vnto o- 
thers of his kinde : the roote conlilteth of diuers great (trings, ioyned to a knobby 

8. Geranium Hcmatodes. The red Rofe Cranes bill. 

This Cranes bill hath diuers leaues fpread vpon the ground, very much cut in or 
diuided into many parts, and each of them againe flit or cut into two or three peeces, 
ftanding vpon (lender long foote-rtalkes, of a faire greene colour all the Spring and 
Summer, but reddilh in Autumne : among thefe leaues fpring vp (lender and weake 
(talkes, befet at euery ioynt (which is fomewhat reddirti) with two leaues for the mo(t 
part, like vnto the lower : the flowers grow feuerally on the toppe of the (talkes, and 
not many together in bunches or branches, as in all other of the Cranes bils, euery 
flower being as large as a (ingle Rofe Campion flower, conlilting of fiue large leaues, 


230 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

of a deeper red colour then in any other Cranes bill at the firft opening, and will 
change more blewifh afterwards : when the flower is part, there doth arife fuch like 
beakes as are in others of the fame kinde, but fmall : the roote is hard, long, and thicke, 
with diuers branches fpreading from it, of a reddifh yellow colour on the outfide, and 
whitifh within, which abideth and perifheth not, but fhooteth forth fome new greene 
leaues, which abide all the Winter, although thofe that turne red doe fall away. 

Geranium Creticum. Candy Cranes bill. 

Candy Cranes bill beareth long and tender ftalkes, whereon growe diuers broad 
and long leaues, cut in or iagged on the edges : the toppes of the ftalkes are branched 
into many flowers, made of flue leaues of a reaf enable bigneffe, and of a faire blew 
or watchet colour, with a purplifh pointell in the middle, which being part, there fol- 
low beake heads like other Cranes bils, but greater, containing larger, greater, and 
fharper pointed feede, able to pierce the skinne, if one be not warie of it : the roote is 
white and long, with fome fibres at it, and perifheth when it hath perfected his feede, 
and will fpring of it owne fowing many times, if the Winter be not too (harpe, other- 
wife (being annuall) it muft be fowne in the Spring of the yeare. 

The Place. 

Moft of thefe Cranes bils are ftrangers vnto vs by nature, but endenizond 
in our Englifh Gardens. It hath beene reported vnto mee by fome of good 
credit, that the fecond or Crowfoot Cranes bill hath been found naturally 
growing in England, but yet I neuer faw it, although I haue feen many forts 
of wilde kindes in many places. Matthiolus faith that the firft groweth in 
Dalmatia and Illyria very plentifully. Camerarius, Clufius, and others, that 
moft of the reft grow in Germany, Bohemia, Auftria, &c. The laft hath 
his place recorded in his title. 

The Time. 

All thefe Cranes bils doe for the moft part flower in Aprill, and May, 
and vntill the middle of lune. The variable or ftript Cranes bill is vfually 
the lateft of all the reft. 

The Names. 

The firft is vfually called Geranium tuberofum, of fome Geranium bulbofum, 
of the likeneffe ot the roote vnto a bulbe : It is without controuerfie Gera- 
nium primum of Diofcorides. The fecond is called Geranium Gratia Dei, of 
others, Geranium ceeruleum. The blew Cranes bill Lobel calleth it Eatra- 
choides, becaufe both leafe and flower are like vnto a Crowfoote ; and the af- 
finity with the Cranes bils in the feede caufeth it rather to be referred to 
them then to the Crowfeete. The ftript Cranes bill is called by fome Ge- 
ranium Romanum. The laft fauing one is called Geranium Hamatodes, or 
Sanguineum, of Lobel Geranium Gruinale Hamatodes fupinum radice repente. 
In Englifh it may be called after the Greek and Latine, The bloudy Cranes 
bill, but I rather call it, The Rofe Cranes bill, becaufe the flowers are as 
large as lingle Rofes, or as the Rofe Campion. Some of them are called in 
many places of England Baffinets. 

The Vertues. 

All the kindes of Cranes bils are accounted great wound herbes, and ef- 
feftuall to ftay bleedings, yet fome more then others. The Emperickes of 
Germanic, as Camerarius faith, extoll it wonderfully, for a lingular reme- 
die againtl the Stone, both in the reines and bladder. 


The Garden of plctifnnt Flowers. 231 


Suniculu gtttttita maior. Spotted Sanicle. 

HAuing long debated with my felfe, where to place this & the other plants that 
follow in the two next Chapters, I haue thought it not amifle for this worke 
to fet them downe here, both before the Scares cares, which are kindcs of 
Sanicle, as the belt Authors doe hold, and after the Cranes bils, both for fome quali- 
ties fomewhat refembling them, and for fome affinity of the flowers with the former. 

The ("potted Sanicle hath many fmall round leaues, bluntly endented about the 
edges, fomewhat like vnto the leaues of our white Saxifrage, of a full greene colour 
aboue, and vvhitilh hairy, and fomewhat reddifh withall vnderneath : the Italkes arc 
fet here and there with the like leaues, riling a foote and a halfe high or more, very 
much diuided at the toppe into fundry fmall branches, bearing many very fmall white 
flowers, confuting of fiue fmall leaues, wherein are many fmall red fpots to be fecne, 
as fmall as pins points, of a pretty fweete fent, almoft like Hawthorne flowers, in the 
middle whereof are many fmall threads comparting a head, which when it is ripe con- 
taineth fmall blacke feede : the roote is fcaly, or couered with a chaffie matter, hauing 
many fmall white fibres vnderneath, whereby it is fattened in the ground. 

There is another of this kinde, like both in roote, leafe, and flower to the former, Minor n<m gm- 
the onely difference is, that this is letter then the former, and hath no fpots in the'"'" 1 
flower, as the other hath. 

We haue alfo another fmaller kinde then the lalt, both in leafe and flower, the leaues Minm guttata. 
whereof are fmaller, but rounder, and more finely fnipt or indented about the edges, 
like the teeth of a fine fawe : the Italke is little aboue a fpan high, hauing many fmall 
white flowers fpotted as the firft, but with fewer fpots. 

The Place. 

Thefe growe in the fhadowie Woods of the Alpes, in diuers places, and 
with vs they more delight in the fliade then the funne. 

The Time. 

All thefe Sanicles doe flower in May, and continue flowring vntill lune, 
and the feede foone ripeneth after : the rootes abide all the Winter, with 
fome leaues on them, fpringing a frefh in the beginning of the yeare. 

The Names. 

The former two are called by Clufius Sanicula montana, and by others 
Sanic u la guttata : by Lobel Geum Alpinum. The third or laft hath been fent 
vs vnder the name of Sanicula montana altera minor. 

The Vertues. 

The name impofed on thefe plants doe certainly aflure vs of their ver- 
tues, from the firft founders, that they are great healers, and from their 
tafte, that they are great binders. 


232 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers, 


Cotyledon altera Matthioli. Spotted Nauelwort. 

THis fpotted Nauelwort, as many doe call it, hath many thicke fmall leaues, 
not fo broad as long, of a whitifh greene colour, lying on the ground in circles, 
after the manner of the heads of Houfeleeke, and dented about the edges ; from 
the middle whereof fometimes (for it doth not flower euery yeare in many places) ari- 
feth vp a ftalke, fcarce a foote high, befet with fuch like leaues as are belowe, but fome- 
what longer : from the middle of the ftalke vp to the top it brancheth forth diuerfly, 
with a leafe at euery ioynt, bearing three or foure flowers on euery branch, confifting 
of flue white leaues, fpotted with fmall red fpots, like vnto the fpotted Sanicle, but 
with fewer and greater fpots, hauing a yellowifh circle or eye in the bottome of euery 
flower, and many whitifh threads with yellowifh tips in it: the feede is fmall and 
blacke, contained in fmall round heads : the roote is fmall, long, and threadie, fhooting 
out fuch heads of leaues, which abide all the Winter, thofe that beare flower periming. 

Cotyledon altera minor. Small dented Nauelwort. 

There is another like vnto that before defcribed in moft things, the differences be 
thefe : It hath fhorter leaues then the former, and dented about the edges in the like 
manner : the flowers hereof are white, but greater, made of fix leaues, and most vfu- 
ally without any fpots at all in them, fome are feene to haue fpots alfo : the heads or 
feede veflels are more cornered then the former. 

Cotyledon altera fare rubro ftellato. Small red flowred Nauelwort. 

This hath alfo many heads of leaues, but more open, which are longer, greener, and 
fharper pointed then eyther of the former, fomewhat reddifh alfo, and not dented a- 
bout the edges, but yet a little rough in handling : the ftalke arifeth from among the 
leaues, being fomewhat reddifh, and the leaues thereon are reddifh pointed, diuided 
at the toppe into many branches, with diuers flowers thereon, made of twelue fmall 
long leaues, ftanding like a ftarre, of a reddifh purple colour, with many threads there- 
in, fet about the middle head, which is diuided at the toppe into many fmall ends, like 
pods or homes, containing therein very fmall feede : the roote is fmall like the former. 

Sedum ferratum fare rubente maculato. The Princes Feather. 

This kinde of Sengreene is compofed of heads of larger, broader, and thinner 
leaues then any of the former, of a fadder greene colour, fomewhat vneuenly enden- 
ted about the edges, and not fo clofe fet together, but fpreading forth into feuerall 
heads like as the former forts doe, although not fo plentifully ; from the middle of 
diuers of which heads rife vp brownifh or reddifh ftalkes, fet with fmaller leaues there- 
on to the middle thereof, and then brancheth forth into feuerall fprigs, fet with diuers 
fmall reddifh flowers confifting of fiue leaues a peece, the innerfide of which are of a 
pale red, fomewhat whitifh, fpotted with many fmall bloud red fpots, as fmall almoft 
as pins points, with fome fmall threads in the middle, ftanding about a fmall greene 
head, which turneth into the feede vefTell, parted foure wayes at the head, wherein 
is contained fmall blackifh feede: the rootes are fmall threads, which fpread vnder 
the ground, and fhoote vp feuerall heads round about it. 

The Place. 

All thefe growe in Germany, Hungarie, Auftria, the Alpes, and other 
fuch like places, where they cleaue to the rocke it felfe, that hath but a cruft 
of earth on it to nourifh them. They will abide in Gardens reaf enable well, 
if they be planted in fhadowie places, and not in the fun. 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

I SaxicHla gutlata. Spotted Sanicle. 2 Colyltdo* altfra \falthiolt. Spotted Nauelwort. 3 Cotyleilox aller.i minor. Small 
dented Nauel wort. 4 Cotyledon altern fiort rubro fttllato. Small red flowred Nauelwort, 5 Stdum ftrratum flort nilirnltma- 
ctilato. The Princes Feather. 6 Soldantlla Alfixa. Blew Moonwort. 


234 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Time. 

They flower for the moft part in the end of May, and fometimes fooner 
or later, as the yeare falleth out. 

The Names. 

The firft is called by Matthiolus, Cotyledon alter a Diofcoridis, and Vmbili- 
cus after, but it is not the true Cotyledon altera of Diofcorides ; for Sedum 
vu/gare maius, Our common Houfeleeke, by the confent of the beft mo- 
derne Writers, is the true Cotyledon altera of Diofcorides, or Vmbili- 
cus Veneris alter. I hold it rather to bee a kinde of fmall Houfeleeke, as 
the other two likewife are. The fecond is called by fome Aizoum or Se- 
dum minus ferratum. The third hath his name in his title. Wee doe call 
them Nauelworts in Englifh rather then Houfeleekes, Euphonies gratia. The 
laft may be called dented Sengreene with reddifh f potted flowers, but fome 
of our Englifh Gentlewomen haue called it, The Princes Feather, which al- 
though it be but a by-name, may well ferve for this plant to diftinguifh it, 
and whereby to be knowne. 

The Vertues. 
They are all held to be cold and moift, like vnto other Houfeleekes. 

Soldanella Alpina. Mountaine Soldanella or blew Moonewort. 

THis beautifull plant hath many round and hard leaues, fet vpon long foote- 
ftalkes, a little vneueniy cut about the edges, greene on the vpperfide, and of a 
grayifh greene vnderneath, and fometime reddifh like the leaues of Sowbread, 
which becaufe they doe fome what refemble the leaues of Soldanella marina, which is 
the Sea Bindweede, tooke the name thereof : the ftalkes are (lender, fmall, round, and 
reddifh, about a fpan high, bearing foure or fiue flowers at the toppe, euery one hang- 
ing downe their heads, like vnto a Bell flower, confiding but of one leafe (as moft of 
the Bindweeds doe) plated into fiue folds, each of them ending in a long point, which 
maketh the flower feem to haue fiue leaues, each whereof is deeply cut in on the edges, 
and hauing a round greene head in the middle, with a pricke or pointell at the end 
thereof : the flower is of a faire blew colour, fometimes deeper or paler, or white, as 
nature lifteth without any fmell at all : the middle head, after the flower is fallen, rifeth 
to be a long round pod, bearing that pricke it had at the end thereof, wherein is con- 
tained fmall greenifh feede : the roote hath many fibres fhooting from a long round 
head or roote. 

The Place. 

This groweth on the Alpes, which are couered with fnow the greateft 
part of the yeare, and will hardly abide tranf planting. 

The Time. 

In the naturall places it flowreth not vntill the Summer moneths, lune, 
luly, and Auguft, after the fnow is melted from the Hils, but being 
brought into Gardens, it flowreth in the beginning of Aprill, or there- 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Names. 

This plant, by reafon of the likenclTe of leaues with Soldanella, as was 
before faid, is called by many Soldanella, but yet is no Bindweedc ; and 
therefore I rather call it in Engliih ;i Mountaine Soldanella, then as Gerrard 
doth, Mountaine Biiulvveede. It is likewife called by fomc, Lunaria minor 
cecrulea, The letfer blew Lunary or Moon wort, and fo I would rather haue 
it called. 

The Vertues. 

They that impofed the name of Lunaria vpon this plant, fceme to rcferre 
it to the wound or confolidating herbes, but becaufe I haue no further re- 
lation or experience, I can fay no more thereof vntill tryall hath taught it. 
Some alfo from the name Soldanella, which is giuen it, becaufe of the like- 
nefle of the leaues, haue vfed it to help the Propfie, for which the Sea plant 
is thought to be effecluall. 

CHAP. XXXI 1 1 1. 

Auricula Vrji. Beares eares. 

THere are fo many fundry and feuerall forts of Beares eares, the variety confi- 
ding as well in the differing colours of the flowers, as the forme and colour 
of the leaues, that I fliall not comprehend and fet downe vnto you all the di- 
uerlities by many, that are rifen vp to thofe that haue beene induftrious in the fow- 
ing of the feedes of the feuerall forts of them ; yet if you accept of thefe that I doe 
here offer vnto you, I fhall giue you the knowledge of others, as time, occafion, and 
the view of them fhall enable me. And becaufe they are without all queftion kinds of 
Cowflips, I haue fet them downe before them in the firft place, as being of more beau- 
tie and greater refpect, or at the leafl of more rarity vnto vs. To difpofe them therefore 
into order, I lhall ranke them vnder three principall colours, that is to fay, Red or Pur- 
ple, White, and Yellow, and fhew you the varieties of each of them (for fo many as 
are come to my knowledge) apart by themfelues, and not promifcuoufly as many o- 
thers haue done. 

I. Auricula Vrji Jiore purpureo. Purple Beares eare, or The Murrey Cowflip. 

This purple Beares eare or Cowflip hath many grecne leaues, fomewhat long and 
fmooth, narrow trom the bottome of the leafe to the middle, and broad from thence 
to the end, being round pointed, and fomewhat fnipt or endented about the edges ; in 
the middle of thefe leaues, and fometimes at the fides alfo, doe fpring round greene 
rtalkes foure or fiue fingers high, bearing at the top many flowers, the buds whereof, 
before they are blowne, are of a very deepe purple colour, and being open, are of a 
bright, but deepe purple, vfually called a Murrey colour, confifting of fiue leaues a 
peece, cut in at the end as it were into two, with a whitifh ring or circle at the bottome 
of each flower, Handing in fmall greene cups, wherein after the flowers are fallen, are 
contained very fmall heads, not rifing to the height of the cups, bearing a fmall pricke 
or pointell at the toppe of them, wherein is little blackifh feede : the roote hath many 
whitifh firings fattened to the maine long roote, which is very like vnto a Primrofe 
or Cowflip roote, as it is in all other parts befides. 

2. Auricula Vrji purpurea absyue orbe. The murrey Cowflip without eyes. 

There is another of this kinde, whofe leafe is fomewhat lefle, as the flower is alfo, 


236 The Gar(/en of pleajant Flowers. 

but of the fame colour, and fometimes fomewhat redder, tending to a Scarlet, without 
any circle at the bottome of the flower, in no other things differing from it. 

3. Auricula Vrfi minor Jiore tannetto. Tawney Beares eares. 

The leaues of this kinde haue a greater mew of mealineffe to be feene in them, and 
not much fmaller then the former, yet fnipt or endented about the ends like vnto 
them : the flowers are many, of the fame fafhion with the former, but fmaller, each 
whereof is of as deepe a murrey or tawnie colour when it is blowne, as the buds of the 
former are before they are blowne, hauing a white circle at the bottome of the flower, 
and yellowifh in the middle belowe the circle. 

4. Auricula Vrji Jiore rubro faturo orbe luteo. 
Deepe or bloud red Beares eares with eyes. 

This kinde hath fmall and long greene leaues, nothing mealy, but fnipt about the 
edges, from the middle of the leaues forwards to the ends : the flowers hereof are of 
a deepe red colour, tending to a bloud red, with a deepe yellow circle, or rather bot- 
tome in the middle. 
Auricula Vrfi There is another of this kinde, whofe leaues are fomewhat mealy, and fmaller then 

"&;'* 'alfoui"' anv ( 4 ^ at I ^ aue ^ eene ) ri 1 ^ naue mea ty leaues : the flowers are of the fame deepe red 
orbe. J colour with the laft defcribed, yet hath no circle or bottome of any other colour at all. 

5. Auricula Vrji Jiore purpuro caruleo. The Violet coloured Beares eare. 

We haue another, whofe leaues are fomewhat mealy and large ; the flowers where- 
of are of a paler purple then the firft, fomewhat tending to a blew. 

6. Auricula Vrji Jiore obfoleto magno. The Spaniards blufh Beares eare. 

This great Beares eare hath as large leaues as any other of this kindred whatfoeuer, 
and whitifh or mealy withall, fomewhat fnipt about the edges, as many other of them 
are : the flowers ftand at the toppe of a ftrong and tall ftalke, larger then any of the o- 
ther that I haue feene, being of a duskie blufh colour, refembling the blufh of a Spani- 
ard, whofe tawney skinne cannot declare fo pure a blufh as the Englifh can ; and there- 
fore I haue called it the Spaniards blufh. 

7. Auricula Vrji Jiore rubello. Scarlet or light red Beares eares. 

The leaues of this kinde are very like the leaues of the firft purple kinde, but that 
they are not so thicke ; of a little paler greene colour, and little or nothing fnipt about 
the edges : the flowers are of a bright, but pale reddifh colour, not halfe fo deepe as 
the two laft with white circles in the bottomes of them, in other things this differeth 
not from others. 

8. Auricula Vrji rofeo colore. The Rofe coloured Beares eare. 

We haue another, whofe leafe is a little mealy, almort as large as any of the former, 
whofe flowers are of a light red colour, very neare the colour of an ordinary Damaske 
Rofe, with a white eye at the bottome. 

9. Auricula Vrfi Jiore cceruleo folio Eoragims. 
Blew Beares eares with Borage leaues. 

This plant is referred to the kindred or family of the Beares eares, onely for the 
forme of the flower fake, which euen therein it doth not affimilate to the halfe ; but 
becaufe it hath patted others with that title, I am content to infert it here, to giue you 


The Gtinfen of p/enfant Flowers. 


i Auricula Vrjiflorc purfurfo. Purple Cowflips or Beares cares. 2 Auricula Vrfi flore launetto. Tawncy Beares care. 3 Au- 
ricula Vrfi flort & folio Boraginii. Blew Beares eaies with Borage leauei. 4 Auricula Vrfi flort canto. Blufh Beares care. 
5 Auricula Vrfi maxima, lulta flort tltganti. The grated faire yellow Beares eareg with eyes. 6 Auricula Vrfi allera flort 
Intto. The yellow Beares eare. 7 Auricula Vrfi criitii colorit fut fort fufco. The haire coloured Beares care. 8 Corlu/a 
tlaltkialt. Beares eare banicle. 

238 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

the knowledge thereof, and rather to fatisfie others then my felfe with the place there- 
of: the defcription whereof is as followeth : It hath diuers broad rough hairy leaues 
fpread vpon the ground, fomewhat like vnto the leaues of Borage for the roughneffe, 
but not for the largeneffe ; the leaues hereof being fomewhat rent in fome places at the 
edges : from among thefe leaues rife vp one, or two, or more brownim, round, and 
hairy ftalkes, a fpan high or thereabouts, bearing at the toppes three or foure flowers a 
peece, confifting of fiue large pointed leaues, of a faire blew or light azur colour, with 
fome fmall yellow threads in the middle, ftanding in fmall greene cups : the roote is 
long and brownim, hauing many fmall fibres annexed vnto it. 

10. Auricula Vrji maior -fare albo. The great white Beares eare. 

This white Beares eare hath many faire whitifh greene leaues, fomewhat paler then 
the leaues of any of the kindes of Beares eares, and a little fnipt about the ends, as ma- 
nie other are : among thefe leaues rife vp ftalkes foure or fiue inches high, bearing at 
the toppe many flowers like vnto the fmall yellow Beares eare hereafter fet downe, of 
a pale whitifh colour, tending to yellow at the firft opening of the flower, which after 
two or three dayes change into a faire white colour, and fo continue all the while it 
flowreth : the roote is like the purple kinde, as all or moft of the reft are, or very 
little differing. 

1 1 . Auricula Vrji minor fare albo. The lefTer white Beares eare. 

The leffer Beares eare hath fmaller leaues, of a little darker green colour : the ftalke 
and flowers are likewife lefTer then the former, and haue no fhew of yellownefle at 
all, eyther in budde or flower, but is pure white, differing not in other things from 
the reft. 

12. Auricula Vrji maxima lutea JJore eleganti. 
The greateft faire yellow Beares eare with eyes. 

This yellow Beares eare hath many faire large thicke leaues, fomewhat mealy or 
hoary vpon the greenneffe, being larger then any other kinde, except the fixth, and the 
next yellow that followeth, fmooth about the edges, and without any endenting at all : 
the ftalke is great, round, and not higher then in other of the former, but bearing ma- 
nie more flowers thereon then in any other kinde, to the number of thirty many times, 
ftanding fo round and clofe together, that they feeme to be a Nofegay alone, of the 
fame fafhion with the former, but that the leaues are fhorter and rounder, yet with a 
notch in the middle like the reft, of a faire yellow colour, neither very pale nor deepe, 
with a white eye or circle in the bottome, about the middle of euery flower, which 
giueth it the greater grace : the feede is of a blackifh browne colour, like vnto others, 
but contained in greater round heads then any other, with a fmall pointell flicking in 
the middle : the roote is greater and thicker then any other, with long ftrings or fibres 
like vnto the other forts, but greater. 

13. Auricula Vrji maior lutea folio incano. The greater yellow Beares eare. 

This greater yellow Beares eare hath his leaues larger, and more mealy or hoarie 
then the laft, or any other of thefe kindes : the flowers are not fo many, but longer, and 
not fo thicke thrufting together as the firft, but of a deeper yellow colour, without any 

eye or circle in the middle. 

1 4. Auricula Vrji maior JJore pallido. The great Straw coloured Beares eare. 

This hath almoft as mealy leaues as the laft, but nothing fo large ; the flowers are 
of a faire ftrawe colour, with a white circle at the bottome of them, thefe three laft 
haue no fhew or fhadow of any other colour in any part of the edge, as fome others 
that follow haue. 

15. Auricula 

The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 239 

15. Auricula Vrji minor ftore pal lent? . The leflcr flraw coloured Beares care. 

We haue another, whofe leafe is lefle mealy, or rather pale green, and a little mealy 
withall ; the flowers whereof are of a paler yellow colour then the laft, and bcareth al- 
moft as many vpon a ftalke as the firft great yellow. 

1 6. Auricula Vrji minor lutea. The lefler yellow Beares cares. 

The leaues of this Beares care are nothing fo large as either of the three former yel- 
low kindes, but rather of the bignefTe of the firll white kinde, but yet a little larger, 
thicker, and longer then it, hauing vnder the greennefle a fmall fhew of mealinefle, and fnipt about the edges : the flowers are of a pale yellow colour, with a little 
white bottome in them : the feed and rootes are like vnto the other kindes. 

17. Auricula Vrji JJore jlauo. The deepe yellow or Cowflip Beares care. 

This kinde hath fomewhat larger leaues then the laft, of a yellowifh greene colour, 
without any mealinefle on them, or endenting about the edges, but fmooth and whole : 
the flowers are not larger but longer, and not laide open fo fully as the former, but of 
as deepe a yellow colour as any Cowflip almoft, without any circle in the bottome : 
neither of thefe two laft haue any (hew of other colour then yellow in them, fauing 
the white in the eye. 

1 8. Auricula Vrji ver/ico/or prima Jiue Jiore rubefcente. The blufh Beares eare. 

The blufh Beares eare hath his leaues as large, and as hoary or mealy as the third 
greater yellow, or ftraw coloured Beares eare ; among which rifeth vp a ftalke about 
foure inches high, bearing from fix to twelue, or more faire flowers, fomewhat larger 
then the fmaller yellow Beares eare before defcribed, hauing the ground of the flower 
of a darke or dunne yellow colour, fhadowed ouer a little with a fhew of light purple, 
which therefore we call a blufli colour, the edges of the flower being tipt with a little 
deeper fhew of that purple colour, the bottome of the flower abiding wholly yellow, 
without any circle, and is of very great beauty, which hath caufed me to place it in the 
forefront of the variable coloured Beares eares. And although fome might thinke it 
fhould be placed among the firft ranke of Beares eares, becaufe it is of a blufh colour, 
yet feeing it is afluredly gained from tome of the yellow kindes by fowing the feede, 
as many other forts are, as may be feene plainly in the ground of the flower, which is 
yellow, and but lhadowed ouer with purple, yet more then any of the reft that follow ; 
I thinke I haue giuen it his right place : let others of skill & experience be iudges herein. 

19. Auricula Vrji crinis coloris. Haire coloured Beares eares. 

The leaues of this kinde are more mealy like then the lalt blufli kinde, but fomewhat 
longer and larger, and fnipt about the edges in the fame manner, from the middle of 
the leafe forwards : the flower is vfually of a fine light browne yellow colour, which 
wee doe vfually call an Haire colour, and fometimes browner, the edges of the flower 
haue a fliew or fhadow of a light purple or bluih about them, but more on the outfide 
then on the inlide. 

20. Auricula Vrji vcrjicolor lutea. The yellow variable Beares eare. 

This variable Beares eare hath his greene leaues fomewhat like vnto the deepe yel- 
low, or Cowflip Beares eare before defcribed, but fomewhat of a frefher greene, more 
fhining and fmaller, and fnipt about the edges towards the ends, as many of thofe be- 
fore are : the flowers are of a faire yellow colour, much laid open when it is full 
blowne, that it feemeth almoft flat, dalht about the edges onely with purple, being 
more yellow in the bottome of the flower, then in any other part. 

2 i . Auricula 

24.0 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

2 1 . Auricula Frft verjicotor lutefcente ijiridi ftore. The variable greene Beares eare. 

This kinde of Beares eare hath greene leaues, very like vnto the laft defcribed, and 
fnipt in the like manner about the edges, but in this it differeth, that his leaues do turne 
or fold themfelues a little backwards : the flowers are of a yellowifh greene colour, 
more clofed then the former, hauing purplifh edges, efpecially after they haue flood 
blowne fome time, and haue little or none at the firft opening : thefe haue no circles at 
all in them. 

Many other varieties are to be found, with thofe that are curious conferuers of thefe 
delights of nature, either naturally growing on the mountaines in feuerall places, 
from whence they (being fearched out by diuers) haue been taken and brought, or elfe 
raifed from the feede of fome of them, as it is more probable : for feuerall varieties 
haue beene obferued (and no doubt many of thefe before fpecified) to bee gotten by 
fowing of the feedes, euery yeare lightly fhewing a diuedity, not obferued before, ei- 
ther in the leafe, diuers from that from whence it was taken, or in the flowers. I haue 
onely fet downe thofe that haue come vnder mine owne view, and not any by relation, 
euen as I doe with all or moft of the things contained in this worke. 

The Place. 

Many of thefe goodly plants growe naturally on mountaines, efpecially 
the Alpes, in diuers places ; for fome kindes that growe in fome places, doe 
not in others, but farre diftant one from the other. There hath likewife 
fome beene found on the Pyrenasan mountaines, but that kinde with the 
blew flower and Borage leafe, hath beene gathered on the mountaines in 
Spaine, and on the Pyrenaeans next vnto Spaine. 

The Time. 

They all flower in Aprill and May, and the feede is ripe in the end of 
lune, or beginning of luly, and fometimes they will flower againe in the 
end of Summer, or in Autumne, if the yeare proue temperate, moift, and 

The Names. 

It is very probable, that none of thefe plants were euer knowne vnto the 
ancient Writers, becaufe we cannot be affured, that they may be truely re- 
ferred vnto any plant that they name, vnlefle we beleeue Fabius Columna, 
that it mould be Alifma of Diofcorides, for thereunto hee doth referre it. 
Diuers of the later Writers haue giuen vnto them diuers names, euery one 
according to his owne conceit. For Gefner calleth it Lunaria arthritica, 
and Paralytica Alpina. Matthiolus accounteth it to bee of the kindred of the 
Sanicles, and faith, that in his time it was called by diuers Herbarifts, Auri- 
cula Vrji, which name hath fince bin receiued as moft vfuall. We in Englifh 
call them Beares eares, according to the Latine, or as they are called by di- 
uers women, French Cowflips ; they may be called Mountaine Cowflips, 
if you will, for to diftinguifh betweene them and other Cowflips, whereof 
thefe are feuerall kindes. 

Sanicula Alpina Jiue Cortufa Matthioli. Beares eare Sanicle. 

I cannot chufe but infert this delicate plant in the end of the Beares eares, for that it 
is of fo neare affinity, although it differ much in the forme of the leaues, the defcrip- 
tion whereof is in this manner : The leaues that fpring vp firft are much crumpled, and 
as it were folded together, which afterwards open themfelues into faire, broad, and 
roundifh leaues, fomewhat rough or hairy, not onely cut into fine diuifions, but fome- 
what notched alfo about the edges, of a darke greene colour on the vpperfide, and 


The Garden of pleajatit Flowers, 

more whitiih greene vnderneath ; umonglt thcfc leaues rifeth vp one or two naked 
round (talkes, fiue or fix inches high, bearing at the toppes diuers fmall flowers, fome- 
what fweete, like vnto the riril purple Scares care, hanging downe their heads, confi- 
ding of fiue finall pointed leaues a peece, of a darke reddilh purple colour, with a 
white circle or bottome in the middle, and fome fmall threads therein : after the flow- 
ers are pall, there come fmall round heads, fomewhat longer then any of the Beares 
cares, (landing vpright vpon their fmall foot-llalkes, wherein is contained fmall round 
and bhickilh leede : the roote conlllleth of a thicke tuft of fmall whitiih threads, ra- 
ther then rootes, much enterlaced one among another : the leaues of this plant dye 
downe euery yeare, and fpring vp a new in the beginning of the ycarc, whereas all the 
Beares eares doe hold their leaues greene all the Winter, efpccially the middlemoll, 
which ihind like a clofe head, the outermoll for the mod part peri(hing after feed time. 

The Place. 

This groweth in many lhadowie Woods both of Italy and Germany ; 
for both Clufms hath defcribed it, finding it in the Woods of Auflria and 
Stiria ; and Matthiolus fetteth it downe, hauing receiued it from Anthonius 
Cortufus, who was Prefident of the Garden at Padua, and found it in the 
woody mountaines of Vicenza, neare vnto Villeflagna, whereon (as Mat- 
thiolus faith) there is found both with white flowers as well as with blew, 
but fuch with white flowers or blew we neuer could fee or heare further of. 

The Time. 

It flowreth much about the time of the Beares eares, or rather a little la- 
ter, and the feede is ripe with them. 

The Names. 

Clufms calleth it Sanicula monfana, and Sanicula Alpina, and referreth it 
to the Auricula Vrji, or Beares eare, which it doth mofl nearly refemble : 
but Matthiolus referreth it to the Cariofhyllata or Auens, making it to be of 
that tribe or family, and calleth it Cortufa of him that firfl fent it him. Wee 
may call it eyther Cortufa, as for the mofl part all Herbarills doe, or Beares 
eare Sanicle as Gerrard doth. 

The Vertues. 

All the forts of Beares eares are Cephalicall, that is, conducing helpe for 
the paines in the head, and for the giddinefle thereof, which may happen, 
eyther by the fight of fleepe places fubieft to danger, or otherwise. They 
are accounted alfo to be helping for the Palfey, and making of the ioynts ; 
and alfo as a Sanicle or wound-herbe. The leaues of the Cortufa tafle a lit- 
tle hot, and if one of them bee laide whole, without bruifing, on the 
cheeke of any tender skind woman, it will raife an orient red colour, as if 
fome fucus had beene laide thereon, which will pafle away without any 
manner of harme, or marke where it lay : This is Cortufus his obferua- 
tion. Camerarius in his Hortus Medicus faith, that an oyle is made thereof, 
that is admirable for to cure wounds. 


H 2 

24.2 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Primula veris & Paralyjis. Primrofes and Cowflips. 

^T T7TE haue fo great variety of Primrofes and Cowflips of our owne Country 
\\/ breeding, that ftrangers being much delighted with them, haue beene 
* * often furnifhed into diuers Countries, to their good content : And that I 
may fet them downe in fome methodical! manner, as I haue done other things, I will 
firft fet downe all the forts of thofe we call Primrofes, both fingle and double, and af- 
terwards the Cowflips with their diuerfities, in as ample manner as my knowledge 
can direcl: me. And yet I know, that the name of Primula veris or Primrofe, is indiffe- 
rently conferred vpon thofe that I diftinguifh for Paralyfes or Cowflips. I doe there- 
fore for your better vnderftanding of my diftinclion betweene Primrofes and Cow- 
flips, call thofe onely Primrofes that carry but one flower vpon a ftalke, be they fingle 
or double, except that of Mafter Hesket, and that with double flowers many vpon a 
ftalke, fet out in Gerards Herball, which is his onely, not found (as I thinke) in rerum 
natura, I am fure, fuch a one I could neuer heare of : And thofe Cowflips, that beare 
many flowers vpon a ftalke together conftantly, be they fingle or double alfo. I might 
otherwife diftinguifh them alfo by the leafe ; that all the Primrofes beare their long 
and large broad yellowifh greene leaues, without ftalkes moft vfually ; and all the 
Cowflips haue fmall ftalkes vnder the leaues, which are fmaller, and of a darker 
greene, as vfually, but that this diftinclion is neither fo certaine and general!, nor fo 
well knowne. 

i . Primula veris fare albo. The fingle white Primrofe. 

The Primrofe that groweth vnder euery bufh or hedge, in all or moft of the Woods, 
Groues, and Orchards of this Kingdome, I may well leaue to his wilde habitation, 
being not fo fit for a Garden, and fo well knowne, that I meane not to giue you any 
further relation thereof : But we haue a kinde hereof which is fomewhat fmaller, and 
beareth milke white flowers, without any fhew of yellownefle in them, and is more 
vfually brought into Gardens for the rarity, and differeth not from the wilde or ordi- 
nary kinde, either in roote or leafe, or any thing elfe, yet hauing thofe yellow fpots, 
but fmaller, and not fo deepe, as are in the other wilde kinde. 

2. Primula veris Jlore viridi Jimp lid. The fingle greene Primrofe. 

The fingle greene Primrofe hath his leaues very like vnto the greater double Prim- 
rofe, but fmaller, and of a fadder greene colour : the flowers ftand feuerally vpon long 
foot-ftalkes, as the firft fingle kinde doth, but larger then they, and more laide open, 
of the fame, or very neare the fame yellowifh greene colour that the huske is of, fo that 
at the firft opening, the huske and the flower feeme to make one double greene flower, 
which afterwards feparating themfelues, the fingle flower groweth aboue the huske, 
and fpreadeth it felfe open much more then any other fingle Primrofe doth, growing 
in the end to be of a paler greene colour. 

3. Primula veris fare viridante & albo Jimplici. 
The fingle greene and white Primrofe. 

The leaues of this differ in a manner nothing from the former, neither doth the 
flower but only in this, that out of the large yellowifh green huskes, which contain the 
flowers of the former, there commeth forth out of the middle of each of them either 
a fmall peece of a whitifh flower, or elfe a larger, fometimes making vp a whole flower, 
like an ordinary Primrofe. 

4. Primula veris fare viridi duplici. The double greene Primrofe. 

This double Primrofe is in his leaues fo like the former fingle greene kindes, that 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


I Primula vrrit flort albo. The white Primtofe. i Primula vrrit flort ririJi tf albo Kmplid. The green and white Primrofe. 
3 Primula vtris flort viridi duflifi. The double green Primrofe. 4 Primula i-erii Hesktli. Matter Heskets double Primrofe. 
5 Primula rtrii flort pinto vulgaris. The ordinary double Primrofe. 6 Paralyfit vtrii flari viridantt fimplici. The fingle green 
Cowflip. 7 Paralyjis flort giminato oJorato. Double Cowflips or hofe in hofe. 8 Paralyfit inodora flort geminato. Double 
Oxelips hofe in hofe. 9 Paralrjit Jtort f ,,ilire eriff>. Curld Cowflips or Gaskine. 10 Paralyjis minor anguftifolia flort rvbro. 
Red Birds even. II Paralyjii harttnfii flort pUna i-ulgarit. Double Paigle*. 12 Paralyjis fatua. The foolilh Cowflip or 
lacke an Apes on horfe backe. 13 Paralyfit flori viridi rofto calamiflrato. The double greene feathered Cowflip. 

24.4 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

the one cannot be knowne from the other vntill it come to flower, and then it beareth 
vpon euery ftalke a double green flower, of a little deeper green colour then the flower 
of the former fingle kinde confiding but of two rowes of fhort leaues moft vfually, 
and both of an equall height aboue the huske, abiding a pretty time in flower, efpeci- 
ally if it ftand in any fhadowed place, or where the Sun may come but a while vnto it. 

5. Primula veris Hesketi JJore multiptiri feparatim diuifo. 
Mafter Heskets double Primrofe. 

Matter Heskets double Primrofe is very like vnto the fmall double Primrofe, 
both in leafe, roote, and height of growing, the ftalke not rifing much higher then it, 
but bearing flowers in a farre different manner ; for this beareth not only fingle flowers 
vpon feuerall ftalkes, but fometimes two or three fingle flowers vpon one ftalk, and alfo 
at the fame time a bigger ftalke, and fomewhat higher, hauing one greene huske at the 
toppe thereof, fometimes broken on the one fide, and fometimes whole, in the middle 
whereof ftandeth fometimes diuers fingle flowers, thruft together, euery flower to be 
feene in his proper forme, and fometimes there appeare with fome whole flowers o- 
thers that are but parts of flowers, as if the flowers were broken in peeces, and thruft 
into one huske, the leaues of the flowers (being of a white or pale Primrofe colour, 
but a little deeper) feldome rifing aboue the height of the very huske it felfe ; and 
fometimes, as I haue obferued in this plant, it will haue vpon the fame ftalke, that bea- 
reth fuch flowers as I haue here defcribed vnto you, a fmall flower or two, making the 
ftalke feeme branched into many flowers, whereby you may perceiue, that it will vary 
into many formes, not abiding conftant in any yeare, as all the other forts doe. 

6. Primula hortenjis JJore plena vulgaris. The ordinary double Primrofe. 

The leaues of this Primrofe are very large, and like vnto the fingle kind, but fome- 
what larger, becaufe it growth in gardens : the flowers doe ftand euery one feuerally 
vpon flender long footeftalkes, as the fingle kinde doth, in greenim huskes of a pale 
yellow colour, like vnto the field Primrofe, but very thicke and double, and of the 
fame fweete fent with them. 

7. Primula veris Jiore duplici. The fmall double Primrofe. 

This Primrofe is both in leafe, roote, and flower, altogether like vnto the laft double 
Primrofe, but that it is fmaller in all things ; for the flower rifeth not aboue two or 
three fingers high, and but twice double, that is, with two rowes of leaues, yet of 
the very fame Primrofe colour that the former is of. 

8. Paralyfa vulgaris pratenfis jlore flauo fimplici odorato. 
The Common field Cowflip. 

The common fielde Cowflip I might well forbeare to fet downe, being fo plentifull 
in the fields : but becaufe many take delight in it, and plant it in their gardens, I will 
giue you the defcription of it here. It hath diuers green leaues, very like vnto the wilde 
Primrofe, but fhorter, rounder, ftiffer, rougher, more crumpled about the edges, and 
of a fadder greene colour, euery one ftanding vpon his ftalke, which is an inch or two 
long : among the leaues rife vp diuers round ftalkes, a foote or more high, bearing at 
the toppe many faire yellow fingle flowers, with fpots of a deeper yellow, at the bot- 
tome of each leafe, fmelling very fweete. The rootes are like to the other Primrofes, 
hauing many fibres annexed to the great roote. 

9. Paralyfa alter a odorata flare pallido poly anthos. The Primrofe Cowflip. 

The leaues of this Cowflip are larger then the ordinary fielde Cowflip, and of a 
darke yellowifh greene colour : the flowers are many ftanding together, vpon the 
toppes ot the ftalkes, to the number of thirty fometimes vpon one ftalke, as I haue 
counted them in mine owne Garden, and fometimes more, euery one hauing a longer 


The Garden of pleafnnt Flowers. 

foote ftalke then the former, and of as pale a yellowifh colour almoft as the fielde 
Primrofc, with yellow fpots at the bottome of the leaues, as the ordinary hath, and of 
as 1'weet a lent. 

10. Paralyfis fare viridantc Jimplici. The (Ingle greene Cowflip. 

There is little difference in leafe or roote of this from the firft Cowflip, the chiefeft 
varietie in this kinde i> tin's, that the leaues are fomewhat greener, and the flowers be- 
ing in all refpecls like in forme vnto the firft kinde, but fomewhat larger, arc of 
the fame colour with the greene huskes, or rather a little yellower, and of a very 
finall fent ; in all other things I finde no diuerfitie, but that it ftandeth much longer in 
flower before it fadeth, efpecially if it (land out of the Sunne. 

i i . Paralyjis fare & calice crifpo. Curl'd Cowflips or Gallegaskins. 

There is another kinde, whole flowers are folded or crumpled at the edges, and the 
huskes of the flowers bigger than any of the former, more fwelling out in the middle, 
as it were ribbes, and crumpled on the fides of the huskes, which doe fomewhat 
refemble mens hofe that they did weare, and tooke the name of Gallegaskins from 

i 2. Paralyjis .ftore geminato odorato. 
Double Cowflips one within another, or Hofe in Hofe. 

The only difference of this kinde from the ordinary field Cowflip is, that it beareth 
one (ingle flower out of another, which is as a greene huske, of the like fent that the 
firll hath, or fomewhat weaker. 

13. Paralyjis fare flauo fimplici inodoro abfque calicibus. Single Oxe lippes. 

This kinde of Cowflip hath leaues much like the ordinary kinde, but fomewhat 
fmaller : the flowers are yellow like the Cowflip, but fmaller, (landing many vpon 
a rtalke, but bare or naked, that is, without any huske to containe them, hauing but 
little or no fent 'at all ; not differing in any thing elfe from the ordinary Cowflip. 

14. Paralyjis ftore geminato inodora. Double Oxelips Hofe in Hofe. 

As the former double Cowflip had his flowers one within another, in the very like 
manner hath this kinde of Cowflip or Oxelippe, fauing that this hath no huske to 
containe them, no more then the former (ingle Oxelippe hath, (landing bare or naked, 
of the very fame bignefle each of them, and of the fame deepe yellow colour with it, 
hauing as fmall a fent as the former likewife. 

Wee haue another of this kinde, whofe leaues are fomewhat larger, and fo are the 
flowers alfo, but of a paler yellow colour. 

i 5. Paralyjis inodora calicibin Jijfttfis. Oxelips with iagged huskes. 

This kinde differeth not from the firlt Oxelip in the fmalnefle of the greene leaues, 
but in the flower, which landing many together on a reafonable high llalke, and being 
very fmall and yellow, fcarce opening themlelues or layde abroade as it, hath a greene 
huske vnder each flower, but diuided into lixe fcuerall fmall long peeces. 

1 6. Paralyjii fare fatuo. The Franticke, or Foolifh Cowflip : 
Or lacke an apes on horfe backe. 

Wee haue in our gardens another kinde, not much differing in leaues from the for- 
mer Cowflip, and is called Fantafticke or Foolifh, becaufe it beareth at the toppe of 
the rtalke a bulh or tuft of fmall long greene leaues, with fome yellow leaues, as it 
were peeces of flowers broken, and (landing among the greene leaues. And fometimes 


246 'The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

fome ftalkes among thofe greene leaues at the toppe (which are a little larger then 
when it hath but broken peeces of flowers) doe carry whole flowers in huskes like the 
fingle kinde. 

17. Paralyjis minor fare rubro. Red Birds eyes. 

This little Cowflippe (which will hardly endure in our gardens, for all the care and 
induftrie we can vfe to keepe it) hath all the Winter long, and vntill the Spring begin 
to come on, his leaues fo clofed together, that it feemeth a fmall white head of leaues, 
which afterwards opening it felfe, fpreadeth round vpon the ground, and hath fmall 
long and narrow leaues, fnipt about the edges, of a pale greene colour on the vpper- 
fide, & very white or mealy vnderneath, among thefe leaues rife vp one or two ftalks, 
fmall & hoary, halfe a foot high, bearing at the top a bufh or tuft of much fmaller flow- 
ers, ftanding vpon fhort foot ftalkes, fomewhat like vnto Cowflips, but more like vnto 
the Beares eares, of a fine reddifh purple colour, in fome deeper, in others paler, with a 
yellowifh circle in the bottomes of the flowers, like vnto many of the Beares eares, of 
a faint or fmall fent : the feede is fmaller than in any of the former kindes, and fo are 
the rootes likewife, being fmall, white and threddy. 

1 8. Paralyjis minor jtore albo. White Birds eyes. 

This kinde differeth very little or nothing from the former, fauing that it feemeth 
a little larger both in leafe and flower, and that the flowers hereof are wholly white, 
without any great appearance of any circle in the bottome of them, vnleffe it be well 
obferued, or at leaft being nothing fo confpicuous, as in the former. 

Flare geminate. Thefe two kindes haue fometimes, but very feldome, from among the middle of 
the flowers on the ftalke, fent out another fmall ftalke, bearing flowers thereon likewife. 

19. Paralyjis hortenjis flore plena. Double Paigles or Cowflips. 

The double Paigle or Cowflip hath fmaller and darker greene leaues then the fin- 
gle kinde hath, and longer ftalkes alfo whereon the leaues doe ftand : it beareth diuers 
flowers vpon a ftalke, but not fo many as the fingle kinde, euery one whereof is of a 
deeper and fairer yellow colour then any of the former, ftanding not much aboue the 
brimmes of the huskes that hold them, confifting of two or three rowes of leaues fet 
round together, which maketh it fhew very thicke and double, of a prettie fmall fent, 
but not heady. 

20. Paralyjis Jlore viridante plena. Double greene Cowflips. 

This double greene Cowflip is fo like vnto the fingle greene kinde formerly ex- 
prefled, that vntill they be neare flo wring, they can hardly be diftinguifhed : but when 
it is in flower, it hath large double flowers, of the fame yellowifh greene colour with 
the fingle, and more laid open then the former double Paigle. 

21. Paralyjis Jlore inridante Jiue calamijlrato. 
The greene Rofe Cowflip, or double greene feathered Cowllip. 

There is fmall difference in the leaues of this double kinde from the laft, but that 
they are not of fo darke a greene : the chiefeft difference confifteth in the flowers, 
which are many, ftanding together at the toppes of the ftalkes, but farre differing from 
all other of thefe kindes : for euery flower ftanding vpon his owne ftalke, is compofed 
of many very fmall and narrow leaues, without any huske to containe them, but 
fpreading open like a little Rofe, of a pale yellowifh greene colour, and without any 
fent at all, abiding in flower, efpecially if it ftand in a fhadowie place out of the funne, 
aboue two moneths, almoft in as perfecl beauty, as in the firft weeke. 

The Place. 

All thefe kindes as they haue been found wilde, growing in diuers places 


'The Gar <{en of f) leaf ant Flowers. 


in England, fo they haue been tranfplanted into Gardens, to be there nouri- 
Ihed tor the delight of their loucrs, where they all abide, and grow fairer 
then in their natural! places, except the fmall Birds eyes, which will (as I 
faid) hardly abide any culture, but groweth plentifully in all the North 
Countries in their fqually or wet grounds. 

The Time. 

Thefe doe all flower in the Spring of the yeare, fome earlier and fome 
later, and fome in the midft of Winter, as they are defended from the colds 
and frolts, and the mildnefle of the time will permit : yet the Cowflips doe 
alwayes flower later then the Primrofes, and both the fingle and double 
greene Cowflips latelt, as I faid in their defcriptions, and abide much after 
ill the reft. 

The Names. 

All thefe plants are called molt vfually in Latine, Primula verts, Primula 
pratcnfcs, and Primula Jiluarum, becaufe they fhew by their flowring the new 
Spring to bee comming on, they being as it were the firfl Embafladours 
thereof. They haue alfo diuers other names, as Herba Paralyjis, Arthritica, 
Hcrba Sanfli Pefri, C/aues Sanfti Petri, Verbafculum odoratum, Lunaria arthri- 
tica, Phlomis, Alifma Jiluarum, and Alifmatis alterum genus, as Fabius Co- 
lumna calleth them. The Birds eyes are called of Lobel in Latine, Paraly- 
tica Alpina, Sanicula angujlifolia, making a greater and a lefler. Others call 
them Sanicula angujtifolia, but generally they are called Primula veris minor. 
I haue (as you fee) placed them with the Cowflips, putting a difference be- 
tweene Primrofes and Cowflips. And fome haue diftinguifhed them, by 
calling the Cowflips, Primula veris E/atior, that is, the Taller Primrofe, and 
the other Humilis, Lowe or Dwarfe Primrofes. In Englifh they haue in like 
manner diuers names, according to feuerall Countries, as Primrofes, Cow- 
flips, Oxelips, Palfieworts, and Petty Mulleins. The firft kindes, which are 
lower then the reft, are generally called by the name of Primrofes (as I 
thinke) throughout England. The others are diuerfly named ; for in fome 
Countries they call them Paigles, or Palfieworts, or Petty Mulleins, which 
are called Cowflips in others. Thofe are vfually called Oxelips, whofe 
flowers are naked, or bare without huskes to containe them, being not fo 
fweete as the Cowflip, yet haue they fome little fent, although the Latine 
name doth make them to haue none. The Franticke, Fantafticke, or Foolifh 
Cowflip, in fome places is called by Country people, lacke an Apes on 
horle-backe, which is an vfuall name with them, giuen to many other 
plants, as Daifies, Marigolds, &c. if they be llrange or fantalticall, diffe- 
ring in the forme from the ordinary kinde of the fingle ones. The fmallelt 
are vfually called through all the North Country, Birds eyen, becaufe of 
the fmall yellow circle in the bottomes of the flowers, refembling the eye 
of a bird. 

The Vertues. 

Primrofes and Cowflips are in a manner wholly vied in Cephalicall dif- 
eafes, either among other herbes or flowers, or of themfelues alone, to eafe 
paines in the head, and is accounted next vnto Betony, the beft tor that pur- 
pofe. Experience likewife hath fhewed, that they are profitable both for 
the Palfie, and paines of the ioynts, euen as the Beares eares are, which 
hath caufed the names of Arthitica, Paralyjis, and Paralytica, to bee giuen 
them. The iuice of the flowers is commended to cleanfe the fpots or marks 
of the face, whereof fome Gentlewomen haue found good experience. 


248 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Pulmonaria, Lungwort, or Cowflips of lerufalem. 

ALthough thefe plants are generally more vfed as Pot-herbes for the Kitchen, 
then as flowers for delight, yet becaufe they are both called Cowflips, and are 
of like forme, but of much lefle beauty, I haue ioyned them next vnto them, in 
a diftincl: Chapter by themfelues, and fo may pafle at this time. 

i. Pulmonaria maculofa. Common fpotted Cowflips of lerufalem. 

The Cowflip of lerufalem hath many rough, large, and round leaues, but pointed 
at the ends, (landing vpon long foot-ftalkes, fpotted with many round white fpots on 
the vpperfides of the fad greene or browne leaues, and of a grayer greene vnderneath : 
among the leaues fpring vp diuers browne ftalkes, a foote high, bearing many flowers 
at the toppe, very neare refembling the flowers of Cowflips, being of a purple or red- 
dim colour while they are buds, and of a darke blewifh colour when they are blowne, 
(landing in brownifh greene huskes, and fometimes it hath beene found with white 
flowers : when the flowers are part, there come vp fmall round heads, containing 
blacke feed : the roote is compofed of many long and thicke blacke firings. 

2. Pulmonaria altera non maculofa. Vnfpotted Cowflips of lerufalem. 

The leaues of this other kinde are not much vnlike the former, being rough as they 
are, but f mailer, of a fairer greene colour aboue, and of a whiter greene vnderneath, 
without any fpots at all vpon the leaues : the flowers alfo are like the former, and of 
the fame colour, but a little more branched vpon the ftalkes then the former : the 
rootes alfo are blacke like vnto them. 

3. Pulmonaria angujlifolia. Narrow leafed Cowflips of lerufalem. 

The leaues hereof are fomewhat longer, but not fo broad, and fpotted with whitifh 
fpots alfo as the former : the ftalke hereof is fet with the like long hairy leaues, but 
fmaller, being a foote high or better, bearing at the toppe many flowers, (landing in 
huskes like the firft, being fomewhat reddifh in the bud, and of a darke purplim blew 
colour when they are blowne open : the feede is like the former, all of them doe well 
refemble Buglofle and Comfrey in mod parts, except the roote, which is not like 
them, but llringie, like vnto Cowflips, yet blacke. 

The Place. 

The Cowflips of lerufalem grow naturally in the Woods of Germany, 
in diuers places, and the firft kinde in England alfo, found out by lohn 
Goodier, a great fearcher and louer of plants, dwelling at Maple-durham 
in Hampfhire. 

The Time. 

They flower for the moft part very early, that is, in the beginning of 

The Names. 

They are generally called in Latine, Pulmonaria, and maculofa, or non ma- 
culofa, is added for di(lin6tions fake. Of fome it is called Symphitum macu- 
lofum, that is, fpotted Comfrey. In Engli(h it is diuerfly called ; as fpotted 
Cowflips of lerufalem, Sage of lerufalem, Sage of Bethlehem, Lungwort, 


The Garden of plctifant Flowers. 249 

and fpotted Comfrey, and it might bee as fitly called ("potted Buglofle, 
\\ hereunto it K as like as vnto Comfrey, as I f;iid before. 

The Vcrtues. 

It is much commended of Come, to bee fingular good for vlcered lungs, 
that arc full of rotten matter. As alfo for them that fpit bloud, being boy- 
led and drunkc. It is of greateft vfe for the pot, being generally held to be 
good, both for the lungs and the heart. 


i . BugloJ/um & Borrago. Buglofle and Borage. 

ALthough Borage and Buglofle might as fitly haue been placed, I confefle, in 
the Kitchen Garden, in regard they are wholly in a manner fpent for Phyfi- 
call properties, or for the Pot, yet becaufe anciently they haue been entertai- 
ned into Gardens of pleafure, their flowers hauing been in fome refpeft ; in that they 
haue alwaies been enterpofed among the flowers of womens needle-worke, I am more 
willing to giue them place here, then thruft them into obfcurity, and take fuch of their 
tribe with them alfo as may fit for this place, either for beauty or rarity. 

The Garden Buglofle and Borage are fo well knowne vnto all, that I (hall (I doubt) 
but fpend time in wafte to defcribe them ; yet not vfing to pafle ouer any thing I name 
and appropriate to this Garden fo fleightly, they are thus to bee knowne : Buglofle 
hath many long, narrow, hairy, or rough fad greene leaues, among which rife vp two 
or three very high ftalks, branched at the top, whereon ftand many blew flowers, confi- 
fting of fiue fmall round pointed leaues, with a fmall pointell in the middle, which are 
very fmooth, Oiining, and of a reddifh purple while they are buds, and not blowne o- 
pen, which being fallen, there groweth in the greene huske, wherein the flower ftood, 
three or foure roftndim blacke feedes, hauing that thread or pointell ftanding ftill in 
the middle of them : the roote is blacke without, and whitifli within, long, thicke, and 
full of flimie iuice (as the leaues are alfo) and perimeth not euery yeare, as the roote of 
Borage doth. 

2. Borrago. Borage. 

Borage hath broader, fhorter, greener, and rougher leaues then Buglofle, the ftalkes 
hereof are not so high, but branched into many parts, whereon ftand larger flowers, 
and more pointed at the end then Buglofle, and of a paler blew colour for the moft 
part (yet fometimes the flowers are reddiOi, and fometimes pure white) each of the 
flowers confiding of fiue leaues, Handing in a round hairy whitifh huske, diuided 
into fiue parts, and haue a fmall vmbone of fiue blackifh threads in the middle, ftanding 
out pointed at the end, and broad at the bottome : the feed is like the other : the root is 
thicker and ihorter then the roote of BuglolTe, fomewhat blackilh without alfo, and 
whitilh within, and perifheth after feede time, but rifeth of it owne feede fallen, and 
fpringeth in the beginning of the yeare. 

3. Borrago femper virens. Euerliuing Borage. 

Euerliuing Borage hath many broad greene leaues, and fomewhat rough, more re- 
fembling Comfrey then Borage, yet not fo large as either ; the ftalkes are not fo high 
as Borage, and haue many fmall blew flowers on them, very like to the flowers of 
Buglofle for the forme, and Borage for the colour : the rootes are blacke, thicker then 
either ot them, fomewhat more fpreading, and not perifhing, hauing greene leaues 
all the Winter long, and thereupon tooke his name. 

I 2 4. Anchufa. 

250 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

4. Anchufa. Sea Buglofle or Alkanet. 

The Sea Buglofle or Alkanet hath many long, rough, narrow, and darke greene 
leaues, fpread vpon the ground (yet fome that growe by the Sea fide are rather hoarie 
and whitifh) among thefe leaues rifeth vp a ftalke, fpread at the toppe into many bran- 
ches, whereon (land the flowers in tufts, like vnto the Garden Buglofle, or rather 
Comfrey, but lefler ; in fome plants of a reddifh blew colour, and in others more red 
or purplifh, and in others of a yellowifh colour : after which come the feedes, very 
like vnto Buglofle, but fomewhat longer and paler : the roote of moft of them be- 
ing tranfplanted, are fomewhat blackifh on the outfide, vntill the later end of Sum- 
mer, and then become more red : for those that grow wilde, will be then fo red, that 
they will giue a very deepe red colour to thofe that hahdle them, which being dryed 
keepe that red colour, which is vfed to many purpofes ; the roote within being white, 
and hauing no red colour at all. 

5. Limonium Rauwolfij. Marfh Buglofle. 

This Limonium (which I referre here to the kindes of Buglofle, as prefuming it is 
the fitteft place where to infert it) hath many long narrow, and fomewhat rough leaues 
lying vpon the ground, waued or cut in on both fides, like an Indenture, fomewhat like 
the leaues of Ceterach or Miltwaft, among which rife vp two or three (lalkes, fome- 
what rough alfo, and with thin skinnes like wings, indented on both fides thereof alfo, 
like the leaues, hauing three fmall, long, rough, and three fquare leaues at euery ioynt, 
where it brancheth forth ; at the toppe whereof (land many flowers vpon their foote 
(lalkes, in fuch a manner, as is not feene in any other plant, that I know : for although 
that fome of the fmall winged foot ftalkes are fhorter, and fome longer, (landing as it 
were flatwife, or all on one fide, and not round like an vmbell, yet are they euen at the 
toppe, and not one higher than another ; each of which fmall foote ftalkes doe beare 
foure or fiue greenifti heads or huskes, ioyned together, out of each of which doe a- 
rife other pale or bleake blew ftifFe huskes, as if they "were flowers, made as it were of 
parchment, which hold their colour after they are dry a long time ; and out of thefe 
huskes likewife, doe come (at feuerall times one after another, and not all at one time 
or together) white flowers, confiding of fiue fmall round leaues, with fome white 
threds in the middle : after thefe flowers are pad, there come in their places fmall long 
feede, inclofed in many huskes, many of thofe heads being idle, not yeelding any 
goode feede, but chafFe, efpecially in our Countrey, for the want of fufficient heate of 
the Sunne, as I take it : the roote is fmall, long, and blackifh on the outfide, and perifh- 
eth at the firft approach of Winter. 

The Place. 

Borage and Buglofle grow onely in Gardens with vs, and fo doth the 
Semper virens, his originall being vnknowne vnto vs. Alkanet or Sea Bug- 
lofle groweth neare the Sea, in many places of France, and Spaine, and 
fome of the kindes alfo in England. But the Limonium or Marfhe Buglofle 
groweth in Cales, and Malacca in Spaine, and is found alfo in Syria, as 
Rauwolfius relateth : and in other places alfo no doubt ; for it hath beene 
fent vs out of Italic, many yeares before eyther Guillaume Boel found it in 
Cales, or Clufius in Malacca. 

The Time. 

Borage and Buglofle doe flower in lune, and luly, and fometimes fooner, 
and fo doth the euer-liuing or neuer-dying Borage, but not as Gerrard faith, 
flowring Winter and Summer, whereupon it mould take his name, but lea- 
ueth flowring in Autumne, and abideth greene with his leaues all the Win- 

The Garden of pica/ant Flowers. 


I Pulmonaria latifolia macula/a. Cowflips of lerufaleni. 2 PulmoHaria angu/li folia. Narrow leafed Cowflips of Icrufalem. 
3 Borrago. Borage. 4 Borrago fcmptr virtnt. Euerliuing Borage. 5 Aiukufa. Sea Bugloffc or Alkanet. 6 Limunium 
Raintolfj. Maifh Bugloffe. 

252 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

ter, flowring the next Spring following. The other flower not vntill July, 
and fo continue, efpecially the Marfhe Buglofle vntill September bee well 
fpent, and then giueth feede, if early frofts ouertake it not ; for it feldome 
commeth to be ripe. 

The Names. 

Our ordinary Borage by the confent of all the beft moderne Writers, is 
the true Buglojfum of Diofcorides, and that our Buglofle was vnknowne to 
the ancients. The Borago femper virens, Lobel calleth Bugloffum femper vi- 
rens, that is, Euer-liuing, or Greene Buglofle : but it more refembleth Bo- 
rage then Buglofle ; yet becaufe Buglofle abideth greene, to auoyde that 
there mould not be two BugloJ/a femper virentta, I had rather call it Borage 
then Buglofle. Anchufa hath diuers names, as Diofcorides fetteth downe. 
And fome doe call it Fucus herba, from the Greeke word, becaufe the roote 
giuing fo deepe a colour, was vfed to dye or paint the skinne. Others call it 
Bugloffum Hifpanicum, in Englifh Alkanet, and of fome Orchanet, after the 
French. Limonium was found by Leonhartus Rauwolfius, neere vnto lop- 
pa, which he fetteth downe in the fecond Chapter of the third booke of 
his trauayles, and from him firft knowne to thefe parts : I haue, as you fee, 
referred it to the kindes of Buglofle, for that the flowers haue fome refem- 
blance vnto them, although I know that Limonium genuinum is referred to 
the Beetes. Let it therefore here finde a place of refidence, vntill you or I 
can finde a fitter ; and call it as you thinke beft, eyther Limonium as Rau- 
wolfius doth, or Marfhe Buglofle as I doe, or if you can adde a more pro- 
per name, I mail not be offended. 

The Vertues. 

Borage and Buglofle are held to bee both temperate herbes, beeing vfed 
both in the pot and in drinkes that are cordiall, efpecially the flowers, which 
of Gentlewomen are candid for comfitts. The Alkanet is drying, and held 
to be good for wounds, and if a peece of the roote be put into a little oyle 
of Peter or Petroleum, it giueth as deepe a colour to the oyle, as the Hype- 
ricon doth or can to his oyle, and accounted to be fingular good for a cut or 
greene wound. 

The Limonium hath no vfe that wee know, more then for a Garden ; yet 
as Rauwolfius faith, the Syrians vfe the leaues as fallats at the Table. 

Lychnis. Campions. 

THere bee diuers forts of Campions, as well tame as wilde, and although fome 
of them that I fhall here entreate of, may peraduenture be found wilde in our 
owne Countrey, yet in regard of their beautifull flowers, they are to bee re- 
fpected, and nourfed vp with the reft, to furnifh a garden of pleafure ; as for the wilde 
kindes, I will leaue them for another difcourfe. 

i. Lychnis Coronaria rubra Jimplex. The fingle red Rofe Campion. 

The fingle red Rofe Campion hath diuers thicke, hoary, or woolly long greene 
leaues, abiding greene all the winter, and in the end of the fpring or beginning of fum- 
mer, fhooteth forth two or three hard round woolly ftalkes, with fome ioynts thereon, 
and at euery ioynt two fuch like hoary greene leaues as thofe below, but fmaller, 
diuerfly branched at the toppe, hauing one flower vpon each feuerall long foot ftalke, 


T/ie Garden of pleajant Flowers. 253 

coiililting of fine leaues, fomewhat broiule and round pointed, ot a perfect red criin- 
fon colour, Itanding out of a hard long round huske, ridged or crelled in tburc or fiue 
places ; after the riowers arc fallen there come vp round hard heads, wherein is contai- 
ned finall hlackilh feed : the roote is fmall, long and wooddy, with many fibres an- 
nexed vnto it, and (hooteth forth anew oftentimes, yet perilheth often alfo. 

2. Lychnis Coronaria alba (implex . The white Role Campion. 

The white Role Campion is in all things like the red, but in the colour of the flower, 
which in this is of a pure white colour. 

3. Lychnis Coronaria albefcens Jiue incarnata maculata & non maculata. 
The blufh Rofe Campion fpotted and not fpotted. 

Like vnto the former alfo are thefe other forts, hauing no other difference to diftin- 
guilh them, but tlie flowers, which are of a pale or bleake whitilh blulh colour, efpeci- 
ally about the brims, as if a very little red were mixed with a great deale of white, 
the middle of the flower being more white ; the one being fpotted all ouer the flower, 
with fmall fpots and ftreakes, the other not hauing any fpot at all. 

4. Lychnis Coronaria rubra multiplex. The double red Rofe Campion. 

The double red Rofe Campion is in all refpecls like vnto the (ingle red kinde, but 
that this beareth double flowers, confifting of two or three rowes of leaues at the 
molt, which are not fo large as the (ingle, and the whole plant is more tender, that is, 
more apt to perifh, then any of the (ingle kindes. 

5. Lychnis Chalcedonica Jiore Jimplici miniato. Single Nonefuch, 
or Flower of Briftow, or Conftantinople. 

This Campion of Conftantinople hath many broad and long greene leaues, among 
which rife vp fundry (tiffe round hairy ioynted (talks three foot high, with two leaues 
euery ioynt : the flowers ftand at the toppes of them, very many together, in a large 
tuft or vmbell, conlilting of fiue fmall long leaues, broade pointed, and notched-in 
in the middle, of a bright red orenge colour, which being part, there come in their 
places fmall hard whitilh heads or feede veflels, containing blacke feede, like vnto the 
feede of fweet Williams, and hauing but a fmall fent ; the roote is very (tringie, farte- 
ning it felfe very (trongly in the ground, whereby it is much encreafed. Flare olix>. 

Ot the lingle kinde there is alfo two or three other forts, differing chiefly in the co-Et canto. 
lour of the flowers. The one is pure white. Another is of a blu(h colour wholly, 
without variation. And a third is very variable ; for at the firft it is of a pale red, and 
after a while groweth paler, vntill in the end it become almoft fully white ; and all thefe 
diuerfities of the flowers are fometimes to bee feene on one ftalke at one and the fame 

6. Lychnis Chalcedonica Jiore miniato pleno. 
Double Flower of Briftow, or Nonefuch. 

This glorious flower being as rare as it is beautiful!, is for rootes beeing Itringie, 
tor leaues and (talkes being hairy and high, and for the flowers growing in tufts, al- 
together like the firft lingle kinde : but herein conlilteth the chiefeft difference, that 
this beareth a larger vmbell or tuft of flowers at the toppe ot the (talke, euery flower 
conlilting of three or foure rowes of leaues, of a deeper orenge colour then it, which 
addeth the more grace vnto it, but pafleth away without bearing feede, as molt other 
double flowers doe, yet recompenceth that defect with encreafe from the roote. 

7. Lychnis plumaria Jiluejlris Jimplex & multiplex. 
The featherd wilde Campion (ingle and double. 

The leaues of this wilde Campion are fomewhat like the ordinary white wilde 


254 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Campion, but not fo large, or rather refembling the leaues of fweete Williams, but 
that they grow not fo clofe, nor fo many together : the ftalkes haue fmaller leaues at 
the ioynts then thofe belowe, and branched at the toppe, with many pale, but bright 
red flowers, iagged or cut in on the edges, like the feathered Pinke, whereof fome haue 
taken it to be a kinde, and fome for a kinde of wilde William, but yet is but a wilde 
Campion, as may be obferued, both by his huske that beareth the flowers, and by the 
greyifh roundifh feede, being not of the Family of Pinkes and Gillowers, but (as I faid) 
of the Campions : the roote is full of firings or fibres. 

Flore plena. The double kinde is very like vnto the fingle kinde, but that it is lower and fmaller, 
and the flowers very double. 

8. Lychnis Jiluejlris ftore plena rubro. Red Batchelours buttons. 

The double wilde Campion (which of our Countrey Gentlewomen is called Bat- 
chelours buttons) is very like both in rootes, leaues, ftalkes, and flowers vnto the or- 
dinary wilde red Campion, but fomewhat leffer, his flowers are not iagged, but 
fmooth, and very thicke and double, fo that moft commonly it breaketh his fhort 
huske, wherein the flower ftandeth on the one fide, feldome hauing a whole huske, 
and are of a reddifh colour. 

9. Lychnis Jiluejlris JJore albo pleno. White Batchelours buttons. 

As the leaues of the former double Campion was like vnto the fingle kinde that had 
red flowers, fo this hath his leaues like vnto the fingle white kinde, differing in no o- 
ther thing from it, but in the doublenefTe of the flowers, which by reafon of the multi- 
plicity of leaues in them thrufting forth together, breaketh his huskes wherein the 
flowers doe ftand, as the other doth, and hath fcarce one flower in many that is whole. 

i o. Ocymoides arborea femper wrens. Strange Baml Campion. 

This Strange Campion (for thereunto it muft bee referred) fhooteth forth many 
round, whitifh, wooddy, but brittle ftalkes, whereon ftand diuers long, and fomewhat 
thicke leaues, fet by couples, narrow at the bottome, and broader toward the point, 
of a very faire greene and fhining colour, fo that there is more beauty in the greene 
leaues, which doe fo alwaies abide, then in the flowers, which are of a pale red or 
blufh colour, confifting of fiue fmall long broad pointed leaues, notched in the mid- 
dle, which doe not lye clofe, but loofly as it were hanging ouer the huskes : after the 
flowers are paft, there come heads that containe blackifh feede : the roote is fmall, 
hard, white, and threadie. 

1 1 . Mufcipula Lobelij Jiue Ben rubrum Monfpelienjiuni. Lobels Catch Flie. 

I muft needes infert this fmall plant, to finifh this part of the Campions, whereunto 
it belongeth, being a pretty toye to furnifh and decke out a Garden. It fpringeth vp (if 
it haue beene once fowne and fuffered to fhed) in the later end of the yeare moft com- 
monly, or elfe in the Spring with fiue or fix fmall leaues, very like vnto the leaues of 
Pinkes, and of the fame grayifh colour, but a little broader and fhorter, and when it 
beginneth to fhoote vp for flower, it beareth fmaller leaues on the clammy or vifcous 
ftalkes (fit to hold any fmall thing that lighteth on it) being broad at the bottome 
compaffing them, and ftanding two at a ioynt one againft another : the toppes of the 
ftalkes are diuerfly branched into feuerall parts, euery branch hauing diuers fmall red 
flowers, not notched, but fmooth, ftanding out of fmall, long, round, ftript huskes, 
which after the flowers are paft, containe fmall grayifh feede : the roote is fmall, 
and perifheth after it hath giuen feede ; but rifeth (as is before faid) of its owne feede, 
if it be suffered to fhed. 

The Place. 

The Rofe Campions, Flowers of Briftow, or Nonefuch, the Baffil Cam- 

The Garden of plea feint Flowers. 


i Lychnis Curaitaria fimpltx. 

3 Lyihnit ChaUtdotucafimflex. Single None lucfi, or flower of Briftow. 

Single Rofe Campion. 

i Lychnit Coronaria rubra multiplex. 'The double red Rofe Campion. 

L. , x of Briftow. 4 Lychnit Chalctdonua jtort pltHo. Double None fuch, 

yckiut flumaria multiplex. Pleafant in fight. 6 Lychnis JHutftrit flort plena ntbro. Red Batchelours 
Buttons. 7 Lychnis JUneflris flore plmo albo. White Batchelours Button*. 8 M<tfcipnl,i Lobelij. Lobels Catch Flic. 

or flower of Briftow. 

256 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

pion, and the Catch Flie, haue been fent vs from beyond the Seas, and are 
onely nourfed vp in Gardens with vs ; the other Campions that are double, 
haue been naturally fo found double wilde (for no art or induftry of man, 
that euer I could be allured of to be true, be it by neuer fo many repetitions 
of tranfplantations, and planeticall obferuations (as I haue faid in the be- 
ginning of this worke) could bring any flower, fingle by nature, to become 
double, notwithftanding many affirmations to that purpofe, but whatfoe- 
uer hath been found wilde to be double, nature her felfe, and not art hath fo 
produced it) and being brought into Gardens, are there encreafed by flip- 
ping, and parting the roote, becaufe they giue no feede. 

The Time. 
All of them doe flower in the Summer, yet none before May. 

The Names. 

The firft kindes are called Lychnides fatiuce, and coronarite, in Englifh ge- 
nerally Rofe Campions. The next is called Lychnis Chalcedonica, and By- 
zantina ; in Englifh, of fome Nonefuch, and of others Flower of Briftow, 
and after the Latine, Flower of Conftantinople, becaufe it is thought the 
feede was firft brought from thence ; but from whence the double of this 
kinde came, we cannot tell. The names of the others of this kinde, both 
tingle and double, are fet downe with their defcriptions. The feathered 
Campions are called Armoraria pratenjis, and Flos Cuculi, and of Clulius 
and others thought to be Odontitis Plinij. Some call them in Englifh Crow- 
flowers, and Cuckowe-Flowers ; and fome call the double hereof, The 
faire Maide of France. The Baflil Campions were fent ouer among many 
other feedes out of Italy, by the name of Ocimoides arborea femper wrens. 
Arborea^ becaufe the ftalke is more wooddy and durable then other Cam- 
pions : And femper wrens, becaufe the leaues abide greene Winter and 
Summer. Clulius calleth it Lychnis femper virens, becaufe it is certainly a 
Campion. The lafl is diuerfly called of Authors ; Lobel calleth it Mufci- 
pula : Others Armoraria altera : Dodonaeus Armerius flos quartus. Clufius 
Lychnis filuejlris a Itera, in his Spanifh obferuations, and prima in his Hiftory 
of plants, and faith, the learned of Salmantica in Spaine called it, Ben ru- 
brum, as Lobel faith, they of Mompelier doe alfo : and by that name I re- 
ceiued it firft out of Italy. It hath the name of Catch Flie, of Mufcipula the 
Latine word, becaufe the ftalkes in the hot Summer dayes haue a certaine 
vifcous or clammy humour vpon them, whereby it ealily holdeth (as I faid 
before) whatfoeuer fmall thing, as Flies, &c. lighteth vpon it. 

The Vertues. 

We know none in thefe dayes, that putteth any of thefe to any Phyficall 
vfe, although fome haue in former times. 


Keirijiue Leucoium luteum. Wall-flowers, or Wall Gilloflowers. 


Here are two forts of Wall-flowers, the one fingle, the other double, and of 
each of them there is likewife fome differences, as mall be fhewed in their de- 

i. Keiri 

The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 


1. Keiri /iuc Leucoium luteum Jimf>lc.\ vulgare. Common fingle Wall-flowers. 

The common lingle Wall-flower which groweth wilde abroad, and yet is brought 
into Gardens, hath fundry fmall, narrow, long, and darke greene leaues, let with- 
out order vpon fmall round whitifh wooddy ftalkes, which bearc at the tops diuers 
lingle yellow flowers one aboue another, euery one hauing foure leaues a peece, and of 
a very fweete fent : after which come long pods, containing rcddifh fecdc : the roote 
is white, hard and thready. 

2. Keiri Jiue Leucoium lute urn /implex maius. The great fingle Wall- flower. 

There is another fort of fingle Wall-flower, whofe leaues as well as flowers are 
much larger then the former : the leaues being of a darker and fhining greene colour, 
and the flowers of a very deepe gold yellow colour, and vfually broader then a twen- 
tie Ihilling peece of gold can couer : the fpike or toppe of flowers alfo much longer, 
and abiding longer in flower, and much fweeter likewife in fent : the pods for feede 
are thicker and fhorter, with a fmall point at the end : this is flower to encreafe into 
branches, as alfo to be encreafed by the branches, and more tender to be preferued ; 
for the hard frofts doe caufe it to perifh, if it be not defended from them. 

3. Keiri fimplex fiore albo. White Wall-flower. 

This Wall-flower hath his leaues as greene as the great kinde, but nothing fo large : 
the flowers ftand at the toppe, but not in fo long a fpike, and confifteth of foure leaues, 
of a very white colour, not much larger then the common kinde, and of a faint or 
weaker fent : the pods are nothing fo great as the former great one : this is more eafie 
to be propagated and encreafed alfo, but yet will require fome care in defending it 
from the colds of the Winter. 

4. Keiri Jiue Leucoium luteum vu/gare flore pleno. Common double Wall-flowers. 

This ordinary double Wall-flower is in leaues and ftalke very like vnto the firft fin- 
gle kinde, but that the leaues hereof are not of fo deepe a greene colour : the flowers 
ftand at the top of the ftalkes one aboue another, as it were a long fpike, which flower 
by degrees, the loweft firft, and fo vpwards, by which it is a long time in flowring, and 
is very double, of a gold yellow colour, and very fweete. 

5. Keiri Jiue Leucoium luteum alter um fiore pleno. Pale double Wall-flowers. 

Wee haue another fort of this kinde of double Wall-flower, whofe double flow- 
ers ftand not fpike-fafhion as the former, but more open fpread. and doe all of them 
blowe open at one time almoft, and not by degrees as the other doth, and is of a paler 
yellow colour, not differing in any thing elfe, except that the greene leaues hereof are 
of a little paler greene then it. 

6. Keiri Jiue Leucoium luteum maius fiore pleno ferrug into. 
Double red Wall-flowers. 

We haue alfo another fort of double Wall-flower, whofe leaues are as greene, and 
almoft as large as the great fingle yellow kinde, or full as bigge as the leaues of the 
white Wall-flower : the flowers hereof are not much larger then the ordinary, but are 
of a darker yellow colour then the great fingle kinde, and of a more brownifh or red 
colour on the vnderfide of the leaues, and is as it were ftriped. 

7. Keiri ftue Leucoium maximum luteum fiore pleno. 
The greateft double yellow Wall-flower. 

This great double Wall-flower is as yet a ftranger in England, and therefore what I 

K 2 here 

258 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

here write is more vpon relation (which yet I beleeue to be moft true) then vpon fight 
and fpeculation. The leaues of this Wall-flower are as greene and as large, if not lar- 
ger then the great fingle kinde : the flowers alfo are of the fame deepe gold yellow 
colour with it, but much larger then any of the former double kindes, and of as fweet 
a fent as any, which addeth delight vnto beauty. 

The Place. 

The firft fingle kind is often found growing vpon old wals of Churches, 
and other houfes in many places of England, and alfo among rubbifh and 
ftones. The fingle white and great yellow, as well as all the other double 
kindes, are nourfed vp in Gardens onely with vs. 

The Time. 

All the fingle kindes doe flower many times in the end of Autumne, and 
if the Winter be milde all the Winter long, but efpecially in the moneths 
of February, March, and Aprill, and vntill the heate of the Spring doe 
fpend them : but the other double kindes doe not continue flowring in that 
manner the yeare throughout, although very early fometimes, and very late 
alfo in fome places. 

The Names. 

They are called by diuers names, as Viola lutea, Leucoium luteum, and 
Keiri, or Cheiri, by which name it is chiefly knowne in our Apothecaries 
mops, becaufe there is an oyle made thereof called Cheirinum : In Englifh 
they are vfually called in thefe parts, Wall-flowers : Others doe call them 
Bee-flowers ; others Wall-Gilloflowers, Winter-Gilloflowers, and yel- 
low Stocke-Gilloflowers ; but we haue a kinde of Stocke-Gilloflower that 
more fitly deferueth that name, as mail be mewed in the Chapter following. 

The Vertues. 

The fweetnefle of the flowers caufeth them to be generally vfed in Nofe- 
gayes, and to decke vp houfes ; but phyfically they are vfed in diuers man- 
ners : As a Conferue made of the flowers, is vfed for a remedy both for 
the Appoplexie and Palfie. The diftilled water helpeth well in the like 
manner. The oyle made of the flowers is heating and refoluing, good to 
eafe paines of (trained and pained finewes. 


Leucoium. Stocke-Gilloflower. 

THere are very many forts of Stocke-Gilloflowers, both fingle and double, fome 
of the fields and mountaines, others of the Sea marfhes and medowes ; and 
fome nourfed vp in Gardens, and there preferued by feede or flippe, as each 
kinde is apteft to bee ordered. But becaufe fome of thefe are fitter for a generall Hi- 
ftory then for this our Garden of Pleafure, both for that diuers haue no good fent, 
others little or no beauty, and to be entreated of onely for the variety, I mall fpare fo 
many of them as are not fit for this worke, and onely fet downe the reft. 

i . Leucoium Jimp lex fativum diuerforum color urn. 
Garden Stocke-Gilloflowers fingle of diuers colours 

Thefe fingle Stocke-Gilloflowers, although they differ in the colour of their flow- 

The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

i Keinjiiu Lttuoium luteum vulgar,. Common Wall-flowers. i Kdrijiut Levcoium luleum maiui fimplt x . The greal fingle 
Wall-flower. 3 Keiri jiue Lrucoium Itileum jiort pltno vulgart. Ordinary double Wall-flowers. 4 Ktiri mains /lore fltno fir- 
rugituo. The great doable red Wall-flower. 5 Letuoium fatiium JimfUx. Single Stocke-Gilloflowers. 6 Leucoium fali- 
nmtmbUx Jiortfiriolo. Single ftript Stocke-Gilloflowers. 

260 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

ers, yet are in leafe and manner of growing, one fo like vnto another, that vntill they 
come to flower, the one cannot be well knowne that beareth red flowers, from another 
that beareth purple ; and therefore one defcription of the plant mall ferue, with a de- 
claration of the fundry colours of the flowers. It rifeth vp with round whitifh woody 
ftalkes, two, three, or foure foot high, whereon are fet many long, and not very broad, 
foft, and whitifh or grayifh greene leaues, fomewhat round pointed, and parted into 
diuers branches, at the toppes whereof grow many flowers, one aboue another, fmel- 
ling very fweet, confifting of foure fmall, long, and round pointed leaues, (landing in 
fmall long huskes, which turne into long and flat pods, fometimes halfe a foote long, 
wherein is contained flat, round, reddifh feedes, with grayifh ringes or circles about 
them, lying flat all along the middle rib of the pod on both fides : the roote is long, 
white, and woody, fpreading diuers wayes. There is great variety in the colours of the 
flowers : for fome are wholly of a pure white colour, others of a moft excellent crim- 
fon red colour, others againe of a faire red colour, but not fo bright or liuely as the 
other, fome alfo of a purplifh or violet colour, without any fpot, marke, or line in 
them at all. There are againe of all thefe colours, mixed very variably, as white mixed 
with fmall or great fpottes, ftrakes or lines of pure or bright red, or darke red, and 
white with purple fpots and lines ; and of eyther of them whofe flowers are almoft 
halfe white, and halfe red, or halfe white, and halfe purple. The red of both forts, and 
the purple alfo, in the like manner fpotted, ftriped, and marked with white, differing 
neyther in forme, nor fubftance, in any other point. 

2. Le ucoium fatiuum albido lute urn Jimp lex. 
The lingle pale yellow Stocke-Gilloflower. 

There is very little difference in this kind from the former, for the manner of grow- 
ing, or forme of leaues or flower. Only this hath greener leaues, and pale yellow almoft 
white flowers, in all other things alike : this is of no great regard, but only for rarity, 
and diuerfity from the reft. 

3. Leucoium Melancholicum. The Melancholick Gentleman. 

This wilde kinde of ftocke gilloflower hath larger, longer and greener leaues then 
any of the former kindes, vneuenly gafhed or finuated on both edges lying on the 
ground, and a little rough or hairy withall : from among which rife vp the ftalkes, a yard 
high or more, and hairy likewife, bearing thereon here and there fome fuch like leaues as 
are below, but fmaller, and at the top a great number of flowers, as large or larger then 
any of the former fingle kindes, made of 4. large leaues a peece alfo, ftanding in fuch 
like long huskes, but of a darke or fullen yellowifh colour : after which come long 
roundifh pods, wherein lye fomewhat long but rounder and greater feede then any 
ftocke gilloflower, and nearer both in pod and feede vnto the Hefperis or Dames Vio- 
let : this perifheth not vfually after feede bearing, although fometimes it doth. 

4. Leucoium marinum Syriacum. Leuant ftocke gilloflowers. 

This kind of ftocke gilloflower rifeth vp at the firft with diuers long and fomewhat 
broad leaues, a little vneuenly dented or waued on the edges, which fo continue the 
firft yeare after the fowing : the ftalke rifeth vp the next yeare to bee two foot high or 
more, bearing all thofe leaues on it that it firft had, which then do grow lefle finuated 
or waued then before : at the top whereof ftand many flowers, made of foure leaues 
a peece, of a delayed purple colour, but of a fmall fent which turne into very long and 
narrow flat pods, wherein are contained flat feed like the ordinary ftocke gilloflowers, 
but much larger and of a darke or blackim browne colour : the root is white, and 
groweth deepe, fpreading in the ground, but growing woody when it is in feede, and 
perifheth afterwards. 

5. Leuco- 

"The Garden of plcajant Flowers. 


5. Leucoij alter urn genus, fore turn multiplici funm Jimplici ex feminio oriundtim. 

Another fort of Stocke gilloflowers bearing as well double 

as fingle flowers from feede. 

This kinde of Stocke gilloflower differeth neyther in forme of leaues, ftalkes, nor 
flowers from the former, but that it oftentimes groweth much larger and taller ; fo that 
whofoeuer (hall fee both thefe growing together, (hall fcarce difcerne the difference, 
onely it bearethjflowers, eyther white, red or purple, wholly or entire, that is, of one 
colour, without mixture of other colour in them (for fo much as euer I haue obferued, 
or could vnderlland by others) which are eyther fingle, like vnto the former, or very 
thicke and double, like vnto the next that followeth ; but larger, and growing with 
more (lore of flowers on the long ftalke. But this you must vnderrtand withall, that 
thofe plants that beare double flowers, doe beare no feede at all, and is very feldome 
encreafed by flipping or cutting, as the next kinde of double is : but the onely way to 
haue double flowers any yeare, (for this kinde dyeth euery winter, for the moft part, 
after it hath borne flowers, and feldome is preferued) is to faue the feedes of thofe 
plants of this kinde that beare fingle flowers, for from that feede will rife, fome that 
will beare iingle, and fome double flowers, which cannot bee diftinguifhed one from 
another, I meane which will be fingle and which double, vntill you fee them in flower, 
or budde at the lealt. And this is the only way to preferue this kinde : but of the feed 
of the former kinde was neuer known any double flowers to arife, and therefore you 
mult be carefull to marke this kinde from the former. 

6. Leucoium fare pleno diuerforum color urn. 
Double Stocke Gillowflowers of diuers colours. 

This other kinde of Stock gilloflower that beareth onely double flowers, groweth 
not fo great, nor fpreadeth his branches fo farre, nor are his leaues fo large, but is in 
all things fmaller, and lower, and yet is woody, or fhrubby, like the former, bea- 
ring his flowers in the like manner, many vpon a long ftalke, one aboue another, and 
very double, but not fo large as the former double, although it grow in fertile foyle, 
,which are eyther white, or red, or purple wholly, without any mixture, or elfe mixed 
with fpots and (tripes, as the fingle flowers of the firft kinde, but more variably, and 
not in all places alike, neuer bearing feede, but mufl be encreafed, only by the cutting 
ot the young fproutes or branches, taken in a fit feafon : this kinde perifheth not, as 
the former double kinde doth, fo as it bee defended in the winter from the extreame 
trolls, but efpecially from the fnow felling, or at the lealt remaining vpon it. 

7. Leucoium fathium lute urn Jiorc pleno. 
The double yellow Stocke Gilloflower. 


This double yellow Stock gilloflower is a (banger in England, as far as I can learne, 
yther haue I any further familiaritie with him, then by relation from Germany, 
where it is affirmed to grow only in fome of their gardens, that are curious louers of 
thefe delights, bearing long leaues fomewhat hoary or white, (and not greene like 
vnto the Wallflower, whereunto elfe it might be thought to be referred) like vnto the 
Stock gilloflowers, as the ftalkes and branches alfo are, and bearing faire double 
flowers, of a faire, but pale yellow colour. The whole plant is tender, as the double 
Stock gilloflowers are, and muft be carefully preferued in the winter from the coldes, 
or rather more then the lalt double, left it perilh. 

The Place. 

The fingle kindes, efpecially fome of them, grow in Italic, and fome in 
Greece, Candy, and the Ides adiacent, as may be gathered out of the verfes 
in Plutarches Booke De Amore fraterno : 


262 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

Inter Echinopodas ve/uf afperam, & inter Ononim, 
Interdum crefcunt mollia Leucoia. 

Which fheweth, that the foft or gentle ftocke gilloflowers doe fometimes 
grow among rough or prickely Furfe and Cammocke. The other forts are 
only to be found in gardens. 

The Time. 

They flower in a manner all the yeare throughout in fome places, efpe- 
cially fome of the fmgle kindes, if they ftand warme, and defended from 
the windes and cold : the double kindes flower fometimes in Aprill, and 
more plentifully in May, and lune ; but the double of feed, flowreth vfually 
late, and keepeth flowring vnto the winter, that the froftes and colde 
miftes doe pull it downe. 

The Names. 

It is called Leucoium, & Viola alba : but the name Leucoium (which is in 
Englifh the white Violet) is referred to diuers plants ; we call it in Englifh 
generally, Stocke gilloflower, (or as others doe, Stocke gillouer) to put a 
difference betweene them, and the Gilloflowers and Carnations, which are 
quite of another kindred, as mall be fhewne in place conuenient. 

The Vertues. 

Thefe haue no great vfe in Phyfick that I know : only fome haue vfed the 
leaues of the fmgle white flowred kinde with fait, to be laid to the wrefts of 
them that haue agues, but with what good fucceffe I cannot fay, if it hap- 
pen well I thinke in one (as many fuch things elfe will) it will fayle in a 


1 . Hefperis) Jiue Viola Matronalis. Dames Violets, 

or Queenes Gilloflowers. 

THe ordinary Dames Violets, or Queene Gilloflowers, hath his leaues broader, 
greener, and fharper pointed, then the Stock gilloflowers, and a little endented 
about the edges : the rtalkes grow two foot high, bearing many greene leaues 
vpon them, fmaller then thofe at the bottome, and branched at the toppe, bearing ma- 
ny flowers, in fafhion much like the flowers of ftocke gilloflowers, confifting of foure 
leaues in like manner, but not fo large, of a faint purplifh colour in fome, and in others 
white, and of a pretty fweet fent, efpecially towards night, but in the day time little or 
none at all : after the flowers are part, there doe come fmall long and round pods, 
wherein is contained, in two rowes, fmall and long blacke feede : the roote is wholly 
compofed of ftringes or fibres, which abide many yeares, and fpringeth frefh ftalks 
euery yeare, the leaues abiding all the Winter. 

2. He f per is Pannonica. Dames Violets of Hungary. 

The leaues of this Violet are very like the former, but fmoother and thicker, and 
not at all indented, or cut in on the edges : the flowers are like the former, but of a 
fullen pale colour, turning themfelues, and feldome lying plaine open, hauing many 
purple veines, and ftreakes running through the leaues of the flowers, of little or no 
fent in the day time, but of a very fweete lent in the euening and morning ; the feedes 
are alike alfo, but a little browner. 

3. Lyfimachia 

T/ie Gfirdcn of pleafant Flowers. 


MM Mtlandiolicum. Sullen Stocke-Gilloflowers. 2 Leutrnxm fativum flori pltna. Double Stocke-Gilloflowere. 3 
l.eucniitm'/ativtim/lort plena vario. Party coloured Stocke-Gilloflowers. 4 LtHCoium marinum Syriacum. Leuant Stocke-Gillo- 
flowers. 5 Htfptris vulgaris. Dames Violets or Winter Gilloflowers. 6 Lyfimackia lutrajHiquu/ti Virginiana. The tree 
Primrofe of Virginia. 7 Viola lunaris fiut Bolbonach. The white Sattin flower. 

264. The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

3. Lyfimachia lutea Jiliquofa Virginiana. The tree Primrofe of Virginia. 

Vnto what tribe or kindred I might referre this plant, I haue ftood long in fufpence, in 
regard I make no mention of any other Lyjimachia in this work : left therefore it fhould 
lofe all place, let me ranke it here next vnto the Dames Violets, although I confefle 
it hath little affinity with them. The firft yeare of the fowing the feede it abideth 
without any ftalke or flowers lying vpon the ground, with diuers long and narrow 
pale greene leaues, fpread oftentimes round almoft like a Rofe, the largeft leaues being 
outermoft, and very fmall in the middle : about May the next yeare the ftalke rifeth, 
which will be in Summer of the height of a man, and of a ftrong bigge fize almoft to a 
mans thumbe, round from the bottome to the middle, where it groweth crefted vp to 
the toppe, into as many parts as there are branches of flowers, euery one hauing a fmall 
leafe at the foote thereof : the flowers ftand in order one aboue another, round about 
the tops of the ftalks, euery one vpon a fhort foot-ftalke, confifting of foure pale yellow 
leaues, fmelling fomewhat like vnto a Primrofe, as the colour is alfo (which hath cau- 
fed the name) and ftanding in a greene huske, which parteth it felfe at the toppe into 
foure parts or leaues, and turne themfelues downewards, lying clofe to the ftalke : the 
flower hath fome chiues in the middle, which being paft, there come in their places 
long and cornered pods, fharpe pointed at the vpper end, and round belowe, opening 
at the toppe when it is ripe into fiue parts, wherein is contained fmall brownim feed : 
the roote is fomewhat great at the head, and wooddy, and branched forth diuerfly, 
which perifheth after it hath borne feede. 

The Place. 

The two firft grow for the moft part on Hils and in Woods, but with vs 
in Gardens onely. 

The laft, as may be well vnderftood by the title, came out of Virginia. 

The Time. 
They flower in May, lune, and luly. 

The Names. 

The name of Hefperis is impofed by moft Herbarifts vpon the two firft 
plants, although it is not certainly knowne to be the fame that Theophra- 
ftus doth make mention of, in his fixth Booke and twenty fiue Chapter de 
caujis plantarum : but becaufe this hath the like effects to fmell beft in the 
euening, it is (as I faid) impofed vpon it. It is alfo called Viola Marina Ma- 
tronalis, Hyemalis, Damafcena and Mufchatella : In Englifh, Dames Violets, 
Queens Gilloflowers, and Winter Gilloflowers. 

The laft hath his Latine name in the title as is beft agreeing with it, and 
for the Englifh, although it be too foolifh I confefle, yet it may pafle for 
this time till a fitter be giuen, vnlefle you pleafe to follow the Latine, and 
call it Virginia Loofe-ftrife. 

The Vertues. 

I neuer knew any among vs to vfe thefe kindes of Violets in Phyficke, al- 
though by reafon of the fharpe biting tafte, Dodonaeus accounteth the ordi- 
nary fort to be a kinde of Rocket, and faith it prouoketh fweating, and v- 
rine : and others affirme it to cut, digeft, and cleanfe tough flegme. The 
Virginian hath not beene vfed by any that I know, either inwardly or out- 



'The Garden of plea/ant Flowers. 265 

Viola Lunaris fiuc Bolbonacli. The Sattin flower. 

Nto the kindes of Stocke-Gilloflowers I thinke rittelt to adioyne thefe kindcs 
of Sattin-flowers, whereof there arc two forts, one frequent enough in all our 
Countrie, the other is not fo common. 

i . Viola Lunaris vu/garis. The common white Sattin flower. 

The firil of thefe Sattin flowers, which is the molt common, hath his leaues broad 
belowe, and pointed at the end, fnipt about the edges, and of a darke greene colour : 
the Ihilkes are round and hard, two foot high, or higher, diuided into many branches, 
let with the like leaues, but fmaller : the tops of the branches are befet with many pur- 
plilh flowers, like vnto Dames Violets, or Stocke-Gilloflowers, but larger, be- 
ing of little lent : after the flowers are paft, there come in their places round flat 
thin cods, of a darke colour on the outfide, but hauing a thinne middle skinne, that is 
white and cleare fhining, like vnto very pure white Sattin it felfe, whereon lye flat and 
round brownilh feede, fomewhat thicke and great : the rootes perifh when they haue 
giuen their feede, and are fomewhat round, long, and thicke, refembling the rootes of 
Lilium non bulbofum, or Day Lilly, which are eaten (as diuers other rootes are) for Sal- 
lets, both in our owne Country, and in many places befide. 

2. Viola Lunaris altera feu peregrina. Long liuing Sattin flower. 

This fecond kinde hath broader and longer leaues then the former, the ftalkes alfo 
are greener and higher, branching into flowers, of a paler purple colour, almoll white, 
confining of foure leaues in like manner, and fmelling pretty fweete, bearing fuch like 
pods, but longer and flenderer then they : the rootes are compofed of many long 
Itrings, which dye not as the former, but abide, and fhoot out new ftalkes euery yeare. 


The Place. 

The firft is (as is faid) frequent enough in Gardens, and is found wilde in 
fome places of our owne Country, as Mafter Gerard reporteth, whereof I 
neuer could be certainly aflfured, but I haue had it often fent mee among o- 
ther feedes from Italy, and other places. The other is not fo common in 
Gardens, but found about Watford, as he faith alfo. 

The Time. 
They flower in Aprill or May, and fometimes more early. 

The Names. 

It hath diuers names, as well in Englifh as in Latine ; for it is called moft 
vfually Bolbonach, and Viola Lunaris : Of fome Viola latifolia, and of others 
Viola Peregrina, and Lunaria Gr<eca, Lunaria maior, and Lunaria odorata, and 
is thought to be Thlafpi Crateua : In Englifh, White Satten, or Satten flower : 
Of fome it is called Honefty, and Penny-flower. 

The Vertues. 

Some doe vfe to eate the young rootes hereof, before they runnc vp to 
flower, as Rampions are eaten with Vinegar and Oyle ; but wee know no 
Phyficall vfe they haue. 

Li 2 v- H A P. 

266 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

CHAP. X LI 1 1. 

Linum Jiluejlre & Linaria. Wilde Flaxe and Tode Flaxe. 

ALthough neither the manured Line or Flaxe is a plant fit for our Garden, nor 
many of the wilde forts, yet there are fome, whofe pleafant and delightfull 
afpeft doth entertaine the beholders eyes with good content, and thofe I will 
fet downe here for varietie, and adioyne vnto them fome of the Linarias, or Tode 
Flaxe, for the neare affinity with them. 

1. Linum Jiluejlre flore albo. Wilde Flaxe with a white flower. 

This kinde of wilde Flaxe rifeth vp with diuers {lender branches, a foote high or 
better, full of leaues, (landing without order, being broader and longer then the ma- 
nured Flaxe : the tops of the branches haue diuers faire white flowers on them, com- 
pofed of fiue large leaues a peece, with many purple lines or ftrikes in them : the feede 
veflell as well as the feede, is like vnto the heads and feede of the manured Flaxe : the 
rootes are white firings, and abide diuers yeares, fpringing frefh branches and leaues 
euery yeare, but not vntill the Spring of the yeare. 

2. Linum Jiluejlre luteum. Wilde Flaxe with a yellow flower. 

This wilde Flaxe doth fo well refemble a kinde of St. lohns wort, that it will foone 
deceiue one that doth not aduifedly regard it : For it hath many reddifh ftalkes, and 
fmall leaues on them, broader then the former wilde Flaxe, but not fo long, which are 
well ftored with yellow flowers, as large as the former, made of fiue leaues a peece, 
which being part, there come fmall flattifh heads, containing blackifh feede, but not 
mining like the former : the rootes hereof dye not euery yeare, as many other of the 
wilde kindes doe, but abide and fhoote out euery yeare. 

3. Linaria purpurea. Purple Tode Flaxe. 

This purple Tode Flaxe hath diuers thicke, fmall, long, and fomewhat narrowifh 
leaues, fnipt about the edges, of a whitifh greene colour, from among which rife vp 
diuers ftalkes, replenished at the tops with many fmall flowers, (landing together one 
aboue another fpike-fafhion, which are fmall and fomewhat fweete, while they are 
frefh, fafhioned fomewhat like the common Tode flaxe that groweth wilde abroad al- 
moft euery where, but much fmaller, with a gaping mouth, but without any crooked 
fpurre behinde, like vnto them, fometimes of a fad purple neare vnto a Violet, and 
fometimes of a paler blew colour, hauing a yellow fpot in the middle or gaping place : 
after the flowers are paft, there come fmall, hard, round heads, wherein are contained 
fmall, flat, and grayifh feede : the roote is fmall and perifheth for the mod part euery 
yeare, and will fpring againe of it owne fowing, if it be fuffered to med it felfe, yet 
fome hard Winters haue killed the feede it .mould feeme, in that fometimes it faileth 
to fpring againe, and therefore had neede to be fowne anew in the Spring. 

4. Linaria purpurea odorata. Sweete purple Tode Flaxe. 

The lower leaues of this purple Tode Flaxe are nothing like any of the reft, but are 
long and broad, endented about the edges, fomewhat refembling the leaues of the 
greater wilde white Daifie : the ftalke is fet at the bottome with fuch like leaues, but 
a little more diuided and cut in, and ftill fmaller and fmaller vpward, fo that the vp- 
permoft leaues are very like the common Tode Flaxe, the toppe whereof is branched, 
hauing diuers fmall flowers growing along vpon them, in fafhion and colour almofl 
like the laft defcribed Tode Flaxe, but not altogether fo deepe a purple : the heads 
and feedes are very like the former, but that the feede of this is reddifh : the flowers 


'The Garden of pleajant / 


, Lmm flutftr, fl<< albo. \V,Ide Flaxe with a white flower. 2 Litana furfur.n Ji ut ...r,,!,,,. I'urple lode I laxc 
Lmm., *Lr*MWa <fo<a. Sweete purple Tode FUxe. , S, ,/orw / R^,d m llaU,r U m. Broomc Tode Flaxe. 5 

on. 6 Chamaturium ort dtlfktiuj. The willowe flower. 

m. . 

AinvM MUNI. The greater Snapdragon. 6 Chamaturium fiort dtlfktiuj 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

in their naturall hot Countries haue a fine fent, but in thefe colder, little or none at all : 
the rootes are fmall and threadie, and perifh after they haue flowred and feeded. 

5. Linaria Valentina. Tode Flaxe of Valentia. 

This Spanifh Tode Flaxe hath three or foure thicker and bigger ftalkes then the 
former, bearing fmall broad leaues, like vnto the fmall Centory, two or three together 
at a ioynt, round about the lower end of the ftalkes, but without any order vpwards, at 
the toppes whereof ftand many flowers, in fafhion like vnto the common kinde, 
and almoft as large, of a faire yellow colour, but the gaping mouth is downie, and 
the fpurre behinde of a purplifh colour. 

6. Scoparia Jiue Eeluidere Italorum. Broome Tode Flaxe. 

Although this plant haue no beautifull flowers, yet becaufe the greene plant full of 
leaues is fo delightfull to behold, being in Italy and other places planted not onely in 
their Gardens, but fet likewife in pots to furnifh their Windowes, and euen with vs 
alfo hath growne to be fo dainty a greene bufh, that I haue thought it worthy to be a- 
mong the delights of my Garden ; the defcription whereof is as followeth : This plea- 
fant Broome Flaxe rifeth vp molt vfually with one ftraight vpright fquare ftalke, three 
foote and a halfe high or better in our Gardens, branching it felfe out diuers waies, 
bearing thereon many long narrow leaues, like the Garden Line or Flaxe, very thicke 
fet together, like vnto a bufh, or rather like vnto a faire greene Cyprefle tree, growing 
broad belowe, and fpire-fafhion vpwards, of a very faire greene colour : at the feue- 
rall ioynts of the branches, towards the tops, and among the leaues, there come forth 
fmall reddifh flowers, not eafily feene nor much regarded, being of no beauty, which 
turne into fmall round blackifh gray feede : the rootes are a number of blackifh firings 
fet together, and the whole plant periflieth euery yeare at the firft approach of any cold 
ayre, as if it neuer had beene fo faire a greene bufh. 

The Place. 

Thefe kindes of wilde Flaxe doe growe naturally in diuers places, fome 
in Germany, fome in Spaine, and fome in Italy. Thofe that delight in the 
beauty of natures variety, doe preferue them, to furnifh vp the number of 
pleafant afpedts. 

The Time. 

They all flower in the Summer moneths, and foone after perfed: their 

The Names. 

Their names are fufficiently expretfed in their titles, yet I muft giue you 
to vnderftand that the laft is called of fome Linaria magna, and of others 

The Vertues. 

The wilde Flaxe hath no medecinable vertue appropriate vnto it that is 
knowne. The Tode Flaxe is accounted to be good, to caufe one to make 


The Garden of plcafant Flowers. 



Antirrhinum. Snapdragon. 

THcre is fome diuerlity in the Snapdragons, fome being of a larger, and others 
of a lefler llature and bignefle ; and ot the larger, fome of one, and fome of an- 
other colour, but becaufe the fmall kindes are of no beautie, I (hall at this 
time onely entreate of the greater forts. 

i . Antirrhinum album. White Snapdragon. 

The leaues of thefe Snapdragons (for I doe vnder one defcription comprehend the 
rell) are broader, longer, and greener then the leaues of the Garden Flaxe, or of the 
wilde Flaxe let confufedly vpon the tender greene branches, which are fpread on all 
fides, from the very bottome, bearing at the toppes many flowers, fomewhat refem- 
bling the tormer Tode Flaxe, but much larger, and without any heele or fpurre, of a 
faire white colour, with a yellow fpot in the mouth or gaping place : after the flowers 
are pall, there come vp in their places hard round feede vefiels, fafhioned fomewhat 
like vnto a Calues head, the fnout being cut off, wherein is contained fmall blacke 
feede : the rootes are many white firings, which perifh in molt places alter they haue 
giuen feede, notwithstanding any care or paines taken with them to preferue them a- 
liue, and yet they will abide in fome places where they are defended in the Winter. 

2. Antirrhinum purpureum Jiue rojeum. Purple Snapdragon. 

The purple Snapdragon is in Italkes, leaues, and flowers altogether like the former, 
and as large and great in euery part, or greater ; the only difference is, that this beareth 
pale Stammell or Rofe coloured flowers, with a yellow fpot in the mouth, and fome- 
times of a paler colour, almolt blulh. 

3. Antirrhinum variegatum. Variable Snapdragon. 

This variable kinde is fomewhat lefle, and tenderer then the laft defcribed, hauing 
alfo a reddifh or blufh coloured flower, lefler then the former, but much bigger then 
the middle kinde of Snapdragon (which is not fet downe in this worke) the yellow 
fpot in the mouth of it hath fome white about it, and extending to both fides of the 
fpot : the heads and feede are like the former : the rootes are fmaller, but neuer will 
abide after they haue giuen flowers and feede. 

4. Antirrhinum luteum. Yellow Snapdragon. 

There is likewife another of thefe kindes, that beareth leaues as large as any of the 
former, & very faire yellow flowers, as large likewife as they, not differing in any thing 
elfe from the firft ; let not any therefore imagine this to be a Linaria or Tode Flaxe : 
for all parts are anfwerable vnto the Snapdragons. 

The Place. 

All thefe are nourilhed with vs in our Gardens, although in Spaine and 
Italy they are found growing wilde. 

The Time. 

They flower for the moft part the fecond yeare after the fowing, from A- 
prill vntill luly, and the feede is quickly ripe after. 


270 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

The Names. 

The name Antirrhinum is vfually giuen to this plant, although it fully 
agreeth not eyther with the defcription of Diofcorides, or Theophraftus : 
It hath alfo diuers other names in Latine, as Oronfium, Cants cerebrum Os 
Leonis, Leo herba, &c. In Englifh Calues fnout, from the forme of the feede 
vefTels, and Snapdragon, or Lyons mouth, from the forme of the flowers. 

The Vertues. 
They are feldome or neuer vfed in Phyficke by any in our dayes. 

Chanuznerium fore delphinij. The Willowe flower. 

THis plant rifeth vp with many ftrong, woddy, round, brownifh great ftalkes, 
three or foure foote high, befet here and there without order, with one broad 
and long whitim greene leafe at a ioynt, fomewhat like vnto a Lyjimachia, or 
Willowe herbe, as alfo vnto a Peach leafe, but larger and longer : at the toppe of the 
branches ftand many flowers one aboue another, of a pale reddim purple colour, 
confiding of fiue leaues, fpread open with an heele or fpurre behinde them, with many 
yellow threads in the middle, much larger then any flower of the Larkes fpurres, and 
fmelling fomewhat fweete withall ; it beareth a fhew of long pods with feede, but I 
could neuer obferue the feede : the rootes are like the rootes of Lyjimachia^ or the ordi- 
nary yellow Loofe-ftrife, or Willowe herbe, but greater : running and fpreading vn- 
der ground, and mooting vp in many places, whereby it filleth a ground that it likes 
quickly : the ftalkes dye downe euery yeare, and fpring againe in many places farre 

The Place. 

Wee haue not knowne where this Willowe flower groweth naturally, 
but we haue it ftanding in an out corner of our Gardens, to fill vp the num- 
ber of delightfull flowers. 

The Time. 

It flowreth not vntill May, and abideth a long while flowring. 

The Names. 

It may feeme to diuers, that this is that plant that Dodonseus called Pfeu- 
dolyjimachium purpureum minus., and Lobel feemeth by the name of Delphi- 
nium buccinum to aime at this plant, but withall calleth it Chamcenerium 
Gefneri, and giueth the fame figure that Dodonsus hath for his Pfeudolyji- 
machium : But that is one kinde of plant (which hath fmaller and fhorter 
ftalkes, and very narrow long leaues, whofe flowers ftand vpon long (len- 
der cods, full of downe, with reddim feede, like vnto the Lyfimachia Jili- 
quofa Jiluejlris^ and rootes that abide many yeares, but creepe not) and this 
is another, much greater, whofe true figure is not extant in any Author that 
I know. It is vfually called Chamcenerium flore delphinij ; but the name of 
Delphinium buccinum in my minde may not fo conueniently be applyed vn- 
to it. It is called in Englifh, The Willowe flower, for the likenefle of the 
leaues, and the beauty and refpecl of the flowers. 



The Garden of pleajant Flowers. .: ~ \ 

The Vcrtucs. 

There is no vie hereof in Phyficke that euer I could learne, but is onely 
clierilhed among other forts of flowers, that ferue to decke and let forth a 
Garden of varieties. 


Aqui/egia. Colombines. 

Here are many forts of Colombines, as well differing in forme as colour of the 
flowers, and of them both Jingle and double carefully nourfed vp in our Gar- 
dens, for the delight both of their forme and colours. 

i. Aquilegia vu/garis fare JimplicL Single Colombines. 

Becaufe the whole difference of thefe Colombines (landeth in the varieties of the 
forme, and colour of the flowers, and little in the leaues, I (hall not neede to make a- 
nie repetitions of the defcription of them, feeing one onely (hall fuffice for each pecu- 
liar kinde. The Colombine hath diuers large fpread leaues, (landing on long llalkes : 
euery one diuided in feuerall partitions, and roundly endented about the edges, in 
colour fomewhat like the leaues of Celondine, that is, of a darke blewifh greene co- 
lour : the llalkes rife vp fometimes two or three foote high, diuided vfually into many 
branches, bearing one long diuided leafe at the lower ioynt, aboue which the flowers 
growe, euery one (landing on a long ftalke, confiding of fiue hollow leaues, crooked 
or horned at the ends, turning backward, the open flower fhewing almoft like vnto a 
Cinquefoile, but more hollow : after the flowers are pad, there arife fmall long cods, 
foure or Hue together, wherein are contained blacke fhining feede : the rootes are 
thicke and round, for a little fpace within the ground, and then diuided into branches, 
ending in many fmall fibres, abiding many yeares, and (hooting a frefh euery Spring 
from the round heads, that abide all the Winter. The variety of the colours of thefe 
flowers are very much, for fome are wholly white, fome of a blew or violet colour, o- 
thers of a blufh or flefh colour, or deepe or pale red, or of a dead purple, or dead mur- 
rey colour, as nature lilleth to (hew it felfe. 

2. Aquilegia vu/garis fare pie no. Double Colombines. 

The double Colombines differ not in leafe or manner of growing from the (ingle, 
fo that vntill they come to flower, they cannot bee difcerned one from another ; the 
onely difference is, it beareth very thicke and double flowers, that is, many horned or 
crooked hollow leaues let together, and are not fo large as the leaues of the (ingle 
flowers. The variety of colours in this double kinde is as plentifull, or rather more 
then in the (ingle ; tor of thefe there is party coloured, blew and white, and fpotted 
very variably, which are not in the lingle kinde, and alfo a very deepe red, very thicke 
and double, but a fmaller flower, and Idfe plentifull in bearing then many of the other 
double forts. Thefe double kindes doe giue as good feede as the tingle kindes doe, 
which is not obferued in many other plants. 

3. Aquilegia inuerjis corniculis. Double inuerted Colombines. 

Thefe Colombines are not to be diftinguilhed eyther in roote, leaues, or feed from 
the former, the flowers onely make the difference, which are as double as the former, 
but that the heeles or homes of thefe are turned inward, and Hand out in the middle of 
the flowers together : there is not that plentifull variety of colours in this kinde, as 
there is in the former : for I neuer faw aboue three or foure feuerall colours in this 


272 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

kinde, that is, white, purplifh, reddifh, and a dun or darke ouerworne purplifh colour. 
Thefe double flowers doe likewife turne into pods, bearing feede, continuing his kind, 
and; not varying into the former. 

4. Aquilegia Rofea. Rofe Colombines. 

The leaues and other parts of this kinde of Colombine, differ little or nothing 
from the former, the diuerlitie confifteth likewife in the flowers, which although they 
(land in the fame manner feuerally vpon their fmall ftalkes, fomewhat more fparingly 
then the former doe, yet they haue no heeles or homes, eyther inward or outward, or 
very feldome, but ftand fometimes but with eight or tenne fmooth fmall plaine leaues, 
fet in order one by one in a compafle, in a double rowe, and fometimes with foure or 
fiue rowes of them, euery one direftly before the other, like vnto a fmall thick double 
Rofe layd open, or a fpread Marigold : yet fometimes it happeneth, that fome of thefe 
flowers will haue two or three of the firft rowes of leaues without any heele, and the 
reft that are inward with each of them a peece of a fmall home at them, as the former 
haue : the colours of thefe flowers are almoft as variable, and as variably mixed as the 
former double kindes. This likewife giueth feede, preferuing his owne kinde for the 
moft part. 

5. Aquilegia degener. Degenerate Colombines. 

This kinde of Colombine might feeme to fome, to bee but a cafuall degeneration, 
and no true naturall kinde, happening by fome caufe of tranfplanting, or otherwife 
by the art of man : but I haue not fo found it, in that it keepeth, and holdeth his own 
proper forme, which is like vnto the double Rofe Colombine, but that the outermoft 
row of leaues are larger then any of the reft inwardes, and is of a greenifh, or elfe of 
a purplifh greene colour, and is not altogether fo apt to giue good feed like the former. 

The Place. 

The fingle kindes haue beene often found in fome of the wooddy moun- 
taines of Germany, as Clufius faith, but the double kindes are chiefly che- 
rifhed in gardens. 

The Time. 

They flower not vntill May, and abide not for the moft part when lune is 
part, and in the meane time perfefteth their feede. 

The Names. 

Coftaeus doth call this plant Pothos of Theophraftus, which Gaza tran- 
flateth Dejiderium. Dalechampius vpon Athenaeus, calleth it Diofanthos, or 
louts flos of Theophraftus, who in his fixth Booke and feuenth Chapter rec- 
koneth them both, that is, Diofanthos and Pothos, to be Summer flowers, but 
feuerally. Dodonaeus Leoherba, and Gefner Leontojlomium. Fabius Columna 
in his Phytobafanos, vnto whom Clufius giueth the greateft approbation, 
referreth it to the Ifopyrum of Diofcorides. All later Writers doe generally 
call it, eyther Aquileia, Aquilina, or Aquilegia ; and we in Englifh, generally 
(I thinke) through the whole Countrey, Colombines. Some doe call the 
Aquilegia rofea, Aquilegia ftellata, The ftarre Colombine ; becaufe the leaues 
of the flowers doe ftand fo direclly one by another, befides the doublenefle, 
that they fomewhat reprefent eyther a Rofe or a Starre, and thereupon they 
giue it the name eyther of a Starre or Rofe. 

The Vertues. 

Some in Spaine, as Camerarius faith, vfe to eate a peece of the roote here- 

The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 


I AquiUgia fimfltx. The fingle Colombine. 1 AqttiUgia flori multiplici. The double Colombine. 
The party coloured Colombine. 4 AquiUgia inutrjis cornitulit. The double inuerted Colombine. 
Sttllata.' The Rofe or the Surre Colombine. 6 Tlialiflnim Hifpanicum album. White Spanifh tufts. 

M 2 

3 Aquiliqia vrrficolor. 
5 Aquiltgia Rnfta f*t 

274 The Garden of p/eafant Flowers. 

of fafting, many dayes together, to helpe them that are troubled with the 
ftone in the kidneyes. Others vfe the decoftion, of both herbe and roote in 
wine, with a little Ambargrife, againft thofe kinds of fwounings, which the 
Greekes call ASwa/ua. The feede is vfed for the iaundife, and other obftructi- 
ons of the liuer. Clufius writeth from the experience of Francifcus Rapard, 
a chiefe Phyfician of Bruges in Flanders, that the feede beaten and drunke 
is effecluall to women in trauell of childe, to procure a fpeedy deliuerie, 
and aduifeth a fecond draught thereof fhould be taken if the firft fucceede 
not fufficiently. 

ThaliStrum Hifpanicum. Spanifh Tufts, or Tufted Colombines. 

FRom among the diuerfities of this plant, I haue felecled out two forts for this my 
garden, as hauing more beautie then all the reft ; leauing the other to be entreated 
of, where all in generall may be included. I haue in this place inferted them, for 
the likeneffe of the leaues only, being in no other part correfpondent, and in a Chap- 
ter by themfelues, as it is moft fit. 

'ThaliStrum Hifpanicum album. White Spanifh tufted Colombines. 

Thefe plants haue both one forme, in roote, leafe and flower, and therefore neede 
but one defcription. The leaues are both for colour and forme fo like vnto Colom- 
bines leaues (although lefler and darker, yet more fpread, and on larger ftalkes) that 
they may eafily deceiue one, that doth not marke them aduifedly ; for the leaues are 
much more diuided, and in fmaller parts, and not fo round at the ends : the ftalkes are 
round, ftrong, and three foote high at the leaft, branching out into two or three parts, 
with leaues at the feuerall ioynts of them, at the toppes whereof ftand many flowers, 
which are nothing but a number of threads, made like vnto a fmall round tuft, break- 
ing out of a white skinne, or leafe, which inclofeth them, and being vnblowne, fhew 
like vnto little buttons : the colour of thefe threds or tufts in this are whitifh with yel- 
low tips on them, and fomewhat purplim at the bottome, hauing a ftrong but no good 
fent, and abiding in their beautie (efpecially if they grow in the (hade, and not too 
hot in the fun) a great while, and then fall away, like fhort downe or threds : the feed 
veflels are three fquare, containing fmall, long, and round feede ; the rootes are ma- 
ny long yellow ftringes, which endure and encreafe much. 

Thaliftrum Montanum purpureum. Purple tufted Colombines. 

This purple tufted Colombine differeth onely from the former, in that it is not lo 
high nor fo large, and that the colour of the flower or tuft is of a blewif h purple co- 
lour with yellow tips, and is much more rare then the other. 

The Place. 
Thefe grow both in Spaine and Italic. 

The Time. 
They flower in the end of May, or in lune, and fometimes later. 

The Names. 

Some doe call them Thaliotrum^ and fome Thaliflrum. Others Rutapalu- 
Jlns, and Ruta pratenjis, and fome Rhabarbarum Monachorum, or Pfeudo- 


The G '(i re/en of pleafant Flowers. 

rhaharharutn, by reafon that the motes being yellow, haue an opening qua- 
litic, and drying as Rubarbc. In Englilh what other fit Names to giue thefc 
then I haue expretfed in the titles, I know not. 

The Vertues. 

They are a little hot and drying withall, good for old Vlccrs, as Diofcori- 
des faith, to bring them to cicatriling : in Italy they are vfcd againft the 
Plague, and in Saxonye againll the laundifc, as Camerarius faith. 

CHAP. X L V 1 1 1. 
Radix caua. Hollow roote. 

THe likenefle ot" the leaues likewife of this plant with Colombines, hath 
caufed mee to infert it next the other, and although fome of this kinde bee of 
fmall refpect, being accounted but foolifh, yet let it fill vp a wafte corner, 
that fo no place be vnturnilhed. 

i . Radix Caua maior Jtore albo. The white Hollow roote. 

The leaues of this hollow roote breake not out of the ground, vntill the end of 
March, or feldome before, and are both for proportion and colour fomewhat like vn- 
to the leaues of Colombines, diuided into fiue parts, indented about the edges, (lan- 
ding on fmall long footertalkes of a whitifh greene colour, among which rife vp the 
flalkes, without any leaues from the bottome to the middle, where the flowers fhoote 
forth one aboue another, with euery one a fmall fhort leaie at the foote thereof, which 
arc long and hollow, with a fpurre behinde it, fomewhat like vnto the flowers of 
Larckes fpurres, but hauing their bellies fomwhat bigger, and the mouth not fo open, 
being all of a pure white colour : after the flowers are part, arife fmall long and round 
cods, wherein are contained round blackiih feede : the roote is round and great, of a 
yellowilh browne colour on the outfide, and more yellow within, and hollow vnder- 
neath, fo that it feemeth but a (hell : yet being broken, euery part will grow : it abideth 
greene aboue ground but a fmall time. 

2. Radix Caua maior fare carneo. Blufh colourd Hollow roote. 

The blulh Hollow roote is in all things like vnto the former, but onely that the 
flowers hereof are of a delayed red or purple colour, which we call blufh : and fome- 
times of a very deepe red or purple colour ; but very rare to meete with. 

3. Radix Caun minor, feu Capnos fabacea radice. Small hollow roote. 

This fmall kinde hath his leaues of a blewifh greene colour, yet greener and fmal- 
ler then the former, growing more thicke together : the flowers are like in proportion 
vnto the former in all refpects, but lelfer, hauing purplilli backes, and white bellyes: 
landing clofer and thicker together vpon the fhort Italkcs : the roote is folid or finne, 
round and a little long withall, two being vfually ioyned together, yellowifh both 
within and without : but I haue feene the dry roots that came from beyond Sea hither, 
that haue beene as fmall as hafell nuts, and fomewhat flat with the roundnefle, diffe- 
ring from thofe that growe with vs, whether the nature thereof is to alter by 
manuring, I know not. 

The Place. 
The greater kindes Clulius reporteth he found in many places of Hunga- 


276 The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 

rie, and the other parts neare thereunto : the lefler in the lower Germany, 
or Low Countries, as we call them. 

The Time. 

Thefe are moft truely to bee reckoned Vernall plants, for that they rife 
not out of the ground vntill the Spring bee come in, and are gone likewife 
before it be paft, remaining vnder ground all the reft of the yeare, yet the 
lefler abideth longer aboue ground then the greater. 

The Names. 

Concerning the former of thefe, there is a controuerlie among diuers, 
whether it fhould be Thejium of Theophraftus, or Eriphium of Galen, but 
here is no fit place to trauerfe thofe opinions. Some would haue it to bee 
Corydalis, and fome referre it to Plinie his Capnos Cheledonia, for the likeneffe 
it hath both with Fumeterie and Celandine. It is generally called of all 
moderne Writers, Radix Caua, and we in Englifh thereafter, Hollow roote. 
The lefler for the firmnefle of his round roote, is vfually called, Capnos fa- 
bacea radice, and the Dutch men thereafter, JSCWIlftenS f)oUtUO}tell : we of 
the likenefle with the former, doe call it the lefle Hollow roote. 

The Vertues. 

Some by the bitternefle doe conieclure (for little proofe hath beene had 
thereof, but in outward cafes) that it clenfeth, purgeth, and dryeth withall. 

Delphinium. Larkes heeles. 

OF Larkes heeles there are two principall kindes, the wilde kinde, and the tame 
or garden ; the wilde kinde is of two forts, one which is with vs nourfed vp 
chiefly in gardens, and is the greateft ; the other which is fmaller and lower, 
often found in our plowed landes, and elfewhere : of the former of thefe wilde forts, 
there are double as well as tingle : and of the tame or more vpright, double alfo and 
tingle : and of each of diuers colours, as mall be fet downe. 

i. Delphinium maius Jiue -vulgare. The ordinary Larkes heeles. 

The common Larkes heele fpreadeth with many branches much more ground 
then the other, rather leaning or bending downe to the ground, then ftanding 
vpright, whereon are fet many fmall long greene leaues, finely cut, almoft like Fennell 
leaues : the branches end in a long fpike of hollow flowers, with a long fpurre be- 
hinde them, very like vnto the flowers of the Hollow roote laft defcribed, and are of 
Partitas. diuers feuerall colours, as of a blewifh purple colour, or white, or am colour or red, pa- 
ler or deeper, as alfo party coloured of two colours in a flower : after the flowers are 
paft, (which in this kinde abide longer then in the other) there come long round cods, 
containing very blacke feede : the root is hard after it groweth vp to feede, fpreading 
both abroad and deepe, and perimeth euery yeare, vfually railing it felfe from it own 
fowing, as well as from the feede fowen in the fpring time. 

2. Delphinium vulgare fore plena. Double common Larkes heeles. 

Of this vulgar kinde there is fome difference in the flower, although in nothing elfe : 
the flowers ftand many vpon a ftalke like the former, but euery one of them are as if 


The Garden of plcafant Flowers. 

three or foure fmall flowers were ioyned together, with euery one his fpurre behindc, 
thegreutdl flower being outermoft, and as it were containing the reft, which arc <>t a 
pale red, or deepe blulh colour : Another of this kinde will beare his flowers with 
three or foure rowes of Icaucs in the middle, making a double flower with one fpurre 
behinde onely : and of this kinde there is both with purple, blew, blufh, and 
white flowers, and party coloured alfo ; thefe doe all beare feed like the Jingle, whcrby 
it is increafed euery yeare. 

3. Delphinium aruenfe. Wilde Larkes fpurres. 

This wilde Larkes fpurre hath fmaller and (horter leaues, fmallcr and lower bran- 
ches, and more thinly or fparfedly growing vpon them, then any of the former : the 
flowers likewife are neyther fo large as any of the former, nor fo many growing toge- 
ther, the cods likewife haue fmaller feede, and is harder to grow in gardens then any 
of the former, the moll vfuall colour hereof is a pale reddifh or blufh colour, yet fome- 
timcs they are found both white and blew, and fometimes mixt of blew and blufh, va- 
riably difpofed, as nature can when (he liftcth ; but are much more rare. 

4. Delphinium elatius Jiore Jimp lid diuerforum colorum. 
Single vpright bearing Larkes heeles of many colours. 

The difference betweene this and the lart is, that the leaues of this are not fully fo 
greene, nor fo large ; the ftalkes grow vpright, to the height of a man, and fometimes 
higher, hauing fome branches thereon, but fewer then the former, and (landing like- 
wife vpright, and not leaning downe as the former : the toppes of the ftalkes are bet- 
ter ftored with flowers then the other, being fometimes two foote long and aboue, 
ot the fame tafhion, but not altogether fo large, but of more diuers and feueral colours, 
as white, pale, blu(h, redde deeper or paler, afhcoloured, purple or violet, and of an 
ouervvorne blewilh purple, or iron colour : for of all thefe we haue (imple, without 
any mixture or fpot : but we haue other forts, among the (imple colours, that rife from 
the fame feede, and will haue flowers that wil be halte white, and halte blu(h or purple, 
or one leafe white, and another blu(h or purple, or elfe variably mixed and fpotted : 
the feede and feede vefiels are like the former but larger and harder. 

5. Delphinium elatius jlore plena diuerforum colorum. 
Double vpright Larkes heeles of many colours. 

Thefe double Larkes heeles cannot bee knowne from the (ingle of the fame kinde, 
vntill they come towards flowring ; for there appeare many flowers vpon the ftalkes, in 
the fame manner, and of as many colours almoft as of the (ingle, except the party co- 
loured, which ftand like little double Roles, layd or fpread broade open, as the Rofe 
Colombine without any heeles behinde them, very delightfull to behold, conlifting 
of many fmall leaues growing together, and after they are fallen there come vp in 
their places three or foure fmall cods fet together, wherein is contained here and 
there (for all are not full of feede, as the fmgle kindes) blacke feede, like vnto all the 
reft, but fmaller, which being fowen will bring plants that will beare both fmgle and 
double flowers againe, and it often happeneth, that it variably altereth in colours from 
it owne fowing : tor none of them hold conftantly his owne colour, (fo farre as euer 
I could obferue) but fall into others as nature pleafeth. 

6. Delphinium Hifpanicum paruum. Spanilh wilde Larkes fpurres. 

This fmall Larkes fpurre of Spaine, hath diuers long and broad leaues next the 
ground, cut-in on both iides, fomewhat like vnto the leafe of a Scabious, or rather that 
kinde of Stoebe, which Lobel calleth Crupina^ tor it doth fomewhat neerly refemble 
the fame, but that this is fmooth on the edges, and not indented befides the cuts, as the 
Crupina is, being ot a whitiih greene colour, and fomewhat fmooth and foft in 
handling : among the leaues rifeth vp a whitilh greene ftalke, hauing many fmallcr 


278 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

leaues vpon it that grow belowe, but not diuided, branching out into many fmall 
ftalkes, bearing flowers like vnto the wilde Larkes heeles, but fmaller, and of a bleake 
blewifh colour, which being pall, there come vp two or three fmall cods ioyned toge- 
ther, wherein is blacke feede, fmaller and rounder then any of the former : the roote is 
fmall and thready, quickly perifhing with the firft cold that ouertaketh the plant. 

The Place. 

The greateft or firft wilde kindes growe among corne in many countries 
beyond the Seas, and where corne hath beene fowne, and for his beauty 
brought and nourifhed in our Gardens : the leffer wilde kinde in fome fields 
of our owne Country. The Spanifh kinde likewife in the like places, which 
I had among many feedes that Guillaume Boel brought mee out of Spaine. 
The firft double and fingle haue been common for many yeares in all coun- 
tries of this Land, but the tall or vpright fingle kindes haue been entertained 
but of late yeares. The double kindes are more rare. 

The Time. 

Thefe flower in the Summer onely, but the Spanifh wilde kinde flowreth 
very late, fo that oftentimes in our Country, the Winter taketh it before it 
can giue ripe feede : the double kindes, as well the vpright as the ordinary 
or wilde, are very choife and dainty many times, not yeelding good feede. 

The Names. 

They are called diuerfly by diuers Writers, as Confolida regu/is, Calcaris 
Jtos ; Flos regius, Buccinum Romanorum, and of Matthiolus, Cumin urn Jiluejlre 
alterum Diofcoridis : but the moft vfuall name with vs is Delphinium : but 
whether it be the true Delphinium of Diofcorides, or the Poets Hyacinth, or 
the flower of Aiax, another place is fitter to difcufTe then this. Wee call 
them in Englifh Larkes heeles, Larkes fpurres, Larkes toes or clawes, and 
Monkes hoods. The laft or Spanifh kinde came to mee vnder the name of 
Delphinium latifolium trigonum, fo ftiled eyther from the diuifion of the 
leaues, or from the pods, which come vfually three together. Bauhinus vp- 
on Matthiolus calleth it, Confolida regalis peregrina par uo fare. 

The Vertues. 

There is no vfe of any of thefe in Phyficke in thefe dayes that I know, but 
are wholly fpent for their flowers fake. 


Balfamina fatmina. The Female Balfam Apple. 

IHaue let this plant in this place, for fome likenefTe of the flower, rather then for 
any other comparifon, euen as I muft alfo with the next that followeth. This plant 
rifeth vp with a thicke round reddifh ftalke, with great and bunched ioynts, being 
tender and full of iuice, much like to the ftalke of Purflane, but much greater, which 
brancheth it felfe forth from the very ground, into many ftalkes, bearing thereon ma- 
nie long greene leaues, fnipt about the edges, very like vnto the Almond or Peach tree 
leaues ; among which from the middle of the ftalkes vpwards round about them, 
come forth vpon feuerall fmall fhort foot-ftalkes many faire purplifh flowers, of two 
or three colours in them, fafhioned fomewhat like the former Larkes heeles, or Monks 
hoods, but that they are larger open at the mouth, and the fpurres behinde crooke or 
bend downewards : after the flowers are paft, there come in their places round rough 


The Garden of plea fan t Flowers. 

I Radix Caua motor flon alto. The white flowred Hollow rooie. 2 Capiua fabacta radice. The fmall Hollow roote. 3 
Delphinium flort Kmplici. Single Larkes fpurs. 4 Delphinium vulgare flare media dupliti. Larkes fpurs double in the middle. 
5 D.lphiniitm vulgart fiore plena. Common Larks fpnrs double. 6 Delphinium f la tins flort pltno. Double vpright Larkes 
fpurs. 7 Delphinium Hifpani<um parvum. Small Spanifh Larkes fpura. 8 Bal/amina futmina. The Female BalTam apple. 
9 Naflttrlium Indioim. Indian CrelTes, or yellow Larkes fpurs. 

280 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

heads, pointed at the end, greene at the firft, and a little yellower when they bee ripe, 
containing within them fmall round blackifh feede, which will foone skippe out of 
the heads, if they be but a little hardly preffed betweene the fingers : the rootes fpread 
themfelues vnder ground very much from the toppe, with a number of fmall fibres, an- 
nexed thereunto : this is a very tender plant, dying euery yeare, and muft bee fowne 
carefully in a pot of earth, and tended and watered in the heate of Summer, and all 
little enough to bring it to perfection. 

The Place. 

Wee haue alwaies had the feede of this plant fent vs out of Italy, not 
knowing his originall place. 

The Time. 

It flowreth from the middle of luly, to the end of Auguft: the feed doth 
feldome ripen with vs, efpecially if the Summer be backward, fo that wee 
are oftentimes to feeke for new and good feede from our friends againe. 

The Names. 

Some vfe to call it Charantia faemina, Balfamina ffemina, Balfamella, and 
Anguillara, Herba Sanftce Katharine We haue no other Englifh name to call 
it by, then the Female Balfame Apple, or Balfamina. 

The Vertues. 

Some by reafon of the name, would attribute the property of Balme vn- 
to this plant, but it is not fufficiently knowne to haue any fuch ; yet I am 
well perfwaded, there may bee fome extraordinary quality in fo beautifull a 
plant, which yet lyeth hid from vs. 

Nafturtium Jndicum. Indian Crefles, or yellow Larkes heeles. 

THe likenefle (as I faid before) of this flower likewife, hauing fpurres or heeles 
maketh me ioyne it with the reft, which is of fo great beauty and fweetneffe 
withall, that my Garden of delight cannot bee vnfurnimed of it. This faire 
plant fpreadeth it felfe into very many long trayling branches, enterlaced one within 
another very confufedly (yet doth it not winde it felfe with any clafpers about either 
pole or any other thing, but if you will haue it abide clofe thereunto, you muft tye it, or 
elfe it will lye vpon the ground) foure or fiue foot in length at the leaft, wherby it ta- 
keth vp a great deale of ground : the leaues are fmooth, greene, and as round as the 
Penniwort that groweth on the ground, without any cut or incifure therein at all 
in any part, the ftalkes whereof ftand in the middle of each leafe, and ftand at e- 
uery ioynt of the ftalke, where they are a little reddifh, and knobbed or bunched out : 
the flowers are of an excellent gold yellow colour, and grow all along thefe ftalkes, 
almoft at euery ioynt with the leaues, vpon pretty long foote-ftalkes, which are com- 
pofed of fiue leaues, not hollow or gaping, but (landing open each leafe apart by it 
felfe, two of them, that be larger and longer then the other, ftand aboue, and the other 
two that are lefler belowe, which are a little iagged or bearded on both fides, and the 
fift loweft : in the middle of each of the three lower leaues (yet fometimes it is but in 
two of them) there is a little long fpot or ftreake, of an excellent crimfon colour, with 
a long heele or fpurre behinde hanging downe : the whole flower hath a fine fmall 
ferrt, very pleafing, which being placed in the middle of fome Carnations or Gillo- 


The Garden of p leaf ant Mowers. 

flowers (tor they arc in flower at the fame time) make a delicate Tuflimuffie, as tlu v 
call it, or Nofegay, both tor light and lent: After the flower is pall, come the feede, 
which are rough or vneuen, round, greenilh yellow heads, fometimes but one, and 
fometimes two or three (binding together vpon one flalke, bare or naked of them- 
lelues, without any huske, containing a white pulpy kernell ; the rootes are fmall, 
and fp reading vnder ground, which perilh with the firft trolls, and muft be fowne a 
new euery yeare ; yet there needeth no bed of horfe-dung for the matter : the naturall 
ground will be fufficient, Ib as you defend it a little from thole frofts, that may fpoile 
it when it is newly Iprung vp, or being yet tender. 

The Place. 

This goodly plant was firft found in the Welt Indies, and from thence 
lent into Spaine vnto Monardus and others, from whence all other parts 
haue receiued it. It is now very familar in molt Gardens of any curiolity, 
where it yearly giueth ripe feed, except the yeare be very vnkindly. 

The Time. 

It flowreth fometimes in lune, but vfually in luly (if it be well defended 
and in any good ground) and fo continueth flowring, vntill the cold frofts 
and miftes in the middle or end of Oclober, doe checke the luxurious na- 
ture thereof, and in the meane time the feede is ripe, which will quickly fall 
downe on the ground, where for the moft part the bed is gathered. 

The Names. 

Some doe reckon this plant among the Clematides or Convofouli, the 
Clamberers or Bindweedes ; but (as I faid) it hath no clafpers, neither doth 
it winde it felfe : but by reafon of the number of his branches, that run one 
'within another, it may feeme to climbe vp by a pole or rticke, which yet 
doth but onely clofe it, as hauing fomething whereon to leane or reft his 
branches. Monardus and others call it Flos fanguineus, of the red fpots in 
the flowers, as alfo Majlnerzo de las Indias, which is Najlurtium Indicum^ by 
which name it is now generally knowne and called, and wee thereafter in 
Englif h, Indian Crefles, yet it may bee called from the forme of the flow- 
ers onely, Yellow Larkes heeles. 

The Vertues. 

The Spaniards and others vfe the leaues hereof in ftead of ordinary Cref- 
fes, becaufe the talle is fomewhat marpe agreeing thereunto, but other Phy- 
licall properties I haue heard of none attributed to it. 


Viola. Violets. 

THe Garden Violets (for the Wilde I leaue to their owne place) are fo well 
knowne vnto all, that either keepe a Garden, or hath but once come into it, 
that I lhall (I thinke) but lofe labour and time to defcribe that which is fo com- 
mon. Yet becaufe it is not onely a choife flower of delight, notwithftanding the po- 
pularity, and that I let not pafle anything without his particular defcription, I muft 
alfo doe fo by this. And hereunto I muft adde that kinde of Violet, which, although 
it want that fmell of the other, goeth beyond it in variety of dainty colours, called 
tricolor & flammea, or Harts cafes. 

N 2 i. Viola 

282 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

i. Viola Jimp lex Martia. Single March Violets. 

The lingle Garden Violet hath many round greene leaues, finely fnipt or dented a- 
bout the edges, (landing vpon feuerall fmall ftalkes, fet at diuers places of the many 
creeping branches, which as they runne, doe here and there take roote in the ground, 
bearing thereon many flowers feuerally at the ioynts of the leaues, which confift of 
fiue fmall leaues, with a fhort round tayle or fpurre behinde, of a perfect blew purple 
colour, and of a very fweete fent, it bringeth forth round feede veffels, ftanding like- 
wife vpon their feuerall fmall ftalkes, wherein is contained round white feede : but 
thefe heads rife not from where the flowers grew, as in all other plants that I know, 
but apart by themfelues, and being fowne, will produce others like vnto it felfe, 
whereby there may be made a more fpeedy encreafe to plant a Garden (as I haue done) 
or any other place, then by flipping, as is the vfuall manner : the rootes fpread both 
deepe and wide, taking ftrong hold in the ground. 

Flore albo. Of this kinde there is another that beareth white flowers, not differing in fmell or 

any thing elfe from the former. 

F/ore obfoleio. And alfo another, that beareth flowers of a dead or fad reddifh colour, in all other 
things alike, fauing that this hath not altogether fo good a fent as the other. 

2. Viola Martia flore multiplici. Double March Violets. 

There is no difference betweene this Violet and the former, in any other thing then 
in the doubleneffe of the flowers, which haue fo many leaues fet and thruft together, 
that they are like vnto hard buttons. There is of this double kinde both white and 
purple, as in the fingle ; but the white fort is feldome fo thicke and double as the pur- 
ple : but of the red colour to be double I neuer heard. 

3. Viola flammea fiue tricolor. Harts eafes or Panfies. 

The Harts eafe hath his leaues longer, and more endented or cut in on the edges 
then the Violet hath, and fomewhat round withall : the ftalkes are vpright, yet weake, 
and ready to fall downe, and lye vpon the ground, fet here and there with the like 
leaues, from whence come forth the flowers, of little or no fent at all, made like vnto a 
Violet, yet more open, and with larger leaues ; but fo variably mixed with blew or 
purple, white and yellow, that it is hard to fet downe all the varieties : For fome flow- 
ers will be more white, and but fome fpots of purple or blew in the two vpper leaues, 
and the lower leaues with fome ftripes of yellow in the middle : others will haue more 
purple in them then any other colour, both in the vpper and lower leaues, the fide 
leaues blew, and the middle yellow, and others white and blew with yellow ftripes, as 
nature lifteth to diftribute their colours : the feede is fmall, whitifh, and round, con- 
tained in fmall round heads : the roote perifheth euery yeare, and raifeth it felfe vp 
plentifully by it owne fowing, if it be fuffered. 

4. Viola tricolor flore duplici. Double Harts eafe. 

We haue in our Gardens another fort, that beareth flowers with more leaues then 
the former, making it feeme to be twice double, and that onely in Autumne ; for the 
firft flowers are fingle that come in Summer : This is of that fort that beareth purple 
flowers : And it is to be obferued, that the feed of this kinde will not all bring double 
flowers, but only fome, if the ground be fit and liking, fo that if you haue once had of 
this double kinde, you mall feldome miffe to haue double flowers againe euery yeare of 
it owne growing or fowing. 

5. Viola flammea lutea maxima. The great yellow Panfie. 

There is one other kinde of Harts eafe, that decketh vp our Gardens not to be for- 
gotten, whofe leaues and flowers are like the former, but more plentifull in ftalkes 
and branches, and better abideth our Winters ; the flowers are larger then any of the 


The Garden of pleafant F/owers. 

former, of a faire pale yellow colour, with Tome yellower Itripes now and then about 
the middle ; for it is fometimes without any Itripes ; and alfo of a little deeper yellow 
colour : this is to bee encreafed by Hips, which will foone comprehend in a moift or 
moiltened ground, for that I neuer could obferue that it bore feede. 

The Place. 

Thel'c plants were tirft wilde, and by manuring brought to be both fai- 
rer in colour, and peraduenture of a better fcnt then when they grew wilde. 

The Time. 

The Violets flower in March, and fometimes earlier, and if the yeare be 
temperate and milde, in Autumne againe. The double Violets, as they arc 
later before they flower then the fingle, fo they hold their flowers longer. 
The Harts cafe flowreth feldome vntill May ; but then fome will abide to 
flower vntill the end of Autumne almolt, efpecially if the frolts be not early. 

The Names. 

The Violet is called Viola nigra, purpurea, and Martia : In Englifh, Vi- 
olets, March Violets, and purple Violets. The Harts cafe is called Viola 
flamtnea, Viola tricolor, Viola multicolor, and of fome, lacea, Flos trinitatis, 
and Herba clauellata : In EnglHh, Harts eafe, and Panfies, of the French name 
Pen fees. Some giue it foolifh names, as Loue in idlenefle, Cull mee to you, 
and Three taces in a hood. The great yellow Harts eafe is fo called, be- 
caufe it is like in forme, and is the greateft of all other, although it haue not 
that diuerlity of colours in it that the other haue. 

The Vertues. 

The properties of Violets are fufficiently knowne to all, to coole and 
moilten : I (hall forbeare to recite the many vertues that may be fet downe, 
and onely let you knowe, that they haue in them an opening or purging qua- 
lity, being taken either frefh and greene, or dryed, and made into powder, 
efpecially the flowers ; the dryed leaues will doe the like, but in greater 
quantity. Coltzus in his booke of the nature of all plants faith, that the di- 
liilled water of Harts eafe, is commended in the French difeafe, to be pro- 
fitable, being taken for nine dayes or more, and fweating vpon it, which 
how true it is, I know not, and wifh fome better experience were made of 
it, betore we put any great confidence in that aflertion. 

CHAP. LI 1 1. 

EpimeJium. Barrenwort. 

THis pretty plant rifeth vp out of the ground with vpright, hard, round, fmall 
Italkes, a foote and a halfe high, or not two foote high at the higheft, diuided 
into three branches for the molt part, each branch whereof is againe diuided 
tor the moll part into three other branches, and each of them beare three leaues (fel- 
dome either more or lefle) fet together, yet each vpon his owne foote-ltalke, each 
leafe being broad, round, and pointed at the end, fomewhat hard or dry in feeling, 
hayrie, or as it were prickly about the edges, but very tenderly, without harme, of a 
light greene colour on the vpperlide, and a little whiter vnderneath : from the middle 
of the llemme or Italke of leaues doth likewife come forth another long Italke, not 
much higher then thole with the leaues on them, diuided into other branches, each 


284 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

whereof hath likewife three flowers, each vpon his owne footeftalke, confifting of 
eight fmall leaues a peece, yet feeming to be but of tbure leaues fpread or layd open flat, 
for that the foure vppermoft, which are the fmaller and being yellow, doe lye fo clofe 
on the foure vndermoft, w ch are a little broader and red, that they fhew as if they were 
yellow flowers with red edges, hauing yellow threds tipt with greene, ftanding in the 
middle of the flowers : the vnderfide of the lower leaues are of a pale yellowifh red, 
ftriped with white lines : after the flowers are part, there come fmall long pods, wher- 
in are contained flat reddifh feede : the rootes are fmall, reddifh and hard, fpreading, 
branching and enterlacing themfelues very much, and is lit to be placed on fome fha- 
dy fide of a garden : the whole plant is rather of a ftrong then any good fent, yet is 
cherifhed for the pleafant varietie of the flowers. 

The Place. 

Caefalpinus faith it groweth on the mountaines of Liguria, that is nigh 
vnto Ligorne, in the Florentine Dominion. Camerarius faith, nigh vnto 
Vicenzo in Italic. Bauhinus on the Euganian hils, nigh vnto Padoa, and in 
Romania in fhadowie wet grounds. 

The Time. 

It flowreth from lune vntill the end of luly, and to the middle of Auguft, 
if it ftand, as I faid it is fitted, in a fhadowie place. 

The Names. 

It is of moft Writers accepted for the true Epimedium of Diofcorides, 
though he faith it is without flower or feede, being therein eyther miftaken, 
or mif-informed, as he was alfo in DiStamnus of Candy, and diuers other 
plants. From the triple triplicitie of the ftanding of the ftalkes and leaues, 
and quadriplicitie of the flowers, it might receiue another name in Englifh 
then is already impofed vpon it : but left I might be thought to be fingular 
or full of noueltie, let it pafTe with the name Barren wort, as it is in the title. 

The Vertues. 

It is thought of diuers to agree in the propertie of cauling barrennefTe, 
as the ancients doe record of Epimedium. 

CHAP. LI 1 1 1. 
Papauer fatiuum. Garden Poppies. 


F Poppies there are a great many forts, both wilde and tame, but becaufe our 
Garden doth entertaine none, but thofe of beautie and refpecl, I wil onely 
giue you here a few double ones, and leaue the reft to a general furuey. 

i . Papauer multiplex album. Double white Poppies. 

The double white Poppy hath diuers broade, and long whitifh greene leaues, giuing 
milke (as all the reft of the plant aboue ground doth, wherefoeuer it is broken) very 
much rent or torne in on the fides, and notched or indented belides, compaffing at the 
bottome of them a hard round brittle whitifh greene ftalke, branched towards the 
toppe, bearing one faire large great flower on the head of euery branch, which before 
it breaketh out, is contained within a thin skinne, and being blowne open is very thick 
of leaues, and double, fomewhat iagged at the ends, and of a white colour ; in the 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


i l'i' la Martin JimpU x. Single March Violets. 2 Viola M'irti.i multiplex. Double March Violets. 
tricolor. Ordinary garden Panfies or Harts eafc. 4 Viola flammia lutta magita. Great yello-v Panlies. 
pl.x. Double Panfies or Harts cafes. 6 EfimeJiiim. Barrenwort. 

3 Viola fiammea Jiut 
5 Viola tricolor du- 
;arden Poppies. 

, ..... 7 Pafai'fr fativum flori plena. Double g; 

8 Papatur fatirum fort pltw laciwaia. Double feathered Poppies. 9 Nigilla Hifpamca flort amplo. Spanish Nigella or Fenell 
flower. 10 .\igflla multiplex ctrmlta. Double blew Nigulla or Fenell Bowtr. n Xigella duplix fiurt alku. Double white 

Nigella. u Ptarmita flun plena. Double wilde Pelletory. 

286 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

middle whereof ftandeth a round head or bowle, with a ftriped crowne on the heade 
of it, very like a ftarre, compafled about with fome threds, wherein when it is ripe, is 
contained fmall, round, white feede, difpofed into feuerall eels : the roote is hard, 
wooddy, and long, perifhing euery yeare, and muft bee new fowne euery Spring, if 
they doe not fpring of their own (owing, which if it doe, the flowers are feldome fo 
faire and double as they that are fowne in the Spring : the whole plant is of a ftrong 
heady fmell. 

2. Papauer multiplex rubefcens. Double red or blufh Poppies. 

This other kind of double Poppy differeth not in any other thing from the former, 
but only in the colour of the flowers, which are of a bright red, tending to a blufh co- 
lour, parted, paned or ftriped in many places with white, and exceedingly more iagged 
then the former, almoft like a feather at the ends, the bottomes of all the leaues being 
white : the feede hereof is white as the former, which is not fo in any other Poppie, 
that beareth not a full white flower. 

3. Papauer multiplex nigrum Jiue pur pure urn. 
Double purple or murry Poppies. 

This kinde varyeth both in flowers and feede, although neyther in leaues or any o- 
ther thing from the firft : the flowers are thicke and double, and fomewhat iagged at 
the ends, in fome more, in fome lefle, eyther red or blufh, or purplifh red, more or lefle, 
or of a fad murrey or tawney, with browne, or blacke, or tawny bottomes : the feede 
is eyther of a grayifh blew colour, or in others more blackifh. 

4. Papauer Rhceas Jiore multiplier. The double red field Poppie. 

This double Poppie is like the wilde or fielde Poppie, which is well knowne to all 
to haue longer, narrower, and more iagged greene leaues then the former, the ftalkes 
more hairy, and the flower of a deepe yellowifh red colour, knowne to all. Now this 
differeth in nothing from it, but in the doubleneffe of the flower, which is very thicke 
and double, but not fo large as the former. This rifeth of feede in the like manner as 
they doe, and fo to bee preferued. 

The Place. 

From what place they haue beene firft gathered naturally I cannot allure 
you, but we haue had them often and long time in our gardens, being fent 
from Italic and other places. The double wilde kindes came from Con- 
ftantinople, which whether it groweth neere vnto it or further off", we can- 
not tell as yet. 

The Time. 

They flower in the beginning or middle of lune at the furtheft, the feede 
is ripe within a fmall while after. 

The Names. 

The generall knowne name to all, is Papauer, Poppie : the feuerall diftin- 
clions are according to their colours. Yet our Englifh Gentlewomen in 
fome places, call it by a by-name, lone filuer pinne : fubauditur, Faire with- 
out and fowle within. 

The Vertues. 

It is not vnknowne, I fuppofe to any, that Poppie procureth fleepe, for 
which caufe it is wholly and onely vfed, as I thinke : but the water of the 


The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

wildc Poppies, bclides that it is of great vfc in Pleurilics, and Rheumatick, 
or thinnc Diltillations, is found by daily experience, to bee a foueraigne re- 
medy againll furfeits ; yet fome doe attribute this propcrtie to the water 
of the wilde Poppies. 

Nigella. The Pencil flower, or Nigella. 

AMong the many forts of Nigella, both wilde and tame, both fmgle and double, 
I will onely fet downe three forts, to be nourfed vp in this garden, referring the 
rell to a Phylicke garden, or a gencrall Hiftorie, which may comprehend all. 

i. Nigella Hifpanica flore fimflici. The great Spanifh Nigella. 

Spanifh Nigella rifeth vp with diucrs greene leaues, fo finely cut, and into fo many 
parts, that they are finer then Pencil, and diuided fomewhat like the leaues of Larkes 
heeles, among which rife vp Italkes, with many fuch like leaues vpon them, branched 
into three or foure parts, at the toppe of each whereof ilandeth one faire large flower, 
like vnto other fingle Nigella's, confining of fiue or fix leaues fometimes, of a bleake 
blew, or of a purplilh blew colour, with a greene head in the middle, comparted about 
with feuen or eight fmall blewiih greene flowers, or peeces of flowers rather, made 
like gaping hoodes, with euery of them a yellowifh line thwart or crofle the middle 
of them, with fome threds alfo rtanding by them : atter the flower is part the head 
groweth greater, hauing fixe, feuen or eight homes as it were at the toppe, greater and 
longer, and Handing clofer together then any other Nigella, fpreading very like a 
ftarre, or the crowne of the Poppy head, but larger and longer, each whereof being 
folded together, openeth a little when the head is ripe, which is greater aboue, and 
fmaller below, and not fo round as the others are, containing within them fmall yel- 
lowifh greene feede, or not fo blacke as the other forts : the rootes are fmall and yel- 
low, periming euery yeare as the others likewife doe. 

2. Nigella Damafcena fore mtiltiplici. 
Double blew Nigella, or The Pencil flower. 

The double Nigella is in leaues, llalkes and rootes, very like vnto the former Ni- 
gella, fo that the one can very hardly bee difcerned from the other before this rife vp 
to flower, except it be that the leaues hereof are not fully fo large as they : the flower 
confilteth of three or foure rowes of leaues, layde one vpon another, of a pale blew 
colour, with a greene round head comparted with diuers fhort threads in the middle, 
and hauing fiue or fixe fuch fmall greene Fenell-like leaues vnder the flower, to beare 
it vp (as it were) below, which adde a greater grace to the flowers, which at the firtt 
(heweth fometimes white, but changeth quickely after : the horned heads hereof are 
like vnto the heads ot the other wilde kinde, which are fomewhat rounder and grea- 
ter, hauing within them blacke vneuen feedes, but without any fent. 

3. Nigella Catrina flare albo mitltiplici. Double white Nigella. 

This double white Nigella hath fuch like leaues as the laft hath, but fomewhat lar- 
ger, of a yellower greene colour, and not fo finely cut and iagged : the flowers are 
fomewhat lefle, and lerter double then the former, and in colour white, hauing no 
greene leaues vnder the flower, as the former hath, the head whereof in the middle is 
very like the head of the lall double kinde, but not fo great, wherein is contained black 
feede for the molt part, and fweete like the Romane Nigella, which only is fweet be- 
fides this : yet fometimes it is not fo blacke, but rather a little more white or yellow- 
ifh : the roote is yellow, and perilheth as the others euery yeare. 


288 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Place. 

All thefe, and the reft be found wilde in diuers Countreyes, as France, 
Spaine, Italic, 6cc. but wee onely cherifh them in our Gardens for our de- 

The Time. 
They flower in the end of lune, and in luly, or thereabouts. 

The Names. 

They are called Melanthium, Gith, and Nigel la, and of fome Flos Diuce 
Catherines. We may either call them Nigella according to the Latine name, 
or the Fenell flower, as fome doe, becaufe the double blew Nigella hath 
fmall Fenell-like leaues bearing vp the flower, as I (hewed before in the de- 

The Vertues. 

Thefe Nigella's are nothing fo hot in qualitie as the fingle Romane kind 
is, as may well be knowne by the fmell of the feede thereof, and therefore 
are not fit to be vfed in the fteed of it, as many ignorant perfons vfe to doe : 
for the fingle Romane feede is vfed to helpe paines, and cold diftillations in 
the head, and to dry vp the rheume. Pena faith, that the preffed oyle of the 
feede as well taken inwardly as vfed outwardly is an excellent remedy for 
the hardnefle and fwelling of the fpleene. 

Ptarmica jilueftris fare plena. Double wilde Pelletory. 

THe double wilde Pelletorie hath ftraight and flender ftalkes, befet with long 
and narrow leaues, fnipt round about the edges, in all points like vnto the fin- 
gle wilde kinde, that groweth common with vs almoft euery where : on the 
toppes of the ftalkes ftand foure or fiue, or more white flowers, one aboue another, 
with a greene leafe at the bottome of the footeftalke of euery one of them, beeing 
fmall, thicke, and very double, with a little yellowifhnefle in the middle of euery 
flower, like both for forme and colour vnto the flower of the double Featherfew, but 
fmaller : the rootes are many long firings, running here and there in the ground : this 
hath no fmell at all, but is delightfome only for the double white flowers. 

The Place. 
It is only cherifhed in fome few Gardens, for it is very rare. 

The Time. 
It flowreth in the end of lune or thereabouts. 

The Names. 

It is called of moft Ptarmica, or Sternutamentoria, of his qualitie to pro- 
uoke neefing ; and of fome Pyrethrum, of the hot biting tafte. We vfually 
call it double wilde Pelletorie, and fome Sneefewort, but Elleborus albus is 
vfually fo called, and I would not two things mould be called by one name, 
for the miftaking and mif-ufing of them. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Vcrtucs. 

The properties hereof, no doubt, may well bee referred to the linglc 
kinde, beeing of the fame qualitie, yet as I take it, a little more milde and 


Parthenium Jiore plena. Double Feathcrfew. 

FEatherfew that beareth double flowers is fo like vnto the fingle kinde, that the 
one cannot be difcerned from the other, vntill it come to flower, bearing broad, 
pale or frelh greene leaues, much cut in on the fides : the ftalkes haue fuch like 
leaues on them as grow below, from the toppes whereof come forth many double 
white flowers, like vnto the flowers of the former wilde Pelletory, but larger, and 
like alfo vnto the flowers of the double Camomill : the fent whereof is as ftrong as 
of the fingle. 

The Place. 

We haue this kinde only in Gardens, and as it is thought by others, is pe- 
culiar only to our owne Countrey. 

The Time. 
It flowreth in the end of May, and in lune and luly. 

The Names. 

It is called diuerfly by diuers : Some thinke it to be Parthenium of Dio- 
fcorides, but not of Galen ; for his Parthenium is a fweet herbe, and is thought 
to bee Amaracus, that is Marierome : others call it Matricaria ; and fome 
Amarella. Gaza tranflateth it Muraleum, Theoph. lib. 7. cap. j. It is generally 
in thele parts of our Country called Double Feaverfew, or Featherfew. 

The Vertues. 

It is anfwerable to all the properties of the fingle kinde which is vfed 
for womens difeafes, to procure their monthly courfes chiefly. It is held 
to bee a fpeciall remedy to helpe thofe that haue taken Opium too liberally. 
In Italy fomc vfe to eate the fingle kinde among other greene herbes, as 
Camerarius faith, but efpecially fryed with egges, and fo it wholly lofeth 
his ftrong and bitter tafte. 


Chamamcelum. Camomill. 

OVr ordinary Camomill is well knowne to all, to haue many fmal trayling 
branches, fet with very fine fmal leaues, burning and fpreading thicke o- 
uer the ground, taking roote ftill as it fpreadeth : the toppes of the branches 
haue white flowers, with yellow thrummes in the middle, very like vnto the Feather- 
few, before defcribed, but fomewhat greater, not fo hard, but more foft and gentle in 
handling, and the whole herbe to be of a very fweet fent. 

O 2 i . Cha- 

290 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

i. Chamcemcelum nudum. Naked Camomill. 

We haue another fort of Camomill in fome Gardens, but very rare, like vnto the 
former, but that it is whiter, finer, and fmaller, and raifeth it felfe vp a little higher, 
and beareth naked flowers ; that is, without that border of white leaues that is in the 
former, and confifteth onely of a yellow round thrummie head, fmelling almoft as 
fweete as the former. 

2. Chamcemcelum Jiore plena. Double flowred Camomill. 

The double Camomill groweth with his leaues vpon the ground, as the other fin- 
gle kinde doth, but of a little frefher greene colour, and larger withall : the ftalkes with 
the flowers on them, doe raife themfelues vp a little higher then the ordinary, and 
bearing one or two flowers vpon a ftalk, which are compofed of many white leaues fet 
together in diuers rowes, which make a fine double flower, with a little yellow fpot in 
the middle for the moft part of euery one, and are much larger then any fingle kinde, 
fmelling better, and more pleafing then the ordinary : this doth creepe vpon the 
ground as the other, but is more tender to be kept in the Winter. Yet if you faue the 
flowers hereof (and fo will the double Featherfew alfo) when they haue ftood long, 
and ready to fade, and keepe them dry vntill the Spring, and then breaking them or 
pulling them to peeces, fowe them, there will fpring vp from them Camomill, and 
alfo Featherfew, that will againe beare double flowers. 

The Place. 

Our ordinary Camomill groweth wilde in many places of our Country, 
and as well neare London as in other places. The others are onely found in 
our Gardens, where they are cherifhed. Bauhinus faith, that the double 
flowred Camomill is found wilde about Orleance in France. 

The Time. 

The double kinde is vfually in flower in lune, before the ordinary kinde, 
and moft commonly paft before it flowreth, which is not vntill luly or Au- 
guft. The naked Camomill flowreth betweene them both, or later. 

The Names. 

Camomill is called Anthemis, Leucanthemis, and Leucanthemum, of the 
whitenefle of the flowers ; and Chamcemcelum of the corrupted Italian name 
Camomilla. Some call the naked Camomill, Chryfanthemum odoratum. The 
double Camomill is called by fome Chamcemcelum Romanum Jiore multiplici. 

The Vertues. 

Camomill is put to diuers and fundry vfes, both for pleafure and profit, 
both for inward and outward difeafes, both for the ficke and the found, in 
bathings to comfort and ftrengthen the found, and to eafe paines in the dif- 
eafed, as alfo in many other formes applyed outwardly. The flowers boy- 
led in Poflet drinke prouoketh fweat, and helpeth to expell colds, aches, 
and other griefes. A Syrupe made of the iuice of the double Camomill, 
with the flowers and white wine, as Bauhinus faith, is vfed by fome againft 
the laundife and Dropfie, caufed by the euill difpofition of the fplene. 


The Garden of plcajnnt Flowers. 


I Parthtnium flort plena. Double Featherfew. I Chamamalitm nuditm. Naked Camomill. 3 Chamtrmtrlum flon tltno. 
Double Camomill. 4 Pyntkrum offifinanm. Pelletory of Spaine. 5 Flos Ado*is flatt rubro 6- flort lutea. Adonis flower 
both red & yellow. 6 Helleborut itigtr Jmlacm ftut BufliHialmum. The great Oxe eye or the great yellow Anemone. 7 
Buphthalmum vulgare. The common yellow Oxe eye. 

292 The. Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Pyrethrum officinarum. Pelletory of Spaine. 

IMuft needes adioyne vnto the Camomils this fine and tender plant, for fome neare 
refemblance it hath with them in face, though not in quality. It is a fmall and lowe 
plant, bearing many fine greene leaues vpon his flender branches, which leane or 
lye down vpon the ground, diuided into many parts, yet fomewhat larger and broader 
then Camomill, the ftalkes whereof are bigger, and more iuicie then it : the flowers 
that ftand at the toppes of the ftalkes are fingle, but much larger then any Camomill 
flower, hauing a pale or border of many leaues, white on the vpperfide, and reddifh 
vnderneath, fet about the yellow middle thrumme ; but not ftanding fo clofe together 
ioyning at the bottome, as the Camomill flowers doe, but more feuered one from an- 
other : it beareth fmall whitifh feede, which is hardly found and difcerned from the 
chafFe : the roote is long, and growing downe right, of the bigneffe of a mans finger 
or thumbe in our Countrey, but not half fo great where it groweth naturally, with 
fome fibres and branches from the fides thereof, of a very hot, fharpe, and biting 
tafte, drawing much water into the mouth, after it hath been chewed a while : the plant 
with vs is very tender, and will hardly or not at all endure the hardnefle and extremi- 
ties of our Winters, vnlefle it be very carefully preferued. 

The Place. 

It groweth in Spaine wilde in many places, and in other hot Countries, 
where it may feele no frofts to caufe it perifh. 

The Time. 


It flowreth fo late with vs, that it is not vntill Auguft, that oftentimes we 
cannot gather ripe feedes from it, before it perifh. 

The Names. 

The name Pyrethrum (taken from trvp, that is, ignis, fire) is giuen to this 
plant, becaufe of the heate thereof, and that the roote is fomewhat like in 
fliew, but fpecially in property vnto the true Pyrethrum of Diofcorides, 
which is an vmbelliferous plant, whofe rootes are greater, and more feruent 
a great deale, and haue a hayrie bufh or toppe as Meum, and many other 
vmbelliferous plants haue. It is alfo called in Latine, Salinaris, of the effect 
in drawing much moifture into the mouth, to be fpit out. We doe vfually 
call it Pelletory of Spaine. 

The Vertues. 

It is in a manner wholly fpent to draw rheume from the teeth, by chewing 
it in the mouth, thereby to eafe the tooth-ach, and likewife from the head, 
in the paines thereof. 


77/i' Garden of pica /(in t F/owcrs. 


Flos Adonis fare rubro. Red Adonis flower. 

ADonis flower may well be accounted a kinde of Camomill, although it hath 
fome efpeciall differences, hauing many long branches of leaues lying vpon 
the ground, and fome riling vp with the ftalke, fo finely cut and iagged, that 
they much refemble the leaues of Mayweed, or of the former Nigella : at the top of the 
faoces, which rife a foote high or better, rtand fmall red flowers, confiding of fix or 
eight round leaues, hauing a greene head in the middle, fet about with many blackifh 
threads, without any fmell at all : after the flowers are part, there grow vp heads with 
many roundifh white feedes at the toppes of them, fet clofe together, very like vnto 
the heads of feede ot the great Oxe eye, fet downe in the next Chapter, but fmaller : 
the rootes are fmall and thready, perilling euery yeare, but riling of his owne feede 
againe, many times before Winter, which will abide vntill the next yeare. 

Yellow Adonis flower is like vnto the red, but that the flower is fomewhat larger, Fl " / *"- 
and of a faire yellow colour. 

The Place. 

The firrt groweth wilde in the corn fields in many places of our own coun- 
try, as well as in others, and is brought into Gardens for the beauties fake 
ot the flower. The yellow is a ftranger, but nourfed in our Gardens with o- 
ther rarities. 

The Time. 

They flower in May or lune, as the yeare falleth out to be early or late : 
the feed is foone ripe after, and will quickly fall away, if it be not gathered. 

The Names. 

Some haue taken the red kinde to be a kinde of Anemone ; other to be 
Eranthemum of Diofcorides : the moft vfuall name now with vs is Flos A- 
Jonis, and Flos Adonidis : In Englifh, where it groweth wilde, they call it 
red Maythes, as they call the Mayweede, white Maythes; and fome of our 
Englifh Gentlewomen call it Rofarubie : we vfually call it Adonis flower. 

The Vertues. 

It hath been certainly tryed by experience, that the feed of red Adonis 
flower drunke in wine, is good to eafe the paines of the Collicke and Stone. 

Buphthalmum. Oxe eye. 

VNder the name Buphthalmum, or Oxe eye, are comprehended two or three fe- 
uerall plants, each differing from other, both in face and property, yet becaufe 
they all beare one generall name, I thinke fitted to comprife them all in one 
Chapter, and firrt of that which in leafe & feed commeth nearefl to the Adonis flower. 

I . Buphthalmum maius Jiue Helleborus niger ferulaceus. 
Great Oxe eye, or the yellow Anemone. 

This great Oxe eye is a beautifull plant, hauing many branches of greene leaues 


294 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

leaning or lying vpon the ground for the moft part, yet fome ftanding vpright, which 
are as fine, butfhorter then Fenell ; fome of them ending in a fmall tuft of green leaues, 
and fome hauing at the toppes ot them one large flower a peece, fomewhat reddifh or 
brownifh on the outfide, while they are in bud, and a while after, and being open, (hew 
themfelues to confift of twelue or fourteene long leaues, of a faire fhining yellow co- 
lour, fet in order round about a greene head, with yellow thrums in the middle, laying 
themfelues open in the funne, or a faire day, but elfe remaining clofe : after the flower 
is pail, the head growing greater, fheweth it felfe compa6t of many round whitifh 
feede, very like vnto the head of feede of the Adonis flower laft defcribed, but much 
greater : the rootes are many long blackifh fibres or ftrings, fet together at the head, 
very like vnto the rootes of the lefler blacke Hellebor or Bearefoote, but fomewhat 
harder, ftiffer, or more brittle, and feeming without moifture in them, which abide 
and encreafe euery yeare. 

2. Buphthalmum minus., feu A nthemls Jiore luteo. Small Oxe eye. 

This plant might feeme to be referred to the Camomils, but that it is not fweete, or 
to the Corne-Marigolds, but that the ftalkes and leaues are not edible : it is therefore 
put vnder the Oxe eyes, and fo we will defcribe it ; hauing many weake branches lying 
vpon the ground, befet with winged leaues, very finely cut and iagged, fomewhat like 
vnto Mayweede, but a little larger: the flowers are like vnto the Corne Marigold, and 
larger then any Camomill, being wholly yellow, as well the pale or border of leaues, 
as the middle thrummes : the rootes are fomewhat tough and long. 

3. Buphthalmum vulgar e. Common Oxe eye. 

This Oxe eye rifeth vp with hard round ftalkes, a foote and a halfe high, hauing 
many winged leaues vpon them, made of diuers long and fomething broad leaues, 
fnipt about the edges, fet together fomewhat like vnto Tanfie, but fmaller, and not fo 
much winged : the flowers ftand at the toppes of the ftalkes, of a full yellow colour, 
both the outer leaues and the middle thrum, and not altogether fo large as the laft : the 
rootes of this kinde perifh euery yeare, and require a new fowing againe. 

The Place. 

The firft groweth in diuers places of Auftria, Bohemia, and thofe parts, 
it hath beene likewife brought out of Spaine. The fecond in Prouence, a 
country in France. The laft in diuers places, as well of Auftria as Morauia, 
and about Mentz and Norimberg, as Clufius fetteth downe. We haue them 
in our Gardens, but the firft is of the greateft refpecl: and beauty. 

The Time. 

The firft flowreth betimes, oftentimes in March, or at the furtheft in A- 
prill ; the feede is ripe in May, and muft be quickly gathered, left it bee loft. 
The other two flower not vntill lune. 

The Names. 

The firft is called Buphthalmum of Dodonsus, Pfeudohelleborus of Mat- 
thiolus, Hellebor us niger ferulaceus Theophrafti by Lobel, of fome others 
Elleborus niger verus, vfing it for the true blacke Ellebor, but it is much diffe- 
ring, as well in face as properties. Of others Sefamoides minus. Some haue 
thought it to be a yellow Anemone, that haue looked on it without further 
iudgement, and by that name is moft vfually knowne to moft of our Englifh 
Gentlewomen that know it. But it may moft fitly be called a Buphthalmum, 
as Dodonsus doth, and Hifpanicum or Aujiriacum, for diftinlions fake. We 
doe moft vfually call it Hellebor us niger ferulaceus, as Lobel doth : Bauhinus 


The Garden of plcafant Flowers. 

calleth it Hclleborus niger tenttifilius Rupht/nilmi fiore. The fecond is called 
tiuphtlhilmtim Niirbonenfe: In Engliih, The French, or letter Oxe eye, as the 
rirlt is called, The great Oxe eye. The lalt, The common Oxe eye. 

The Vertues. 

The rirlt hath been vied in diuers places for the true blacke Ellebor, but 
now is fufficiently knowne to haue been an errour ; but what Phyficall pro- 
perty it hath, other then Matthiolus hath exprefled, to be vfed as Setter- 
wort for cattell, when they rowell them, to put or draw the rootes hereof 
through the hole they make in the dewe lappe, or other places, tor their 
coughes or other difeafes, I know not, or haue heard or read of any. The 
others like wife haue little or no vfe in Fhylicke now a daycs that I know. 

Chryfanthemum. Corne Marigold. 

A Lthough the forts of Corne Marigolds, which are many, are fitter for another 
L\ then this worke, and for a Catholicke Garden of Simples, then this of Pleafure 
* *"and Delight for faire Flowers; yet giue me leaue to bring in a couple : the one 
for a corner or by-place, the other for your choifeft, or vnder a defenced wall, in re- 
gard of his ftatelinefle. 

i. Chryfanthemum Creticum. Corne Marigold of Candy. 

This faire Corne Marigold hath for the moft part one vpright ftalke, two foote 
high, whereon are fet many winged leaues, at euery ioynt one, diuided and cut into 
diuers parts, and they againe parted into feuerall peeces or leaues : the flowers growe 
at the toppes of the ftalkes, rifing out of a fcaly head, compofed of ten or twelue large 
leaues, of a faire, but pale yellow colour, and more pale almoft white at the bottome 
of the leaues, round about the yellow thrumme in the middle, being both larger and 
fweeter then any of the other Corne Marigolds: the feede is whitifh and chaffie: 
the roote perifheth euery yeare. 

2. Chryfanthemum Peruuianum, Jiue Flos So/is. 
The golden flower of Peru, or the Flower of the Sunne. 

This goodly and ftately plant, wherewith euery one is now a dayes familiar, being 
of many forts, both higher and lower (with one rtalke, without branches, or with 
many branches, with a blacke, or with a white feede, yet differing not in forme of 
leaues or flowers one from another, but in the greatnefle or fmalneffe) rifeth vp at the 
tirlt like vnto a Pompion with two leaues, and after two, or foure more leaues are 

come forth, it rifeth vp into a great ftalke, bearing the leaues on it at feuerall diftan- 
ces on all fides thereof, one aboue another vnto the very toppe, being fometimes, and 
in fome places, feuen, eight, or ten foote high, which leaues (landing out from the 
ftemme or ftalke vpon their feuerall great ribbed foote-ftalkes, are very large, broad 
belowe, and pointed at the end, round, hard, rough, of a fad greene colour, and 
bending downewards : at the toppe of the ftalke ftandeth one great, large, and broad 
flower, bowing downe the head vnto the Sunne, and breaking forth from a great head, 
made of fcaly greene leaues, like vnto a great fingle Marigold, hauing a border of ma- 
nie long yellow leaues, fet about a great round yellow thrumme, as it were in the mid- 
dle, which are very like vnto fhort heads of flowers, vnder euery one whereof there is 
a feede, larger then any feede of the Thirties, yet fomewhat like, and lefler, and roun- 
der then any Gourd feede, fet in fo clofe and curious a manner, that when the feede is 
taken out, the head with the hollow places or eels thereof, feemeth very like vnto an 
hony combe ; which feede is in fome plants very blacke, in the hotter countries, or very 


296 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

white, and great, or large, but with vs is neither fo large, blacke, or white ; but fome- 
times blackifh or grayifh. Some fort rifeth not vp halfe the height that others doe, 
and fome againe beare but one ftemme or ftalke, with a flower at the toppe thereof; 
and others two or three, or more fmall branches, with euery one his flower at the end ; 
and fome fo full of branches from the very ground almoft, that I haue accounted 
threefcore branches round about the middle ftalke of one plant, the loweft neare two 
yards long, others aboue them a yard and a halfe, or a yard long, with euery one his 
flower thereon ; but all fmaller then thofe that beare but one or two flowers, and lefTer 
alfo for the moft part then the flower on the middle ftalke it felfe. The whole plant, 
and euery part thereof aboue ground hath a ftrong refinous fent of Turpentine, and the 
heads and middle parts of the flowers doe oftentimes (and fometimes the ioynts of 
the ftalke where the leaues ftand) fweat out a moft fine thin & cleare Roffin or Turpen- 
tine, but in fmall quantity, and as it were in drops, in the heate and dry time of the year, 
fo like both in colour, fmell, and tafte vnto cleare Venice Turpentine, that it cannot 
be knowne from it : the roote is ftrongly faftened in the ground by fome greater roots 
branching out, and a number of fmall firings, which growe not deepe, but keepe vn- 
der the vpper cruft of the earth, and defireth much moifture, yet dyeth euery yeare 
with the firft frofts, and muft be new fowne in the beginning of the Spring. 

The Place. 

Their places are fet downe in their titles, the one to come out of Candy, 
the other out of Peru, a Prouince in the Weft Indies. 

The Time. 

The firft flowreth in lune, the other later, as not vntill Auguft, and fome- 
times fo late, that the early frofts taking it, neuer fuffer it to come to ripenefs. 

The Names. 

The firft hath his name in his title. The fecond, befides the names fet 
downe, is called of fome Planta maxima, Flos maximus, So! Indianus, but the 
moft vfuall with vs is, Flos Soils: In Englifh, The Sunne Flower, or Flower 
of the Sunne. 

The Vertues. 

There is no vfe of either in Phyficke with vs, but that fometimes the 
heads of the Sunne Flower are drefled, and eaten as Hartichokes are, and are 
accounted of fome to be good meate, but they are too ftrong for my tafte. 

Calendula. Marigolds. 

SOme haue reckoned vp many forts of Marigolds, I had rather make but two, the 
fmgle and the double ; for doubtlefle, thofe that be moft double, rife from the 
beft feede, which are the middlemoft of the great double, and fome would be lefle 
double, whofe feede is greater then the reft, according to the ground where it grow- 
eth ; as alfo thofe that be of a paler colour, doe come of the feed of the yellower fort. 

i . Calendula maxima. The great Garden Marigold. 

The Garden Marigold hath round greene ftalkes, branching out from the ground 
into many parts, whereon are fet long flat greene leaues, broader and rounder at the 


The Garden of pi enfant Flowers. 


I Chryfanthrmum Creticum. Corne Marigold* of Candy. i l-'los Solis. The Flower of the Sunne. 
4 Ajter Atlicus fitu llalorum. The Purple Marigold. 5 Ptlofilia maim. Golden Moufe-eare. 
Spanifh Vipers graffe. 7 Tragofogoti. Goates beard, or goe to bed at noone. 

j Calendula. Marigolds. 
6 Scor/OHtra Hifpaniia. 

298 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

point then any where elfe, and fmaller alfo at the fetting to of the ftalke, where it com- 
pafleth it about : the flowers are fometimes very thicke and double (breaking out of a 
fcaly clammy greene head) compofed of many rowes of leaues, fet fo clofe together 
one within another, that no middle thrume can bee feene, and fometimes lefTe double, 
hauing a fmall browne fpot of a thrume in the middle: and fometimes but of two or 
three rowes of leaues, with a large browne thrume in the middle ; euery one where- 
of is fomewhat broader at the point, and nicked into two or three corners, of an ex- 
cellent faire deepe gold yellow colour in fome, and paler in others, and of a pretty 
ftrong and refinous fweete fent : after the flowers are part, there fucceede heads of 
crooked feede, turning inward, the outermoft biggeft, and the innermoft leaft : the 
roote is white, and fpreadeth in the ground, and in fome places will abide after the 
feeding, but for the moft part perifheth, and rifeth againe of his owne feede. Some- 
times this Marigold doth degenerate, and beareth many fmall flowers vpon fhort 
ftalkes, compaffing the middle flower : but this happeneth but feldome, and there- 
fore accounted but lufus natures, a play of nature, which me worketh in diuers other 
plants befides. 

2. Calendula Jimp lex. The fingle Marigold. 

There is no difference betweene this and the former, but that the flowers are fingle, 
confifting of one rowe of leaues, of the fame colour ; eyther paler or deeper yellow, 
(landing about a great browne thrumme in the middle : the feed likewife is alike, but 
for the mofl part greater then in the double kindes. 

The Place. 

Our Gardens are the chiefe places for the double flowers to grow in ; for 
we know not of any other naturall place : but the fingle kinde hath beene 
found wilde in Spaine, from whence I receiued feede, gathered by Guil- 
laume Boel, in his time a very curious, and cunning fearcher of fimples. 

The Time. 

They flower all the Summer long, and fometimes euen in winter, if it be 
milde, and chiefly at the beginning of thofe monethes, as it is thought. 

The Names. 

They are called Galtha of diuers, and taken to be that C alt ha, whereof both 
Virgil and Columella haue written. Others doe call them Calendula, of the 
Kalendes, that is the firft day of the monthes, wherein they are thought 
chiefly to flower ; and thereupon the Italians call them Fiori di ogni mefe, 
that is, The Flowers of euery moneth :" We cal them in Englifh generally, 
eyther Golds, or Marigolds. 

The Vertues. 

The herbe and flowers are of great vfe with vs among other pot-herbes, 
and the flowers eyther greene or dryed, are often vfed in poflets, broths, and 
drinkes, as a comforter of the heart and fpirits, and to expel any malignant 
or peftilential quality, gathered neere thereunto. The Syrupe and Conferue 
made of the frefh flowers, are vfed for the fame purpofes to good effecl. 


The Garden of pleafant t lowers. 

After. Starrc-wort. 

Dlofcoridcs and other of the ancient Writers, hauc fet forth but one kinde of 
Starre-wort, which they call After Atticus, of the place no doubt, where the 
greateft plentie was found, which was the Countrey of Athens : the later 
Writers haue found out many other plants which they referre to this kinde, calling 
them by the fame name. It is not my purpofe to entreate of them all, neyther doth 
thi> garden fitly agree with them : I (hall therefore feleft out one or two from the reft, 
and giue the knowledge of them, leauing the reft to their proper place. 

I . AJier Atticui fare luteo. Yellow Starre-wort. 

This Starre-wort rifeth vp with two or three rough hairy ftalkes, a foote and a halfe 
high, with long, rough or hairie, brownifh, darke greene leaues on them, diuided into 
two or three branches: at the toppe of euery one whereof ftandeth a flat fcaly head, 
compafled vnderneath with Hue or fixe long, browne, rough greene leaues, ftanding 
like a Starre, the flower it felfe Handing in the middle thereof, made as a border of 
narrow, long, pale yellow leaues, fet with a brownifh yellow thrume : the roote dyeth 
euery yeare, hauing giuen his flower. 

2. After Atticus Italorum Jiore purpureo. Purple Italian Starre-wort. 

This Italian Starre-wort hath many wooddy, round brittle ftalkes, rifing from the 
roote, fomewhat higher then the former, fometimes Handing vpright, and other- 
whiles leaning downewards, whereon are fet many fomewhat hard, and rough long 
leaues, round pointed, without order vp to the toppe, where it is diuided into feue- 
rall branches, whereon Hand the flowers, made like vnto a fingle Marigold, with a bor- 
der of blewifh purple leaues, fet about a browne middle thrume, the heads fuftaining 
the flowers, are compofed of diuers fcaly greene leaues, as is to be feene in the Knap- 
weedes or Matfelons, which after the flowers are part yeelde a certaine downe, where- 
in lye fmall blacke and flat feedes, fomewhat like vnto Lettice feede, which are carried 
away with the winde : the roote is compofed of many white firings, which perifheth 
not as the former, but abideth, and fpringeth afrefh euery yeare. 

The Place. 

The firft is found in Spaine, as Clufius, and in France, as Lobel fay. The 
other hath beene found in many places in Germany, and Auftria : in Italic 
alfo, and other places ; we haue it plentifully in our Gardens. 

The Time. 

The firft flowreth in Summer. And the other not vntill Auguft or Sep- 

The Names. 

The firft is called After Atticus Jiore luteo, Bubonium, & Inguinalis, and of 
many is taken to be the true After Atticus of Diofcorides : yet Matthiolus 
thinketh not fo, for diuers good reafons, which hee fetteth downe in the 
Chapter of After Atticus, as any man may vnderftand, if they will but reade 
the place, which is too long to bee inferted here. The other is thought by 
Matthiolus, to bee the truer After Atticus, (vnto whom I muft alfo confent) 
and conftantly alfo affirmed to be the Amellus Virgilij, as may be feene in the 
fame place : but it is ufually called at this day, After Italorum ftore caruleo or 



The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

purpareo. Their Englifh names are fufficiently exprefled in their titles, yet 
fome call the laft, The purple Marigold, becaufe it is fo like vnto one in form. 

The Vertues. 

They are held, if they bee the right, to bee good for the biting of a mad 
dogge, the greene herbe being beaten with old hogs greafe, and applyed ; 
as alfo for fwolne throats: It is likewife vfed for botches that happen in 
the groine, as the name doth import. 

Pilofella maior. Golden Moufe-eare. 

SOme refemblance that the flowers of this plant hath with the former Golds, 
maketh me to infert it in this place, although I know it agreeth not in any other 
part, yet for the pleafant afpeft thereof, it muft bee in this my garden, whofe de- 
fcription is as followeth : It hath many broade greene leaues fpread vpon the ground, 
fpotted with pale fpots, yet more confpicuous at fometimes then at other ; fomewhat 
hairy both on the vpper and vnderfide, in the middle of thefe leaues rife vp one, two 
or more blackifh hairy ftalkes, two foote high at the leaft, bare or naked vp to the top, 
where it beareth an vmbell, or fhort tuft of flowers, fet clofe together vpon fhort 
ftalkes, of the forme or fafhion of the Haukeweedes, or common Moufe-eare, but 
fomewhat fmaller, of a deep gold yellow, or orenge tawney colour, with fome yellow 
threds in the middle, of little or no lent at all : after the flowers are paft, the heads carry 
fmall, fhort, blacke feede, with a light downie matter on them, ready to bee carried a- 
way with the winde, as many other plants are, when they be ripe : the rootes fpread 
vnder ground, and fhoote vp in diuers other places, whereby it much encreafeth, efpe- 
cially if it be fet in any moift or fhadowie place. 

The Place. 

It groweth in the fhadowie woods of France, by Lions, and Mompelier, as 
Lobell teftifieth : we keepe it in our gardens, and rather in a fhadowie then 
funnie place. 

The Time. 

It flowreth in Somer, and fometimes againe in September. 

The Names. 

It is called by Lobell, Pulmonaria Gallorum Hieratij facie : and the Herba- 
rifts of France take it to be the true Pulmonaria of Tragus. Others call it Hie- 
ratiumjioreaureo. PelleteriusHieratiumlndicum. SomePi/o/e//a, or Auricula 
muris maior jtore aureo. And fome Chondrilla Jtore aureo. Dalechamptus 
would haue it to bee Corchorus, but farre vnfitly. The fitteft Englilh name 
we can giue it, is Golden Moufe-eare, which may endure vntill a fitter bee 
impofed on it : for the name of Grim the Collier, whereby it is called of 
many, is both idle and tbolilh. 

The Vertues. 

The French according to the name vie it for the detedts of the lunges, 
but with what good fucceffe I know not. 


The Garden of pi enfant Flowers. 


Scorfonera. Vipers grafle. 

Lthough there be tbure or fiuc forts ot" Scorfonera, yet I (hall here defire you to 
be content with the knowledge only of a couple. 

i . Scorfonera Hifpanica maior. The greater Spanilh Vipers grafle. 

This Spanilh Vipers grafle hath diuers long, and fomewhat broad leaues, hard and 
crumpled on the edges, and fometimcs vneuenly cut in or indented alfo, ot" a blewifh 
greene colour : among which rifeth vp one llalke, and no more for the moll part, two 
toote high or thereabouts, hauing here and there Ibme narrower long leaues thereon 
then thofe below : the toppe of the Italkc brancheth it felfe forth into other parts, 
euery one bearing a long fcaly head, from out of the toppe whereof rifeth a faire large 
double flower, ot a pale yellow colour, much like vnto the flower of yellow Goatcs 
beard, but a little leller, which being part, the feede fucceedeth, being long, whitiih 
and rough, inclofed with much downe, and among them many other long fmooth 
feedes, which are limber and idle, and are carryed away at the will of the winde : the 
roote is long, thicke and round, brittle and blacke, with a certaine roughnefle on the 
outiide : but very white within, yeelding a milkie liquor being broken, as euery other 
part of the plant doth belides, yet the roote more then any other part, and abideth 
many yeares without perifhing. 

2. Scorfonera Pannonica purpurea. Purple flowred Vipers grafle. 

This purple flowred Vipers grafle hath long and narrow leaues, of the fame blewifh 
greene colour with the former : the ftalke rifeth vp a foote and a halte high, with a 
few fuch like leaues, but fhorter thereon, breaking at the toppe into two or three parts, 
bearing on each of them one flower, fafhioned like the former, and ftanding in the like 
fcaly knoppe or head, but of a blewifh purple colour, not fully fo large, of the fweeteft 
fent of any of this kinde, comming neereft vnto the fmcll of a delicate perfume. 

The Place. 

The firft is of Spaine. The other of Hungarie and Auftrich : which 
now furnifh our gardens. 

The Time. 

They flower in the beginning of May : the feede is foone ripe after, and 
then perifhing downe to the roote for that yeare, fpringeth afrefh before 
Winter againe. 

The Names. 

They are called after the Spanilh name Scorfonera, which is in Latine Vi- 
peraria, of fome Viperina, and Serpentina : Wee call them in Englifh Vipers 
grafle, or Scorfonera. 

The Vertues. 

Manardus as I thinke firft wrote hereof, and faith that it hath been found 
to cure them that are bitten of a Viper, or other fuch like venemous Crea- 
ture. The rootes hereof being preferued with fugar, as I haue done often, 
doe eate almoft as delicate as the Eringus roote, and no doubt is good to 
comfort and ftrengthen the heart, and vitall fpirits. Some that haue vfed the 
preferued roote haue found it effectuall to expelling winde out of the rto- 
macke, and to helpe fwoumngs and faintnefle of the heart. 


302 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


Tragopogon. Goates beard. 

Muft in this place fet downe but two forts of Goates beards ; the one blew or afh- 
colour, the other red or purple, and leaue the other kindes : fome to bee fpoken of 
in the Kitchin Garden, and others in a Phyficall Garden. 

i. Tragopogon Jiore cceruleo. Blew Goates beard. 

All the Goates beards haue long, narrow, and fomewhat hollow whitifh greene 
leaues, with a white line downe the middle of euery one on the vpperfide : the ftalke 
rifeth vp greater and ftronger then the Vipers grafle, bearing at the toppe a great long 
head or huske, compofed of nine or ten long narrow leaues, the fharpe points or ends 
whereof rife vp aboue the flower in the middle, which is thicke and double, fome- 
what broad and large fpread, of a blewifh afh-colour, with fome whitifh threads a- 
mong them, (hutting or doling it felfe within the greene huske euery day, that it abi- 
deth blowing, vntill about noone, and opening not it felfe againe vntill the next mor- 
ning : the head or huske, after the flower is pad, and the feede neare ripe, openeth it 
felfe ; the long leaues thereof, which clofed not before now, falling downe round a- 
bout the rtalke, and mewing the feede, (landing at the firft clofe together, and the 
doune at the toppe of them : but after they haue ftood a while, it fpreadeth it felfe 
round, and is ready to be carried away with the winde, if it be not gathered : the feede 
it felfe is long, round, and rough, like the feede of the Vipers grafle, but greater and 
, blacker : the roote is long, and not very great, but perimeth as foone as it hath borne 
feede, and fpringeth of the fallen feede, that yeare remaining greene all Winter, and 
flowring the next yeare following : the whole yeeldeth milke as the former, but fome- 
what more bitter and binding. 

2. Tragopogon purpureum. Purple Goates beard. 

There is little difference in this kind from the former, but that it is a little larger, both 
in the leafe, and head that beareth the feed : the flowers alfo are a little larger, and fpread 
more, of a darke reddifh purple colour, with fome yellow dull as it were caft vpon it, 
efpecially about the ends : the roote perimeth in the like manner as the other. 

The Place. 

Both thefe haue been fent vs from the parts beyond the Seas, I haue had 
them from Italy, where no doubt they grow naturally wilde, as the yellow 
doth with vs : they are kept in our Gardens for their pleafant flowers. 

The Time. 

They flower in May and lune: the feede is ripe in luly. 

The Names. 

Their generall name is after the Greeke word Tragopogon, which is in La- 
tine, Earbahirci: In Englilh, Goates beard; the head of feede when it is rea- 
die to bee carried away with the winde, caufing that name for the refem- 
blance : and becaufe the flower doth euery day clofe it felte at noone (as I 
faid before) and openeth not againe vntill the next Sunne, fome haue fitly 
called it, Goe to bed at noone. 

The Vertues. 

The rootes of thefe kindes are a little more bitter and more binding alfo 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 303 

then the yellow kinde exported in the Kitchin Garden; and therefore tit- 
ter for medicine then for meate, but yet is vied as the yellow kindt- is, which 
i more n't tor meate then medicine. The diltilled water is good to walh 
old fores and wounds. 

Flos Africanus. The French Marigold. 

OF the French or African Marigolds there are three kindes as principall, and of 
each of them both with Jingle and double flowers : of thefe, fome diucr- 
lity is obferued in the colour of the flowers, as well as in the tbrme or large- 
tidlc, to that as you may here fee, I haue exprefled eight differences, and Fabius Co- 
lumna nine or ten, in regard hee maketh a diuerlity of the paler and deeper yellow co- 
lour : and although the letter kinde, becaufe of its euill fent, is held dangerous, yet for 
the beauty of the flower it rindeth roome in Gardens. 

i . Flos Africanus maior fine maximus multiplex. 
The great double French Marigold. 

This goodly double flower, which is the grace and glory of a Garden in the time of 
his beauty, rifeth vp with a (freight and hard round greene (talke, hauing fome crefts 
or edges all along the ilalke, befet with long winged leaues, euery one whereof is like 
vnto the leate of an A(h, being compofed of many long and narrow leaues, fnipt about 
the edges, Handing by couples one againft another, with an odde one at the end, of a 
darke or full greene colour : the llalke rifeth to be three or foure fbote high, and diui- 
deth it felfe from the middle thereof into many branches, let with fuch like leaues to 
the toppes of them, euery one bearing one great double flower, of a gold yellow co- 
lour aboue, and paler vnderneath, yet fome are of a pale yellow, and fome betweene 
both, and all thefe riling from one and the fame feede : the flower, before it be blowne 
open, hath all the leaues hollow ; but when it is flill blowne open, it fpreadeth it felfe 
larger then any Prouince Rote, or equall vnto it at the leall, if it be in good earth, and 
rifeth out of a long greene huske, ftriped or furrowed, wherein after the flower is part, 
(which llandeth in his full beauty a moneth, and oftentimes more, and being gathe- 
red, may be preferued in his full beauty for two moneths after, if it be fet in water) 
Itandeth the feede, fet thicke and clofe together vpright, which is blacke, fome- 
what flat and long : the roote is full of fmall ttrings, whereby it ftrongly comprehen- 
deth in the ground : the flower of this, as well as the lingle, is of the very fmell of new 
waxe, or of an honie combe, and not of that poifonfull fent of the fmaller kindes. 

2. Flos Africanus maior fimplex. The great (ingle French Marigold. 

This tingle Marigold is in all things fo like vnto the former, that it is hard to di- 
fcerne it from the double, but by the flowers, onely the ftalke will be browner then 
the double ; and to my bell obferuation, hath and doth euery yeare rife from the feede 
of the double flower: fo that when they are in flower, you may fee the difference (or 
not much before, when they are in bud) this lingle flower euer appearing with thrums 
in the middle, and the leaues, which are the border or pale (landing about them, fhew- 
ing hollow or rillulous, which after lay themfelues flat and open (and the double 
flower appearing with all his leaues folded clofe together, without any thrum at all) 
and are of a deeper or paler colour, as in the double. 

3. Flos Africanus fijlulofo flore Jimp lex & multiplex. 
Single and double French Marigolds with hollow leafed flowers. 

As the former two greatelt forts haue rifen from the feede of one and the fame (I 


304 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

meane the pod of double flowers) fo doe thefe alfo, not differing from it in anything, 
but that they are lower, and haue fmaller greene leaues, and that the flower alfo being 
fmaller, hath euery leafe abiding hollow, like vnto an hollow pipe, broad open at the 
mouth, and is of as deepe a yellow colour for the moft part as the deepeft of the for- 
mer, yet fometimes pale alfo. 

4. Flos Africanus minor multiplex. The lefler double French Marigold. 

The lefler double French Marigold hath his leaues in all things like vnto the for- 
mer, but fomewhat lefler, which are fet vpon round browne ftalkes, not fo ftiffe or vp- 
right, but bowing and bending diuers wayes, and fometimes leaning or lying vpon the 
ground : the ftalkes are branched out diuerfly, whereon are fet very faire double flow- 
ers like the former, and in the like greene huskes, but fmaller, and in fome the outer- 
moft leaues will be larger then any of the reft, and of a deeper Orenge colour, almoft 
crimfon, the innermoft being of a deepe gold yellow colour, tending to crimfon : the 
whole flower is fmaller, and of a ftronger and more vnpleafant fauour, fo that but for 
the beautifull colour, and doubleneffe of the flower, pleafant to the eye, and not to any 
other fenfe, this kinde would finde roome in few Gardens : the rootes and feedes are 
like the former, but lefler. 

5. Flos Africanus minor fimplex. The fmall fingle French Marigold. 

This fingle kinde doth follow after the laft in all manner of proportion, both of 
ftalkes, leaues, feedes, and rootes : the flowers onely of this are fingle, hauing fiue or fix 
broad leaues, of a deepe yellow crimfon colour, with deepe yellow thrummes in the 
middle, and of as ftrong a ftinking fent, or more then the laft. 

The Place. 

They growe naturally in Africa, and efpecially in the parts about Tunis, 
and where old Carthage flood, from whence long agoe they were brought 
into Europe, where they are onely kept in Gardens, being fowne for the 
moft part euery yeare, vnlefle in fome milde Winters. The laft fingle and 
double kindes (as being more hardy) haue fometimes endured : but that 
kinde with hollow leafed flowers, as Fabius Columna fetteth it downe, is 
accounted to come from Mexico in America. 

The Time. 

They flower not vntill the end of Summer, efpecially the greater kindes : 
but the lefler, if they abide all the Winter, doe flower more early. 

The Names. 

They haue been diuerfly named by diuers men : Some calling them Ca- 
ryophyllus Indicus, that is, Indian Gilloflowers, and Tanacetum Peruinanum, 
Tanfie of Peru, as if it grew in Peru, a Prouince of America ; and Flos Indi- 
cus, as a flower of the Indies ; but it hath not beene knowne to haue beene 
brought from thence. Others would haue it to be Othonna of Plinie, and o- 
thers ; fome to be Lycoperjicum of Galen. It is called, and that more truely, 
Flos Tunetenfis, Flos Africanus, and Caltlia Africana, that is, the flower of 
Tunis, the flower of Africa, the Marigold of Africa, and peraduenture 
Pedna P&norum. We in Englifh moft vfually call them, French Marigolds, 
with their feuerall diftindlions of greater or fmaller, double or fingle. To 
that with hollow leafed flowers, Fabius Columna giueth the name of Fi- 
Jiilufo fore, and I fo continue it 


The Garden of plenfant Flowers. 

3 5 

Hi multiplex. 

3 Flos Ajricanus maximuf /implex. 

The greateft double French Marigold. i Flat Afruauus mainr multiplex. The greater 
The greateft Tingle French Marigold. 4 Flos Africanut multiple* 
'" lw French Marigold. 6 Plot 

Another fort of the 

I Fli-i Africanm m 

fiftulpfns. The double hollow French Marigold. 5 piot Afrwanys~Jiif'!fif'fi/tutofiii. The Tingle hollow Vrench Marigold^ 6 'Plot 
Afruanus minor multiplex. The fmaller double French Marigold. 7 Flos Afruantis minor multiple* alter. 
letter double French Marigold. 8 Flos Africans minor Kmplex. The letter fingle French Marigold. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

The Vertues. 

We know no vfe they haue in Phyficke, but are cherifhed in Gardens for 
their beautifull flowers fake. 

Caryophyllus hortenjis. Carnations and Gilloflowers. 

TO auoide confufion, I muft diuide Gilloflowers from Pinkes, and intreate of 
them in feuerall Chapters. Of thofe that are called Carnations or Gilloflow- 
ers, as of the greater kinde, in this Chapter; and of Pinkes, as well double as 
fingle, in the next. But the number of them is fo great, that to giue feuerall defcripti- 
ons to them all were endlefle, at the leaft needlefle : I will therefore fet downe onely 
the defcriptions of three (for vnto thefe three may be referred all the other forts) for 
their fafhion and manner of growing, and giue you the feuerall names (as they are vfu- 
ally called with vs) of the reft, with their variety and mixture of colours in the flow- 
ers, wherein confifteth a chiefe difference. I account thofe that are called Carnations 
to be the greateft, both for leafe and flower, and Gilloflowers for the moft part to bee 
lefler in both ; and therefore will giue you each defcription apart, and the Orenge 
tawnie or yellow Gilloflower likewife by it felfe, as differing very notably from all 
the reft. 

i . Caryophyllus maximus Harwicenjis Jiue Anglicus. 
The great Harwich or old Englifh Carnation. 

I take this goodly great old Englifh Carnation, as a prefident for the defcription of 
all the reft of the greateft forts, which for his beauty and ftatelineffe is worthy of a 
prime place, hauing beene alwayes very hardly preferued in the Winter ; and there- 
fore not fo frequent as the other Carnations or Gilloflowers. It rifeth vp with a great 
thicke round ftalke, diuided into feuerall branches, fomewhat thickly fet with ioynts, 
and at euery ioynt two long greene rather then whitifh leaues, fomewhat broader 
then Gilloflower leaues, turning or winding two or three times round (in fome other 
forts of Carnations they are plaine, but bending the points downewards, and in fome 
alfo of a darke reddifh greene colour, and in others not fo darke, but rather of a whitifh 
greene colour :) the flowers ftand at the toppes of the ftalkes in long, great, and round 
greene huskes, which are diuided into fiue points, out of which rife many long and 
broad pointed leaues, deeply iagged at the ends, fet in order round and comely, ma- 
king a gallant great double flower, of a deepe Carnation colour, almoft red, fpotted 
with many blufh fpots and ftrakes, fome greater and fome leffer, of an excellent foft 
fweete fent, neither too quicke as many others of thefe kinds are, nor yet too dull, and 
with two whitifh crooked threads like homes in the middle : this kinde neuer beareth 
many flowers, but as it is flow in growing, fo in bearing, not to be often handled, 
which fheweth a kinde of ftatelineffe, fit to preferue the opinion of magnificence : 
the roote is branched into diuers great, long, wooddy rootes, with many fmall fibres 
annexed vnto them. 

2. Caryophyllus hortenjis flore pleno rubro. The red or Cloue Gilloflower. 

The red Cloue Gilloflower, which I take as a prefident for the fecond fort, which 
are Gilloflowers, grow like vnto the Carnations, but not fo thicke fet with ioynts and 
leaues : the ftalkes are more, the leaues are narrower and whiter for the moft part, and 
in fome doe as well a little turne : the flowers are fmaller, yet very thicke and double 
in moft, and the greene huskes wherein they ftand are fmaller likewife then the for- 
mer : the ends of the leaues in this flower, as in all the reft, are dented or iagged, yet 
in fome more then in others; fome alfo hauing two fmall white threads, crooked at the 
ends like homes, in the middle of the flower, when as diners other haue none. Thefe 


The Garden of plea/ant Mowers. 

maximal rubro tarius. The great old Carnation or gray Hulo. i Caryofhyllut maior rubro & albo rarius. The 
white Carnation. 3 Caryofhyllus albo rttMNJ. The Camberfinc ot the Poole flower. 4 Carynphyllut Cantij ftriatiis. The 
lairc made ol Kent. 5 Caryopkylliu Sabanditui carHUf. Theblufti Sauadge. 6 Caryofkyllm Xframptlinut. The Gredeline 
Carnation. 7 Caiyophytlas tiiFlus Grim.lo. The GrimeJo or Prince. 8 Caryophyllui albits maior. The great white Gilloflower. 
9 Elegaiss Hervina Bradfkaifi). Mafter Bradfhawes dainty Lady. 


The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

kindes, and efpecially this that hath a deepe red crimfon coloured flower, doe endure 
the cold of our winters, and with lefle care is preferued: thefe forts as well as the 
former doe very feldome giue any feede, as far as I could euer obferue or learne. 

3. Caryophyllus Silejiacus Jiore pleno miniato. 
The yellow or Orenge tawny Gilloflower. 

This Gilloflower hath his ftalkes next vnto the ground, thicker fet, and with fmaller 
or narrower leaues then the former for the moft part : the flowers are like vnto the 
Cloue Gilloflowers, and about the fame bignefle and doublenefle moft vfually, yet 
in fome much greater then in others ; but of a pale yellowifh Carnation colour, ten- 
ding to an Orenge, with two fmall white threds, crooked at the ends in the middle, 
yet fome haue none, of a weaker fent then the Cloue Gilloflower : this kinde is more 
apt to beare feede then any other, which is fmall, black, flat, and long, and being fowen, 
yeelde wonderfull varieties both of fingle and double flowers : fome being of a ligh- 
ter or deeper colour then the mother plants : fome with ftripes in moft of the leaues : 
Others are ftriped or fpotted, like a fpeckled Carnation or Gilloflower, in diuers forts, 
both fingle and double : Some againe are wholly of the fame colour, like the mother 
plant, and are eyther more or leffe double then it, or elfe are fingle with one row of 
leaues, like vnto a Pinck; and fome of thefe likewife eyther wholly of a crimfon red, 
deeper or lighter, or variably fpotted, double or fingle as a Pinck, or blufh eyther 
fingle or double, and but very feldome white : yet all of them in their greene leaues 
little or nothing varying or differing. 

Caryophylli maximi. 


Caryophyllus maximus diflus 
Hulo rubro-varius. 

Caryophyllus maximus rliftus 
Hulo ruber non variatus. 

Caryophyllus maximus diftus 
Hulo cteruleo purpureus. 

Caryophyllus maximus diflm 
Grimelo fine Priticeps. 

Caryophyllus maximus Incar- 
nadinus albus. 

Caryophyllus maximus law- 
nadinus Gallicus. 

Caryophyllus maximus Incar- 
nadinus grandis. 

r I "He gray Hulo hath as large leaues as the former old Car- 
nation, and as deepely iagged on the edges : it hath a 
great high ftalke, whereon ftand the flowers, of a deepe 
red colour, ftriped and fpeckled very clofe together with a 
darkifh white colour. 

The red Hulo is alfo a faire great flower, of a ftamell colour, 
deeply iagged as the former, and groweth very comely without 
any fpot at all in it, fo that it feemeth to bee but a ftamell Gillo- 
flower, faue that it is much greater. 

The blew Hulo is a goodly faire flower, being of a faire pur- 
plifh murrey colour, curioufly marbled with white, but fo fmal- 
ly to be difcerned, that it feemeth only purple, it hath fo much 
the Maftrie in it ; it refembleth the Braflill, but that it is much 

The Grimelo or Prince is a faire flower alfo, as large as any 
Chryftall or larger, being of a faire crimfon colour, equally for 
the moft part ftriped with white, or rather more white then red, 
thorough euery leafe from the bottome, and ftandeth comely. 

The white Carnation or Delicate, is a goodly delightfull fair 
flower in his pride and perfection, that is, when it is both mar- 
bled and flaked, or ftriped and fpeckled with white vpon an in- 
carnate crimfon colour, beeing a very comely flower, but abi- 
deth not conftant, changing oftentimes to haue no flakes or 
ftrakes of white, but marbled or fpeckled wholly. 

The French Carnation is very like vnto the white Carnation, 
but that it hath more fpecks, and fewer ftripes or flakes of white 
in the red, which hath the maftrie of the white. 

The ground Carnation (if it be not the fame with the graund 
or great old Carnation firft fet downe, as the alteration but of 
one letter giueth the coniedure) is a thicke flower, but fpreadeth 


T/ic Garden of pleajunt Flowers. 

.kyllus maxima < 

?<li\lliii maximus fart 

:. -. 

fitj/lus maximus ififtus 

Carjtp/nlliu maximal Satan- 
diem rariit!. 

CaryophyUm maximus SaAau- 
dicm canuui. 

maximus Sabau- 

Jicm tuber. 


maximm Oxoni- 

ft\//ns maximus Rfginf, 
fint B riftofu it/is main: 

Ca>yph\llut maximus Graaa- 

fthtitui maximal Gran 
F^lH .iritis. 

CaijtphyUus maximal Camoei 
fine diflts. 

not his Iciuics abroade as others doe, hauing the middle (landing 
higher then the outer leaues, and turning vp their brimmes or 
I'll'/o ; it i- :i lad flower, with tew itripes or fpots in it : it is vc- 
r\ I'uhitvf to breake the pod, that the flower feldome commeth 
tiiire and right; the grecne leaues arc as great as the Hulo or 
Lombard red. 

The Chryltall or Chryltalline (tor they are both one, howfo- 
euer Ibme would make them differ) is a very delicate flower 
when it is well marked, but it is inconltant in the markes, being 
iometimes more ftriped with white and crimfon red, and fome- 
times lefTe or little or nothing at all, and changing allb fome- 
times to be wholly red, or wholly hlulh. 

The red Chryftall, which is the red hereof changed, is the 
molt orient flower of all other red Gilloflowers, becaufe it is 
both the greatert, as comming from the Chryftall, as also that 
the red hereof is a moll excellent crimfon. 

The Fragrant is a faire flower, and thought to come from the 
Chryftall, being as large, but of a blufh red colour, fpotted with 
(mall fpeckes, no bigger then pinnes points, but not fo thicke as 
in the Pageant. 

The ftript Sauadge is for forme and bignefle equall with the 
Chryftall or White Carnation, but as inconftant as eyther of 
them, changing into red or blufh ; fo that few branches with 
flowers containe their true mixtures, which are a whitifh blufh, 
fairely ftriped with a crimfon red colour, thicke and fhort, with 
fome fpots allb among. 

The blufh Sauadge is the fame with the former, the fame root 
of the ftript Sauadge, as I faid before, yeelding one fide or part 
whofe flowers will be eyther wholly blufh, or hauing fome fmall 
fpots, or fometimes few or none in them. 

The red Sauadge is as the blufh, when the colour of the flower 
is wholly red without any ftripes or fpots in them, and fo abi- 
deth long ; yet it is fometimes feene, that the fame fide, or part, 
or roote being feparate from the firft or mother plant, will giue 
Itriped and well marked flowers againe. 

The Oxeford Carnation is very like vnto the French Carna- 
tion, both for forme, largenefTe and colour ; but that this is of a 
ladder red colour, fo finely marbled with white thereon, that 
the red hauing the maiftry, fheweth a very fad flower, not hauing 
any flakes or ftripes at all in it. 

The Kings Carnation or ordinary Briftow, is a reasonable 
great flower, deepely iagged, of a fad red, very finally ftriped 
and fpeckled with white : fome of the leaues of the flower on 
the one fide will turne vp their brimmes or edges : the greene 
leafe is very large. 

The greatelt Granado is a very faire large flower, bigger then 
the Chryftall, and almolt as bigge as the blew Hulo: it is almoft 
equally diuided and Itript with purple and white, but the purple 
is fadder then in the ordinary Granado Gilloflower, elfe it might 
bee faid it were the fame, but greater. Diuers haue taken this 
flower to bee the Gran Pere, but you ihall haue the difference 
Ihewed you in the next enfuing flower. 

The Gran Pere is a fair great flower, and comely for the forme, 
but of no great beautie for colour, becaufe although it be llript 
red and white like the Queenes Gilloflower, yet the red is fo fad 
that it taketh away all the delight to the flower. 

The Camberfine is a great flower and a faire, beeing a redde 
flower, well marked or ftriped with white, fomewhat like vnto a 



The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Sauadge, fay fome, but that the red is not crimfon as the Sauadge; 
others fay the Daintie, but not fo comely : the leaues of the 
flowers are many, and thrall together, without any due forme of 

Loitgo- The great Lombard red is a great fad red flower, fo double and 
thick of leaues, that it moft vfually breaketh the pod, and fel- 
dome fhoweth one flower among twenty perfe6t : the blades or 
greene leaues are as large as the Hulo. 

bardicus ruber. 

Caryophylli majores. 


Caryophyllus malar Weftmin- 

Caryophyllus maior Btiftolien- 
fis purpureus. 

Caryophylltu malar Briftolien- 
fis carneus. 

Caryophyllus mater Doroborni- 
enfis ruber. 

Caryophyllus maior Donbornl- 
enfis dilutus fine all/us. 

Caryophyllus maior Cantii. 

Caryophyllus maior Regineus. 
Caryophyllus maior elegans. 

Caryophyllus maior Brafilienfis 

Caryophyllus maior Grana- 

THe luftie Gallant or Weftminfter (fome make them to be 
one flower, and others to bee two, one bigger then the 
other) at the firft blowing open of the flower fheweth 
to be of a reaf enable fize and comelinefTe, but after it hath ftood 
blowen fome time it fheweth fmaller and thinner : it is of a 
bright red colour, much ftriped and fpeckled with white. 

The Briftow blew hath greene leaues, fo large, that it would 
feeme to bring a greater flower then it doth, yet the flower is of 
a reafonable fize, and very like vnto the ordinary Granado Gillo- 
flower, ftriped and flaked in the fame manner, but that the white 
of this is purer then that, and the purple is more light, and ten- 
ding to a blew : this doth not abide conftant, but changeth into 
purple or blufh. 

The Briftow blufh is very like the laft both in leafe and flower, 
the colour only fheweth the difference, which feldome varyeth 
to be fpotted, or change colour. 

The red Douer is a reafonable great Gilloflower and conftant, 
being of a faire red thicke poudered with white fpots, and fee- 
meth fomewhat like vnto the ground Carnation. 

The light or white Douer is for forme and all other things 
more comely then the former, the colour of the flower is blufh, 
thicke fpotted with very fmall fpots, that it feemeth all gray, and 
is very delightfull. 

The faire maide of Kent, or Ruffling Robin is a very beautiful 
flower, and as large as the white Carnation almoft : the flower is 
white, thicke poudered with purple, wherein the white hath the 
maftrie by much, which maketh it the more pleafant. 

The Queenes Gilloflower is a reafonable faire Gilloflower al- 
though very common, ftriped red and white, fome great and 
fome fmall with long ftripes. 

The Daintie is a comely fine flower, although it be not great, 
and for the fmallnefTe and thinnefle of the flower being red fo 
finely marked, ftriped and fpeckled, that for the liuelinefle of the 
colours it is much de fired, beeing inferiour to very few Gillo- 

The Braffill Gilloflower is but of a meane fize, being of a fad 
purple colour, thicke poudered and fpeckled with white, 
the purple herein hath the maftrie, which maketh it fhew 
the fadder, it is vnconrtant, varying much and often to 
bee all purple : the greene leaues lye matting on the 

The Granado Gilloflower is purple and white, flaked and ftri- 
ped very much : this is alfo much fubiecl to change purple. There 
is a greater and a lefTer of this kinde, befides the greateft that is 
formerly defcribed. 


The Garden of ' plcnfant Flowers. 

Pfgmt Jihtitr. 

Pegma f~atnrarior 

Htnita <Kai 



Turchm. The Turkic Gilloflower is hut :\ Umll flower, but of great de- 

light, by reafon of the well marking of the flower, being molt 
vfually equally ftriped with red and white. 

Cambrtnfu Poott. The Poole flower, growing naturally vpon the rockes neare 
Coglhot Caltle in the Ifle of Wight, is a fmall flower, but very 
pleafant to the eye, by reafon of the comely proportion thereof; 
it is of a bright pale red, thicke fpeckled, and very fmall with 
white, that it feemeth to bee but one colour, the leaues of the 
flower are but finally iagged about : it is conflant. 

The light or pale Pageant is a flower of a middle fize, very 
pleafant to behold, and is both conftant and comely, and but 
that it is fo common, would be of much more refpecl: then it is : 
the flower is of a pale bright purple, thicke poudered, and very 
euenly with white, which hath the mallery, and maketh it the 
more gracefull. 

. The fad Pageant is the fame with the former in forme and 
bignefle, the difference in colour is, that the purple hath the ma- 
Itery, which maketh it fo fad, that it doth refemble the Braflill 
for colour, but is not fo bigge by halfe. 

Malter Bradfhawc his dainty Lady may bee well reckoned a- 
mong thefe forts of Gilloflowers, and compare for neatenefle 
with molt of them : the flower is very neate, though fmall, with 
a fine fmall iagge, and of a fine white colour on the vnderfide of 
all the leaues, as alfo all the whole iagge for a pretty compafle, 
and the bottome or middle part of the flower on the vpperfide 
alfo : but each leafe is of a fine bright pale red colour on the vp- 
perfide, from the edge to the middle, which mixture is of won- 
derfull great delight. 

The belt white Gilloflower groweth vpright, and very dou- 
ble, the blades growe vpright alfo, and crawle not on the 

The London white is greater and whiter then the other ordi- 
nary white, being wholly of one colour. 

The (tamell Gilloflower is well knowne to all, not to differ 
from the ordinary red or cloue Gilloflower, but only in being of 
a brighter or light red colour : there is both a greater and a lefler 
of this kinde. 

The purple Gilloflower a greater and a lefle : the ftalke is fo 
flender, and the leaues vpon them fo many and thicke, that they 
lye and traile on the ground : the greateft is almoft as bigge as a 
Chrvflall, but not fo double : the lefle hath a fmaller flower. 

The Gredeline Gilloflower is a very neate and handfome 
flower, of the bignefle of the Cloue red Gilloflower, of a fine 
pale reddifh purple or peach colour, enclining to a blew or vio- 
let, which is that colour is vfually called a gredeline colour: 
it hath no affinity with eyther Purple, Granado, or Pageant. 

The blew Gilloflower is neither very double nor great, yet 
round and handfome, with a deepe iagge at the edge, and is of 
an exeeding deepe purple colour, tending to a tawnie : this 
diflereth from all other forts, in that the leafe is as greene as 
grafle, and the Italkes many times red or purple : by the greene 
leaues it may be knowne in the Winter, as well as in the Sum- 

Caryopkyttiu albut optimus 
mair LnJixrnfii if aRus. 

CaryopityUui maior rtbtns 
d minor. 

rrm maior 



Cttrytykjllut camtui. 

Silefta :i 
maximal If 

The blufh Gilloflower difFereth not from the red or Itamell, 
but only in the colour of the flower, which is blufh. 

lohn Wittie his great tawny Gilloflower is for forme of grow- 
ing, in leate and flower altogether like vnto the ordinary tawny, 
the flower onely, becaufe it is the fairelt and greateft that any o- 



The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

Caryofhyllus Silejiacus 

ther hath nourfed vp, maketh the difference, as alfo that it is of 
a faire deepe fcarlet colour. 

There are alfo diuers other Tawnies, either lighter or fadder, 
either leffe or more double, that they cannot be numbered, and 
all rifing (as I faid before) from lowing the feede of fome of 
them : befides the diuerfities of other colours both fimple and 
mixed, euery yeare and place yeelding fome variety was not feen 
with them before : I fhall neede but onely to giue you the names 
of fome of them we haue abiding with vs, I meane fuch as haue 
receiued names, and leaue the reft to euery ones particular de- 

Of Blufhes there are many forts, as the deepe blufh, the pale 
blufh, the Infanta blufh, a blufh enclining to a red, a great blufh, 
the faireft and moft double of all the other blufhes, and many 
others both lingle and double. 

Of Reds likewife there are fome varieties, but not fo many as 
of the other colours ; for they are moft dead or deepe reds, and 
few of a bright red or ftamell colour ; and they are fingle like 
Pinkes, either ftriped or fpeckled, or more double ftriped and 
fpeckled variably, or elfe 

There are neither purple nor white that rife from this feede 
that I haue obferued, except one white in one place. 

Silefiaaujtriatiis. The ftriped Tawny are either greater or leffer, deeper or light- 
er flowers twenty forts and aboue, and all ftriped with fmaller or 
larger ftripes, or equally diuided, of a deeper or lighter colour : 
and fome alfo for the very fhape or forme will bee more neate, 
clofe, and round ; others more loofe, vnequall, and fparfed. 

The marbled Tawny hath not fo many varieties as the ftriped, 
but is of as great beauty and delight as it, or more : the flowers 
are greater or fmaller, deeper or lighter coloured one then ano- 
ther, and the veines or markes more confpicuous, or more fre- 
quent in fome then in others : but the moft beautifull that euer I 
did fee was with Mafter Ralph Truggie, which I muft needes 
therefore call 

Mafter Tuggies Princefle, which is the greateft and faireft of 
all thefe forts of variable tawnies, or feed flowers, being as large 
fully as the Prince or Chryftall, or fomething greater, ftanding 
comely and round, not loofe or fhaken, or breaking the pod as 
fome other forts will ; the marking of the flower is in this man- 
ner : It is of a ftamell colour, ftriped and marbled with white 
ftripes and veines quite through euery leafe, which are as deeply 
iagged as the Hulo : fometimes it hath more red then white, and 
fometimes more white then red, and fometimes fo equally mar- 
ked, that you cannot difcerne which hath the maftery ; yet which 
of thefe hath the predominance, ftill the flower is very beauti- 
full, and exceeding delightfome. 

The Flaked Tawny is another diuerfity of thefe variable or 
mixt coloured flowers, being of a pale reddifh colour, flaked 
with white, not alwaies downeright, but often thwart the leaues, 
fome more or lefle then others ; the marking of them is much 
like vnto the Chryftall : thefe alfo as well as others will be grea- 
ter or fmaller, and of greater or lefle beauty then others. 

The Feathered Tawny is more rare to meete with then many 
of the other ; for moft vfually it is a faire large flower and double, 
equalling the Lumbard red in his perfection : the colour hereof 
is vfually a fcarlet, little deeper or paler, moft curioufly feathe- 
red and ftreamed with white through the whole leafe. 

The Speckled Tawny is of diuers forts, fome bigger, fome 


Hetoina Rodolfhi forum 

s Silffiacus n 

Caryophyllus Silefiarus 

Caryop/iylhu Si/efiacus 

The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 


i Heroina Rodolphi fiorum Imfiratorif Prinaffa dictus. Mafter Tuggic his Princcflc. 

Oxford Carnation. 3 Cariophyllm WtftnonafUrunfit. The Gallant or Weft ' 

The Briftow. 5 Caryopkylluf Chryflallinut. The Chryftall or Chryfulline^ 6 CaryotkyUm Sabaudicui ftriaius. The ftfipt 

2 Caryofhyllus Oxonienfet. The French or 
or Weftminfier Gilloflowcr. 4 Caryophyllut BriflolitHjii. 

I _ . J *-, > r>t_ - /-___. 

Sauadge. 7 Caryophyllut Graitatnjit maxima*. The Granpere or greateft Granado. 8 CaryophjUus peramatiHi. The Dainty. 
g Caryophyllm SiUfacta maximal Irtgonij loaxtut. lohn Witty his great tawny Gilloflouer. 10 Caryophyllut SiUfiacut ftriatut. 
The flript Tawny. u Caryophyllut marmor-amultis. The marbled Tawny. 12 Caryophyllut roftut rotundas magiftri Turrit. 
Mafter Tuggie his Rofe GilloBower. 


314 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

leffe, fome more, and fome lefle fpotted then others : Vfually it 
is a deepe fcarlet, fpeckled or fpotted with white, hauing alfo 
fome ftripes among the leaues. 

CaryofAy//s re/em rotundas Mafter Tuggie his Rofe Gilloflower is of the kindred of thefe 
Magiftri Tuggie Tawnies, being raifed from the feede of fome of them, and onely 

poflefTed by him that is the moft induftrious preferuer of all na- 
tures beauties, being a different fort from all other, in that it hath 
round leaues, without any iagge at all on the edges, of a fine fta- 
mell full colour, without any fpot or ftrake therein, very like vnto 
a fmall Rofe, or rather much like vnto the red Rofe Campion, 
both for forme, colour, and roundnefTe, but larger for fize. 

The Place. 

All thefe are nourished with vs in Gardens, none of their naturall places 
being knowne, except one before recited, and the yellow which is Silejia ; 
many of them being hardly preferued and encreafed. 

The Time. 

They flower not vntill the heate of the yeare, which is in luly (vnleffe it 
be an extraordinary occafion) and continue flowring, vntill the colds of the 
Autumne checke them, or vntill they haue wholly out fpent themfelues, 
and are vfually encreafed by the flips. 

The Names. 

Moft of our later Writers doe call them by one generall name, Caryo- 
phyllus fativus, and jtos Garyophylleus, adding thereunto maximus, when wee 
meane Carnations, and maior when we would exprefle Gilloflowers, which 
name is taken from Cloues, in that the fent of the ordinary red Gilloflower 
efpecially doth refemble them. Diuers other feuerall names haue beene 
formerly giuen them, as Vetonica^ or Betonica alter a, or Vetonica altilis, and 
coronaria. Herba Tunica, Viola Damafcena, Ocellus Damafcenus, and Earbari- 
cus. Of fome Cantabrica Plinij. Some thinke they were vnknowne to the 
Ancients, and fome would haue them to be Iphium of Theophraftus, wher- 
of he maketh mention in his fixth and feuenth Chapters of his fixth booke, 
among Garland and Summer flowers ; others to be his Dios ant/ios, or louis 
Jlos, mentioned in the former, and in other places. We call them in Englifh 
(as I faid before) the greateft kindes, Carnations, and the others Gilloflow- 
ers (yuaji luly flowers) as they are feuerally exprefled. 

The Vertues. 

The red or Cloue Gilloflower is moft vfed in Phyficke in our Apothe- 
caries mops, none of the other being accepted of or vfed (and yet I 
doubt not, but all of them might ferue, and to good purpofe, although not 
to giue fo gallant a tinfture to a Syrupe as the ordinary red will doe) and is 
accounted to be very Cordiall. 

Caryophylli filuejlres. Pinkes. 

THere remaine diuers forts of wilde or fmall Gilloflowers (which wee vfually 
call Pinkes) to be entreated of, fome bearing fingle, and fome double flowers, 
fome fmooth, almoft without any deepe dents on the edges, and fome iagged, 
or as it were feathered. Some growing vpright like vnto Gilloflowers, others cree- 

The Garden of pleafnnt Flowers. 

I C<iryopkyll*sjilutftriijimf>ltx. The vfuall Tingle Pinke. 2 Carvophyllat mllipitx jiltnftris. Double Pinkes. 3 Caryofhyllus 
fluiftrit fluntarim. Feathered or iagged Pinkes. 4 Car)'ophjll*i Sttllalm. Starre Pinke*. 5 CaryophjUut rrf>ens. Matted 
Pinkes. 6 Caryophyllus mrilittrraiieiis. The great Thiftle or Sea Gilloflowcr. 7 Caryophyllnt inarintu. The ordinarj 1 Thiftle or 
Sea CuDtion. 

316 "The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

ping or fpreading vnder the toppe or cruft of the ground, fome of one colour, fome of 
another, and many of diuers colours: As I haue formerly done with the Gilloflowers, 
fo muft I doe with thefe that are entertained in our Gardens, onely giue you the de- 
fcriptions of fome three or foure of them, according to their variety, and the names of 
the reft, with their diftinclions. 

i. Garyophyllus minor Jiluejtris multiplex & Jimp lex. 
Double and fingle Pinkes. 

The fingle and double Pinkes are for forme and manner of growing, in all parts like 
vnto the Gilloflowers before defcribed, fauing onely that their leaues are fmaller and 
fhorter, in fome more or lefle then in others, and fo are the flowers alfo : the fingle 
kindes confiding of fiue leaues vfually (feldome fix) round pointed, and a little fnipt 
for the moft part about the edges, with fome threads in the middle, either crooked or 
ftraight: the double kindes being lefTer, and lefle double then the Gilloflowers, hauing 
their leaues a little fnipt or endented about the edges, and of diuers feuerall colours, 
as mail hereafter be fet downe, and of as fragrant a fent, efpecially fome of them as 
they : the rootes are long and fpreading, fomewhat hard and wooddy. 

2. Caryophyllus plumarius. Feathered or iagged Pinkes. 

The iagged Pinkes haue fuch like ftalkes and leaues as the former haue, but fome- 
what fhorter and fmaller, or grafle-like, and of a whitifh or grayifh greene colour like- 
wife : the flowers ftand in the like manner at the toppes of the ftalkes, in long, round, 
flender, greene huskes, confifting of fiue leaues, very much cut in on the edges, and 
iagged almoft like a feather, of a light red, or bright purple colour, with two white 
threads ftanding in the middle, crooked like a home at the end, and are of a very good 
fent. Some of thefe haue not thofe two crooked threads or homes in the middle, but 
haue in their ftead many fmall threads, not crooked at all : the feedes of them all are 
like vnto the feedes of Gilloflowers, or the other Pinkes, that is, fmall, blacke, long, 
and flat : the rootes are fmall and wooddy likewife. 

3. Caryophyllus plumarius albus orbe rubro Jiue Stellatus, Starre Pinkes. 

Of this kinde there is another fort, bearing flowers almoft as deeply cut or iagged 
as the former, of a faire white colour, hauing a ring or circle of red about the bottome 
or lower part of the leaues, and are as fweete as the former : this being fowne of feede 
doth not giue the ftarre of fo bright a red colour, but becommeth more dunne. 

4. Caryophyllus plumarius Aujtriacus Jiue Superba Aujiriaca. 
The feathered Pinke of Auftria. 

This kinde of Pinke hath his firft or lower leaues, fomewhat broader and greener 

then any of the former Pinkes, being both for breadth and greennefTe more like vnto 
the Sweete lohns, which fhall bee defcribed in the next Chapter : the leaues on the 
ftalkes are fmaller, ftanding by couples at euery ioynt, at the toppes whereof ftand 
fuch like iagged flowers as the laft defcribed, and as large, but more deeply cut in or 
iagged round about, fome of them of a purplifh colour, but the moft ordinary with vs 
are pure white, and of a moft fragrant fent, comforting the fpirits and fenfes a farre off: 
the feedes and rootes are like vnto the former. Some haue miftaken a kinde of wilde 
Campion, growing in our Woods, and by the paths fides in Hornfie Parke, and other 
places, to be this feathered Pinke : but the flowers declare the difference fufficiently. 

5. Caryophyllus minor repens Jimp lex & multiplex, 
Single and double matted Pinkes. 

The matted Pinke is the fmalleft, both for leafe and flower of all other Pinkes that 
are nourifned in Gardens, hauing many fhort and fmall graflie greene leaues vpon the 


The Garden of pleajant Flowers. 317 

llalkes, which as they grow and lye vpon the ground (and not (landing fo vpright as 
the former) doe take roote againe, whereby it quickly 1 preadeth, and couereth a great 
deale of ground in a little t'pucc : the flowers are Imall and round, a little fnipt about 
the edges, whereof fome are white, and Tome red, and Tome are white fpotted with 
red, and fome red fpotted with white, all of them being Tingle flowers. But there is 
another of this kinde, not differing in leafe, but in flower : tor that the first flowers arc 
but once double, or of two rowes of leaues, of a fine reddifh colour, fpotted with 
iilucr fpots : but thole that follow, are fo thicke and double, that they often- 
times doe breake the pod or huske ; being not altogether of fo dcepc a red colour, 
but more pale. 

6. Caryophyllui Mediterraneus Jiue Mar inns maior. 
Great Sea Gilloflower or Great Thrift. 

Vnto thefe kindes of Pinkes I mull needs adde, not only our ordinary Thrift (which 
is more frequent in gardens, to empale or border a knot, becaufe it abideth greenc 
Winter and Summer, and that by cutting, it may grow thick, and be kept in what form 
one lilt, rather then for any beautie of the flowers) but another greater kindc, which 
is of as great beautie and delight almoll as any of the former Pinkes, as well for that 
the leaues are like vnto Gilloflowers, being longer and larger then any Pinkes, and of 
a whitifh greene colour like vnto them, not growing long or by couples vpon the 
ftalkes as Pinkes and Gilloflowers doe, but tufting clofe vpon the ground, like vnto 
the common Thrift : as alfo that the ftalkes, rifing from among the leaues (being fome- 
times two toote high (as I haue obferued in my garden) are yet fo (lender and weake, 
that they are fcarce able to beare the heads of flowers, naked or bare, both of leaues 
and ioynts, fauing only in one place, where at the ioynt each ftalke hath two fmall and 
very (hort leaues, not riling vpwards as in all other Gilloflowers, Pinkes, and other 
herbes, but growing downewards) and doe beare each of them a tuft or vmbell of 
fmall purplilh, or blulh coloured flowers, at the toppes of them Handing fomewhat 
like vnto fweete Williams, but more roundly together, each flower confifting of fiuc 
fmall, round, Itiffe or hardifh leaues, as if they were made of paper, the bottome or 
middle being hollow, not blowing all at once as the ordinary Thrift, but for the moft 
part one after another, not (hewing vfually aboue ibure or fiue flowers open at one 
time (fo farre as I could obferue in the plants that I kept) fo that it was long before the 
whole tult of flowers were paft ; but yet the hoter and dryer the time was, the fooner 
it would be gone : the feede I haue not perfectly obferued, but as I remember, it was 
fomewhat like vnto the feede of Scabious ; I am fure nothing like vnto Gilloflowers 
or Pinkes : the roote is fomewhat great, long and hard, and not fo much fpreading in 
the ground as Gilloflowers or Pinkes. 

Caryophyllui Marinas. Thrift, or Sea Culhion. 

Our common Thrift is well knowne vnto all, to haue many (hort and hard greene 
leaues, fmaller then many of the grafles, growing thicke together, and fpreading 
vpon the ground : the llalkes are naked of leaues a fpanne high, bearing a fmall tuft of 
light purple, or blulh coloured flowers, (landing round and clofe thrufting together. 

Double Pinkes. Single Pinkes. 


THe double white Pinke is onely ' I ^He (ingle white ordinary Pinke 
with more leaues in it then the fin- hath a lingle white flower of fiue 

gle, which maketh the difference. *~ leaues, finely iagged about the 
The double red Pinke is in the fame edges. 

manner double, differing from the (ingle The (ingle red Pink is like the white, but 

of the fame colour. that the leaues are not fo much iagged, and 

The double purple Pinke differeth not the flower is of a pale purplifh red colour, 


'The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers. 

from the fingle purple for colour, but on- The fingle purple Pinke is of a faire 
ly in the doubleneffe of the flower. purple colour, like almoft vnto the purple 

The Granado Pinke differeth not from Gilloflower. 

the Gilloflower of the fame name, but in 
the fmalneffe both of leaues and flower. 

The double Matted Pinke is before de- 

The double blufh Pinke is almoft as 
great as the ordinary blufh Gilloflower, 
and fome haue taken it for one, but the 

The great blufh Pinke hath broader and 
larger leaues in the flower then any other 
Pinke, and of a faire blufh colour. 

The white Featherd Pinke hath the 
edges of the flower more finely and deep- 
ly cut in then the former. 

The red or light purple featherd Pinke 

greene leaues are almoft as fmall as Pinks, j is like the former featherd Pinke, but only 
and therefore I referre it to them. j differeth in colour. 

The Starre Pinke is a faire flower, finely 
iagged on the edges, with a faire red circle at the lower end of the leaues on the infide. 

The white featherd Pinke of Auftria is defcribed before. The purple featherd 
Pinke of Auftria is fo likewife. The fingle matted Pinke is before defcribed. The 
fpeckled Pinke is a fmall flower hauing fmall fpots of red here and there difperfed 
ouer the white flower. 

Thofe fingle flowers being like vnto Pinkes that rife from the fowing of the orenge 
tawney, I bring not into this c/afsis, hauing already fpoken of them in the precedent 

The Place. 

Thefe are all like as the former, nourifhed in Gardens with vs, although 
many of them are found wilde in many places of Auftria, Hungarie, and 
Germany, on the mountaines, and in many other places, as Clufius recor- 
deth. The ordinary Thrift groweth in the fait Marfhes at Chattam by Ro- 
chefter, and in many other places in England : but the great kinde was ga- 
thered in Spaine, by Guillaume Boel that painefull fearcher of fimples, 
and the feede thereof imparted to me, from whence I had diuers plants, 
but one yeare after another they all perifhed. 

The Time. 

Many of thefe Pinkes both fingle and double, doe flower before any 
Gilloflower, and fo continue vntill Augurt, and fome, moft of the Sum- 
mer and Autumne. 

The Names. 

The feuerall titles that are giuen to thefe Pinkes, may fuffice for their par- 
ticular names: and for their generall they haue beene exprefTed in the for- 
mer Chapter, beeing of the fame kindred, but that they are fmaller, and 
more frequently found wilde. The two forts of Thrift are called Garyophyl- 
lus Marintts. The greater, Maior & Mediterraneus ; In Englifh, The grea- 
ter or Leuant Thrift, or Sea Gilloflower. The lefler Minimus, and is ac- 
counted of fome to be a grafTe, and therefore called Grameti Marinum & 
Polyanthemum ; In Englifh, Thrift, Sea grafle, and our Ladies Cufhion, 
or Sea Cufhion. 

The Vertues. 

It is thought by diuers, that their vertues are anfwerable to the Gillo- 
flowers, yet as they are of little vfe with vs, fo I thinke of as fmall effecl. 



'The Garden of pica feint Flowers. 319 


Armerius. Sweet lohns ;uui fwcet William-. 

Hefe kindes of flowers as they come neerelt vnto Pinkes and Gilloflowers, 
though man ill-lily differing, To it is fitteft to place them next vnto them in 
a peculiar Chapter. 

i. Armerius angu/dfoliiis rubens /implex. Single red fweete lohns. 

The fweete lohn hath his leaues broader, (hotter and greener then any of the for- 
mer Gilloflowers, but narrower then fweete Williams, fet by couples, at the 
ioynts of the llalkes, which are fhorter then molt of the former, and not aboue a 
foote and a halfe high, at the tops whereof rtand many fmall flowers, like vnto fmall 
Pinkes, but (landing clofer together, and in fhorter huskes, made of fiue leaues, f mai- 
ler then moll of them, and more deeply iagged then the Williams, of a red colour in 
the middle, and white at the edges, but of a fmall or foft fent, and not all flowring at 
once, but by degrees: the feede is blacke, fomewhat like vnto the feede of Pinkes, 
the roote i> difperfed diuerfly, with many fmall fibres annexed vnto it. 

2. Armerius angujlifolius albus /implex. Single white fweet lohns. 

This white lohn differeth not in any thing from the former, but onely that the leafe 
doth neuer change brownifh, and that the flower is of a faire white colour, without 
any mixture. 

3. Ar menus angujlifolius duplex. Double fweet lohns. 

There is of both thofe former kindes, fome whofe flowers are once double, that is, 
conliiting of two or three rowes of leaues, and the edges not fo deeply iagged ; not 
differing in any thing elfe. 

4. Armerius latifolius Jimp lex Jtore rubro. 

Single red fweet Williams. 

The fweet Williams doe all of them fpread into many very long trayling branches, 
with leaues lying on the ground, in the very like manner that the fweete lohns doe : 
the chiefe differences betweene them are, that thefe haue broader, and darker greene 
leaues, fomewhat brownifh, efpecially towards the points, and that the flowers ftand 
thicker and clofer, and more in number together, in the head or tuft, hauing many fmall 
pointed leaues among them, but harmleffe, as all men know; the colour of the flower is 
of a deep red, without any mixture or fpot at all. 

5. Armerius latifolius Jiorc rubro multiplici. 

Double red fweete Williams. 

The double kinde differeth not from the fingle kinde of the fame colour, but only in 
the doubleneffe of the flowers, which are with two rowes of leaues in euery flower. 

6. Armerius latifolius -varicgatus fine wr/icofar. 
Speckled fweete Williams, or London pride. 

Thefe fpotted Williams are very like the firfl red Williams, in the forme or maner 
of growing, hauing leaues as broade, and browne fometimes as they, the flowers Hand 
as thicke or thicker, clurtring together, but of very variable colours : for fome 
flowers will be of a fine delayed red, with few markes or fpots vpon them, and others 


320 The Garden of pleafant Flowers. 

will bee full fpeckled or fprinkled with white or liluer fpots, circlewife about the mid- 
dle of the flowers, and fome will haue many fpecks or fpots vpon them difperfed : 
all thefe flowers are not blowne at one time, but fome are flowring, when others are 
decaying, fo that abiding long in their pride, they become of the more respeit : The 
feede is blacke, as all the reft, and not to be diftinguifhed one from another : the roots 
are fome long, and fome fmall and threddy, running vnder the vpper cruft of the earth. 

7. Armerius latifolius Jlore rubro faturo holofericeo. 
Sweet Williams of a deepe red or murrey colour. 

The leaues of this kinde feeme to be a little larger, and the ioints a little redder 
then the former, but in the flower confifteth the chiefeft difference, which is of a 
deepe red, or murrey purple colour, like vnto veluet of that colour, without any fpots, 
but fmooth, and as it were foft in handling, hauing an eye or circle in the middle, at 
the bottome of the leaues. 

8. Armerius latifolius Jimp lex Jlore albo. 
Single white fweete Williams. 

The white kinde differeth not in forme, but in colour from the former, the leaues 
are not browne at all, but of a frefh greene colour, and the flowers are wholly white, 
or elfe they are all one. 

The Place. 

Thefe for the moll: part grow wilde in Italic, and other places : we haue 
them in our Gardens, where they are cherifhed for their beautifull varietie. 

The Time. 

They all generally doe flower before the Gilloflowers or Pinkes, or with 
the firft of them : their feede is ripe in lune and luly, and doe all well abide 
the extremitie of our coldeft winters. 

The Names. 

They all generally are called Armerius^ or Armeria, as fome doe write, 
and diftinguifhed as they are in their titles : Yet fome haue called them Fe- 
tonica agrejlis, and others Herba Tunica, Scarlatea, & Caryophyllus Jilueftris : 
Wee doe in Englifh in mofl places, call the firft or narrower leafed kindes, 
Sweet lohns, and all the reft Sweete Williams ; yet in fome places they call 
the broader leafed kindes that are not fpotted, Tolmeiners, and London 
tufts : but the fpeckled kinde is termed by our Englifh Gentlewomen, for 
the moft part, London pride. 

The Vertues. 
We haue not knowne any of thefe vfed in Phylicke. 

Bellis. Daifie. 

THere be diuers forts of Daifies, both great and fmall, both fmgle and double, 
both wilde growing abroade in the fieldes, and elfewhere, and manured grow- 
ing only in Gardens : of all which I intend not to entreate, but of thofe that are 
of moft beautie and refpet, and leaue the reft to their proper place. 

i. Bellis 

The Garden of p/eafant Mowers. 


I Armrriut anguftifolim fernf-ltx. Single fweete lohns. I Armtriui anfuftifoliui multiplix. Double fweet I ohns. 3 Armrrius tati- 
foliuiKmplex. Single fweete Williams. 4 Armtnta lalifolius vtrjicolor. Spotted fweet Williams or pride of London. 5 Armerius 
lati/oliHs multipltx. Double fweet Williams. 6 Bellis korlen/i minor multiplsx. Double Garden Daifies. 7 Bellit minor kortenfis 
flort vario Double red Daifies ftrint. 8 Bfllit minor horttnjii proliftra. Double fruitful! Daifies or lacke an Apes on horfebacice. 
9 Btllis tarulta Jiut Globttlaria. Double blew Daifie* or blew Gtobeflower to Btllit IvUa montana /iue Olobularia lutta monlana. 

Double yellow Daifie or yellow Globeflower. 


^22 The Garden of p leaf ant Flowers, 

i . Bellis maior JJore albo plena. The great double white Daifie. 

The great Daifie with the double white flower, is in all things fo like vnto the great 
tingle kinde, that groweth by the high wayes, and in diuers medowes and fields, that 
there is no difference but in the flower, which is double. It hath many long, and fome- 
what broad leaues lying vpon the ground, deepely cut in on both fides, fomewhat 
like vnto an oaken leafe ; but thofe that are on the ftalkes are fhorter, narrower, and 
not fo deeply cut in, but onely notched on the edges : the flowers at the toppe are (as 
I faid) white and double, confiding of diuers rowes of leaues, being greater in com- 
paffe then any of the double Daifies that follow, but nothing fo double of leaues. 

2. Bellis minor flore rubro Jimp lid. Single red Daifies. 

This fingle Daifie (like as all the reft of the fmall Daifies) hath many fmooth, 
greene, round pointed leaues lying on the ground, a little fnipt about the edges ; from 
among which rife many flender round foote-ftalkes, rather then ftalkes or ftems, about 
an hand breadth high at the moft, and oftentimes not halfe fo high, bearing one flow- 
er a peece, confifting of many fmall leaues, as a pale or border fet about a middle 
thrumme : the leaues of this kinde are almoft wholly red, whereas in the wilde they 
are white or whitifh, enclining to red on the edges, the middle being yellow in both 
forts : the rootes are many fmall white threads or ftrings. 

3, Bellis minor hortenjis Jtore plena variorum color um. 
Double Garden Daifies of diuers colours. 

The leaues of all the double Daifies are in forme like vnto the fingle ones, but that 
they are fmaller, and little or nothing fnipt or notched about the edges : the fmall 
ftalkes likewife are fmaller and lower, but bearing as double flowers as any that growe 
on the ground, being compofed of many fmall leaues, thicke thruft together, of diuers 
colours ; for fome are wholly of a pure white, others haue a little red, either difperfed 
vpon the white leaues, or on the edges, and fometimes on the backes of the leaues : 
fome againe feeme to be of a whitifh red, or more red then white, when as indeede 
they are white leaues difperfed among the red ; others of a deepe or darke red colour, 
and fome are fpeckled or ftriped with white and red through the whole flower : and 
fome the leaues will bee red on the vpperfide, and white vnderneath ; and fome alfo 
(but thofe are very rare) are of a greenifh colour. 

4. Bellis minor hortenjis prolifera. Double double Daifies or childing Daifies. 

There is no difference either in leafe or roote in this kinde from the former double 
Daifies : the chiefeft variety confifteth in this, that it beareth many fmall double flow- 
ers, (landing vpon very fhort ftalkes round about the middle flower, which is vfually 
as great and double as any of the other double kindes, and is either wholly of a deepe 
red colour, or fpeckled white and red as in fome of the former kindes, or elfe greenifh, 
all the fmall flowers about it being of the fame colour with the middlemoft. 

5. Bellis caruleajiue Globularia. Blew Daifies. 

The likenefle and affinity that this plant hath with the former, both in the forme 
of leafe and flower, as alfo in the name, hath caufed me to infert it, and another rare 
plant of the fame kinde, in this place, although they be very rare to be met with in our 
Englifh Gardens. This beareth many narrower, fhorter, and blacker greene leaues 
then the former, lying round about vpon the ground ; among which